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UNDER THE CONSTITUTION OF

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Originally appearing in Volume V23, Page 254 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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UNDER THE CONSTITUTION OF 1842 James Fenner, Whig . . 1843-1845 Charles Jackson,' Democrat 1845-1846 Byron Diman, Whig . 1846-1847 Elisha Harris, Whig . 1847-1849 Henry B. Anthony, Whig • 1849-1851 Philip Allen, Democrat . 1851-1853 Francis M. Dimond (acting), Democrat • 1853-1854 William W. Hoppin, Whig and American . 1854-1857 Elisha Dyer, Republican 1857–1859 Thomas G. Turner, Republican . 1859–1860 William Sprague,' Unionist . . I86o–i863 William C. Cozzens (acting), Unionist • 1863 James Y. Smith, Republican • 1863–1866 Ambrose E. Burnside, „ • 1866-1869 Seth Padelford, „ . 1869-1873 Henry Howard, „ 3873-1875 Henry Lippitt, 1875 1877 Charles C. Van Zandt, „ . 1877-1880 Alfred H. Littlefield, „ . 1880—1883 Augustus O. Bourn, „ . 1883-1885 George P. Wetmore, • 1885–1887 Tohn W. Davis, Democrat, ^ 1887–1888 oyal C. Taft, Republican, . • 1888-1889 Herbert W. Ladd, „ . 1889-1890 John W. Davis, Democrat • 1890-1891 erbert W. Ladd, Republican 1891-1892 D. Russell Brown, ^ 1892-1895 Charles W. Lippitt, „ . 1895-1897 Elisha Dyer, . 1897-1900 William Gregory, „ . 1900–1901 Charles Dean Kimball, Republican ^ 1901-1903 L. F. C. Garvin, Democrat • 1903-1905 George H. Utter, Republican . 1905-1907 James H. Higgins, Democrat 1907-1909 Aram J. Pothier, Republican 1909- History.—For many years the standard authority on the period before the ratification of the constitution was S. G. Arnold, History of Rhode Island, 1636–1790 (2 vols., New York, 1859–60 4th ed., Providence, 1894). His work has, however, been partially superseded by I. B.. Richman, Rhode Island: Its Making and Meaning, 1636–1683 (2 vols., 1902), and Rhode Island: A Study in Separatism (Boston and New York, 1905). Edward Field (Editor), State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantation at the end of the Century: A History (3 vols., Boston, 1902), is valuable for the more recent history of the state. See also Adelos Gorton, The Life and Times of Samuel Gorton (Philadelphia, 19o8); W. B. Weeden, Early Rhode Island: A Social History of the People (New York, 1910) ; F. G. Bates, Rhode Island and the Formation of the Union (New York, 1898) ; A. M. Mowry, The Dori War; or the Constitutional Struggle in Rhode Island (Providence, 1901); Records of the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantation, 1636–1792 (10 vols., Providence, 1856–65) ; Rhode Island Historical Society, Collections (io vols., to be continued, Providence, 1827–1902); Proceedings and Publications, 23 numbers (Providence, 1872-1902, to be continued). The Quarterly (8 vols., 1892–1901, discontinued); Rhode Island Historical Tracts, Series I., 20 vols. (Providence, 1877–1884), Series II., 5 vols. (Providence, 1889-96). For general bibliographies see J. R. Bartlett, Bibliography of Rhode Island (Providence, 1864) ; C. R. Brigham, in Field, III., pp. 651–81; and Richman, in A Study in Separatism, pp. 353-85. i Jackson was a Liberation Whig—favouring the liberation• of-Dore from prison—but he was elected on the Democratic ticket. 2 Sprague was elected over the radical Republican candidate through a coalition of Democrats and conservative Republicans.
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