Online Encyclopedia

TUSCANY

Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V12, Page 791 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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TUSCANY. Clement Salvator (b. 1904). Rainer Charles Leopold Antony Francis lJoseph (b. 1895). (b. 1897). (b. 1901). (b. 1905). (b. 1868). I I Albert, Charles Ferdinand duke of Teschen (1818-1874). (1817-1895). Frederick Charles Stephen duke of Teschen (b. 186o). (b. 1856). I Albert Charles Albert Leo Charles (b. 1897). (b. 1888). (b. 1893). I I Leopold Joseph Antony (1772-1795). (1776-1847). (1780-1835). Joseph (1833-19o5). Joseph Augustus (b. 1872). I Joseph IFrancis Ladislaus (b. 1895). (b. 1901). William (1827-1894). I I I I John Rainer Louis Rudolph (1782-1859). (1783-1853). (1784-1864). (1788-1831). Leopold Ernest Sigismund Rainer Henry (1823-1898). (1824-1899). (1826-1891). (b. 1827). (1828-1891). Ferdinand, duke of Modena (1754-1806). .I Francis IV. Maximilian Ferdinand duke of Modena Joseph (1781-1850). (1779-1846). (1782-1863). I I I Eugene Francis V., Ferdinand (b. 1863). duke of Modena (1821-1849). (1819-1875). William (b. 1895). Ferdinand III., grand-duke of Tuscany (1769-1824). Leopold II., grand-duke of Tuscany. (1797-1870). Ferdinand IV. Louis Salvator grand-duke of Tuscany (b. 1847). (b. 1835). 1 Leopold Ferdinand Joseph Ferdinand Peter Ferdinand (b. 1872) Charles Salvator John Nepomuck Salvatoe (1839-1892). (1852-1891). Leopold Salvator Henry Ferdinand (b. 1863). (b: 1874). (b. 1878). Godfrey (b. 1902). George (b. 1905). Francis Salvator Albert Salvator (b. 1866). (1871-1896). I _' I Francis Charles Salvator Hubert Salvator Theodore Salvator (b. 1893). (b. 1894). (b. 1899). Maria Theresa and Francis Stephen; and it is interesting to note that the present Habsburgs are only descended in the female line from Rudolph I. and Maximilian I. Immediately after the death of Charles the Pragmatic Sanction was forgotten. A crowd of claimants called for various parts of the Habsburg lands; Frederick the Great, talking less but acting more, invaded and conquered Silesia, and it seemed likely that the dissolution of the Habsburg monarchy would at no long interval follow the extinction of the Habsburg race. A Wittelsbach prince, Charles Albert, elector of Bavaria, the emperor Charles VII., and not Francis Stephen, was chosen emperor in January 1742, and by the treaty of Breslau, made later in the same year, nearly all Silesia was formally surrendered to Prussia. But the worst was now over, and when in 1748 the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, which practically confirmed the treaty of Breslau, had cleared away the dust of war, Maria Theresa and her consort were found to occupy a strong position in Europe. In the first place, in September 1745, Francis had been chosen emperor; then the imperial pair ruled Hungary and Bohemia, although the latter kingdom was shorn of Silesia; in spite of French conquests the Austrian Netherlands remained in their hands; and in Italy Francis had added Tuscany to his wife's heritage, although Parma and Piacenza had been surrendered to Spain and part of Milan to the king of Sardinia. The diplomatic volte-face and the futile attempts of Maria Theresa to recover Silesia which followed this treaty belong to the general history of Europe. The emperor Francis I. died in 1765 and was succeeded by his son Joseph II., an ambitious and able prince, whose aim was to restore the Habsburgs and the Empire to their former great positions in Europe, and whose pride did not prevent him from learning from Frederick the Great,• the despoiler of his house. His projects, however, including one of uniting Bavaria with Austria, which was especially cherished, failed completely, and when he died in February 1790* he left his lands in a state of turbulence which reflected the general condition of Europe. The Netherlands had risen against the Austrians, and in January 1790 had declared themselves independent; Hungary, angered by Joseph's despotic measures, was in revolt, and the other parts of the monarchy were hardly more contented. But the 18th century saw a few successes for the Habsburgs. In 1718 a successful war with Turkey was ended by the peace of Passarowitz, which advanced the Austrian boundary very considerably to the east, and although by the treaty of Belgrade, signed twenty-one years later, a large part of this territory was surrendered, yet a residuum, the banate of Temesvar, was permanently incorporated with Hungary. The struggle over the succession to Bavaria, which was concluded in 1779 by the treaty of Teschen, was responsible for adding Innviertel, or the quarter of the Inn, to Austria; the first partition of Poland brought eastern Galicia and Lodomeria, and in 1777 the sultan ceded Bukovina. Joseph II. was followed by his brother, Leopold II., who restored the Austrian authority in the Netherlands, and the latter by his son Francis II., who resigned the crown of the Holy Roman Empire in August 18o6, having two years before taken the title of emperor of Austria as Francis I. Before the abdication of the emperor Francis in 18o6 Austria had met and suffered from the fury of revolutionary France, but the cessions of territory made by her at the treaties of Campo Formio (1797), of Luneville (18or) and of Pressburg (18o5) were of no enduring importance. This, however, cannot be said for the treaties of Paris and of Vienna, which in 1814 and 1815 arranged the map of Europe upon the conclusion of the Napoleonic wars. These were highly favourable to the Habsburgs. In eastern and central Europe Austria regained her former position, the lands ceded to Bavaria and also eastern Galicia, which had been in the hands of Russia since 1809, being restored; she gave up the Austrian Netherlands, soon to be known as Belgium, to the new kingdom of the Netherlands, and acquiesced in the arrangement which had taken from her the Breisgau and the remnant of the Habsburg lands upon the Rhine. In return for these losses Austria became the dominant
End of Article: TUSCANY
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