See also:Clement Salvator (b . 1904) . Rainer
See also:Leopold Antony
See also:Francis lJoseph (b . 1895) . (b . 1897) . (b . 1901) . (b . 1905) . (b .
1868) . I I
See also:Albert, Charles
See also:Ferdinand duke of Teschen (1818-1874) . (1817-1895) .
See also:Frederick Charles
See also:Stephen duke of Teschen (b . 186o) . (b . 1856) . I Albert Charles Albert
See also:Leo Charles (b . 1897) . (b . 1888) . (b .
1893) . I I Leopold
See also:Joseph Antony (1772-1795) . (1776-1847) . (1780-1835) . Joseph (1833-19o5) . Joseph
See also:Augustus (b . 1872) . I Joseph IFrancis
See also:Ladislaus (b . 1895) . (b . 1901) .
See also:William (1827-1894) .
I I I I
See also:John Rainer
See also:Louis Rudolph (1782-1859) . (1783-1853) . (1784-1864) . (1788-1831) . Leopold Ernest
See also:Sigismund Rainer
See also:Henry (1823-1898) . (1824-1899) . (1826-1891) . (b . 1827) . (1828-1891) . Ferdinand, duke of
See also:Modena (1754-1806) . .I Francis IV .
Maximilian Ferdinand duke of Modena Joseph (1781-1850) . (1779-1846) . (1782-1863) . I I I
See also:Eugene Francis V., Ferdinand (b . 1863). duke of Modena (1821-1849) . (1819-1875) . William (b . 1895) . Ferdinand III.,
See also:grand-duke of Tuscany (1769-1824) . Leopold II., grand-duke of Tuscany . (1797-1870) . Ferdinand IV .
Louis Salvator grand-duke of Tuscany (b . 1847) . (b . 1835) . 1 Leopold Ferdinand Joseph Ferdinand
See also:Peter Ferdinand (b . 1872) Charles Salvator John Nepomuck Salvatoe (1839-1892) . (1852-1891) . Leopold Salvator Henry Ferdinand (b . 1863) . (b: 1874) . (b . 1878) .
Godfrey (b . 1902) .
See also:George (b . 1905) . Francis Salvator Albert Salvator (b . 1866) . (1871-1896) . I _' I Francis Charles Salvator Hubert Salvator
See also:Theodore Salvator (b . 1893) . (b . 1894) . (b .
1899) . Maria
See also:Theresa and Francis Stephen; and it is interesting to note that the
See also:present Habsburgs are only descended in the
See also:line from Rudolph I. and Maximilian I . Immediately after the
See also:death of Charles the Pragmatic Sanction was forgotten . A
See also:crowd of claimants called for various parts of the
See also:Habsburg lands; Frederick the
See also:Great, talking less but acting more, invaded and conquered
See also:Silesia, and it seemed likely that the dissolution of the Habsburg
See also:monarchy would at no long
See also:interval follow the extinction of the Habsburg
See also:race . A
See also:prince, Charles Albert, elector of
See also:Bavaria, the emperor Charles VII., and not Francis Stephen, was chosen emperor in
See also:January 1742, and by the treaty of
See also:Breslau, made later in the same
See also:year, nearly all Silesia was formally surrendered to Prussia . But the worst was now over, and when in 1748 the peace of
See also:Aix-la-Chapelle, which practically confirmed the treaty of Breslau, had cleared away the dust of war, Maria Theresa and her
See also:consort were found to occupy a strong position in
See also:Europe . In the first place, in
See also:September 1745, Francis had been chosen emperor; then the imperial pair ruled Hungary and Bohemia, although the latter
See also:kingdom was shorn of Silesia; in spite of French conquests the
See also:Netherlands remained in their hands; and in Italy Francis had added Tuscany to his wife's heritage, although
See also:Parma and
See also:Piacenza had been surrendered to Spain and
See also:part of Milan to the
See also:king of
See also:Sardinia . The
See also:diplomatic volte-
See also:face and the futile attempts of Maria Theresa to recover Silesia which followed this treaty belong to the general
See also:history of Europe . The emperor Francis I. died in 1765 and was succeeded by his son Joseph II., an ambitious and able prince, whose aim was to restore the Habsburgs and the
See also:Empire to their former great positions in Europe, and whose
See also:pride did not prevent him from learning from Frederick the Great,• the despoiler of his
See also:house . His projects, however, including one of uniting Bavaria with
See also:Austria, which was especially cherished, failed completely, and when he died in
See also:February 1790* he
See also:left his lands in a state of turbulence which reflected the general
See also:condition of Europe . The Netherlands had risen against the Austrians, and in January 1790 had declared themselves
See also:independent; Hungary, angered by Joseph's despotic
See also:measures, was in revolt, and the other parts of the monarchy were hardly more contented . But the 18th century saw a few successes for the Habsburgs .
In 1718 a successful war with
See also:Turkey was ended by the peace of Passarowitz, which advanced the Austrian boundary very considerably to the east, and although by the treaty of Belgrade, signed twenty-one years later, a large part of this territory was surrendered, yet a residuum, the banate of
See also:Temesvar, was permanently incorporated with Hungary . The struggle over the succession to Bavaria, which was concluded in 1779 by the treaty of Teschen, was responsible for adding Innviertel, or the quarter of the
See also:Inn, to Austria; the first
See also:partition of Poland brought eastern
See also:Galicia and Lodomeria, and in 1777 the sultan ceded
See also:Bukovina . Joseph II. was followed by his
See also:brother, Leopold II., who restored the Austrian authority in the Netherlands, and the latter by his son Francis II., who resigned the
See also:crown of the
See also:Roman Empire in
See also:August 18o6, having two years before taken the title of emperor of Austria as Francis I . Before the
See also:abdication of the emperor Francis in 18o6 Austria had met and suffered from the fury of revolutionary France, but the cessions of territory made by her at the
See also:treaties of Campo Formio (1797), of
See also:Luneville (18or) and of Pressburg (18o5) were of no enduring importance . This, however, cannot be said for the treaties of
See also:Paris and of Vienna, which in 1814 and 1815 arranged the map of Europe upon the conclusion of the
See also:wars . These were highly favourable to the Habsburgs . In eastern and central Europe Austria regained her former position, the lands ceded to Bavaria and also eastern Galicia, which had been in the hands of Russia since 1809, being restored; she gave up the Austrian Netherlands, soon to be known as Belgium, to the new kingdom of the Netherlands, and acquiesced in the arrangement which had taken from her the
See also:Breisgau and the remnant of the Habsburg lands upon the Rhine .
TUSCANA (mod. Toscanella, q.v.)
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