city ofEnd of Article: TYRE (Phoen. and Hebr. =" rock," Assyr. S'urru, Egypt. Dara, Early Lat. Sarra)
See also:Phoenicia . It is now represented by the
See also:town of Sur (about 5,000 inhabitants), built
See also:round the
See also:harbour at the
See also:north end of a peninsula, which till the
See also:time of
See also:siege was an
See also:island, without
See also:water or vegetation . The mole which he constructed has been widened by deposits of sand, so that the
See also:ancient island is now connected with the mainland by a
See also:tongue of
See also:land a quarter of a mile broad . The greatest length of the former island, from north to south, is about m. and its
See also:area about 142 acres . The researches of
See also:Renan have refuted the once popular idea that a
See also:part of the
See also:original island has disappeared by natural
See also:convulsions, though he believes that the remains of a submerged
See also:wall at the south end indicate that about 15 additional acres were once reclaimed and have been again lost . On this narrow site Tyre was built; its 25,000 inhabitants were crowded into many-storeyed houses loftier than those of Rome; and yet place was found not only for the great
See also:temple of Melqarth with its courts, but for docks and warehouses, and for the
See also:purple factories, which in
See also:Roman times made the town an unpleasant place of residence (
See also:Strabo xvi . 2, 23) . In the Roman
See also:period the population occupied a
See also:strip of the opposite mainland, including Palaetyrus . Pliny (Nat . Hist. v . 19) gives to the whole city,
See also:continental and insular, a compass of 19 Roman
See also:miles; but this account must be received with caution . In Strabo's time the island was still the city, and Palaetyrus on the mainland was distant 30 stadia;
See also:research, however, indicates an extensive
See also:line of suburbs rather than one mainland city that can be identified with Palaetyrus .
This name was given by the Greeks to thesettlement on the
See also:coast under the mistaken impression that it was more ancient than that on the island; the Assyr . Ushu, frequently mentioned in the Amarna letters, makes it probable that Usu or Uzu was the native name . Owing to the paucity of Phoenician remains the topography of the town and its surroundings is still obscure . The
See also:present harbour is certainly the Sidonian
See also:port, though it is not so large as it once was; the other ancient harbour, the
See also:Egyptian port, has disappeared, and is supposed by Renan to have lain on the south side of the island, and to be now absorbed in the
See also:isthmus . The most important ruins are those of the
See also:cathedral, with its magnificent columns of
See also:rose-coloured granite, now prostrate . The present
See also:building is assigned by De Vogue to the second
See also:half of the 12th century, but the columns may have belonged to the 4th-century
See also:church of Paulinus (Euseb . H.E. x . 4) . The water-supply of ancient Tyre came from the powerful springs of
See also:Ras-al '
See also:Ain (see AQUEDUCT) on the mainland, one
See also:hour south of the city, where there are still remarkable reservoirs, in connexion with which curious survivals of
See also:Adonis worship have been observed by travellers . Tyre was still an important city and an almost impregnable fortress under the Arab
See also:Empire . From 1124 to 1291 it was astronghold of the crusaders, and Saladin himself besieged it in vain . After the fall of Acre the Christians deserted the place, which was then destroyed by the Moslems .
The present town has arisen since the Motawila (Metawila or Mutawileh) occupied the
See also:district in 1766 . The most important references to Tyre in the Bible are 1
See also:Kings v., vii., ix.; Is.
See also:xxiii . ; Am. i . 9 seq . ; Ezek.
See also:xxvi.—xxviii.; 2 Macc. iv . 18 sqq . ; Mark iii . 8, vii . 24 sqq . ; Matt. xi . 21 seq . (and
See also:parallels) ; Acts xii .
20 . Cf. also
See also:Joshua xix . 29; 2 Sam.
See also:xxiv . 7;
See also:Ezra iii . 7; Neh. xiii . 16; Ps. xlv . 12, lxxxiii . 7, lxxxvii . 4 . For the
See also:history of Tyre see PHOENICIA . See also Renan,
See also:Mission de Phenicie (1864) ; Pietschmann, Gesch. der Phonizier (1889), 61—72; F . Jeremias, Tyrus bis zur Zeit Nebukadnesars (1891); H .
Winckler, Altor . Forschungen, ii . 65 sqq . ; A . Socin in
See also:Pal. u . Syrien . (W . R . S.; G . A .
EARL [TITULAR DUKE] OF RICHARD TALBOT TYRCONNELL (1...
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