Online Encyclopedia

UNDER THE UNITED

Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V19, Page 526 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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UNDER THE UNITED STATES 1846–18473 Governors by Military Appointment. Charles Bent . . Donaciano Vigil . 1847–1848 John Marshall Washington 1848–1849' John Munroe 1849–18514 Governors by Presidential Appointment. James S. Calhoun . . . . 1851-1852 E. V. Sumner (Military Commander, acting) 1852 John Greiner (Secretary, acting) 1852 William Carr Lane 1852–1853 David Merriwether 1853–1857 Abraham Rencher 1857–1861 Henry Connelly . 1861-1865 W. E. M. Arny (Secretary, acting) 1865–1866 Robert B. Mitchell 1866-1869 William A. Pile . 1869-1871 Marsh Gidding 1871-1875 William G. Ritch (Secretary, acting) 1875 Samuel B. Axtell . 1875-1878 Lewis Wallace 1878–1881 Lionel A. Sheldon . 1881–1885 Edmund G. Ross . . 1885-1889 L. Bradford Prince . 1889–1893 William T. Thornton . 1893–1897 Miguel A. Otero . 1897–1906 Herbert J. Hagerman . 1906–1907 J. W. Raynolds (Secretary, acting as governor) 1907 George Curry . . 1907-1909 William J. Mills . . 1909- W. Cozzens, The Ancient Cibola . or, Three Years in Arizona and New Mexico (Boston, 1891) ; W. H. H. Davis, El Gringo, or, New Mexico and her People (New York, 1857) ; M. Frost and A. F. Walker The Land of Sunshine (Santa Fe, 1904) ; V. L. Sullivan, " Irrigation in New Mexico " (Washington, 1909), Experiment Stations Bulletin 215; and F. A. Jones, New Mexico Mines and Minerals (Santa Fe, 1904). History: H. H. Bancroft, Arizona and New Mexico (San 2 Under the republic until 1837 the governor was officially designated as jefe politico; after that date as gobernador. 3 Assassinated during the Mexican revolt on the 19th of January 184 Governor as Commander of the Department. Francisco, 1889): A. F. Bandelier, Contributions to the History of and Algiers, or West New Orleans, a part of the city, are in-the South-western Portion of the United States, being vol. v., American dustrial suburbs on the west bank of the Mississippi, connected with the east bank by a steam ferry and with one another by electric railway. At Algiers are railway terminals and repair shops of the Southern Pacific and the Texas & Pacific; and the United States Naval Station here, which was built in 1844 (though land was bought for it in 1849), and has a large steel floating dry dock, is the only fresh-water station south of Ports-mouth, Virginia, and is equipped to make all repairs. The city site is almost perfectly level; there is an exceedingly slight slope from the river toward the tidal morasses that border Lake Pontchartrain. The elevation of the city plain is only to ft. above the sea, and its lower parts are as much as 10-12 ft. below the Mississippi at high flood water. About 6 m. of heavy " levees " or dykes—in some parts rising clear above the city plain, but backed by filled-in areas graded down from the shores where the traffic of the water-front is concentrated—protect it from the waters. The speed of the current reaches, in times of high water, a rate of 5 M. an hour. Along the immediate front of the principal commercial quarter, this current, losing some of its force by change of direction, deposits its alluvium in such quantities as to produce a constant encroachment of the shore upon the harbour. At its widest part this new land or batture, with wharves, streets and warehouses following eagerly after it, has advanced some 1500 ft. beyond the water-line of the middle of the 18th century. The climate is not marked by extremes of absolute heat or cold. Only once in thirty-seven years (1871–1907) did the thermometer register as high as 1020 F., and on only a few days did it register above 96°; in February 1899 the temperature was 7°, but it rarely falls below 22°. The average annual rainfall is about 58 in. Canal Street, the centre of retail trade and street life, bounds on the south-west near the river the Vieux Card—the old rectangle within the walls of the original city, bounded by the river, Canal, Rampart and Esplanade streets—and separates the picturesque, peaceful French (or Latin) Quarter of the north-east from the bustling business and dignified residence districts of the American Quarter, or New City, on the south-west. In the latter St Charles Avenue and Prytania Street have the finest residences, and in the former Esplanade Avenue. Just below Canal Street, in the oldest part of the American Quarter, are many of the most important or imposing buildings of the city, and some of the places most intimately associated with its history. Here are the St Charles Hotel (1894), the third of that name on the present site, all famous hostelries, and the first (1838–1851) one of the earliest of the great hotels of the country; and Lafayette Square, surrounded by the City Hall (built in 185o in the style of an Ionic temple), the new Post Office, two handsome churches, St Patrick's and the First Presbyterian, Odd Fellows' Hall and other buildings. In the square are statues of Henry Clay (by Joel T. Hart) and Franklin (by Hiram Powers), and a monument to John McDonogh (1898); and in the vicinity are the Howard Memorial Library (1887; a memorial to Charles T. Howard), which was the last work of H. H. Richardson, a native of Louisiana, and the Confederate Memorial Hall (presented to the city by F. T. Howard) with Confederate relics. Twc blocks away in Marguerite Place is a statue erected (1884) by the women of the city to Margaret Haughery (d. 1882), the "Orphan's Friend," a noble woman of humble birth and circumstances, who devoted a toilful but successful life to charities. In Lee Circle is a monument to Robert E. Lee, and facing it is the New Orleans Public Library building (1908). Just off Canal Street, at Carondelet 1 and Gravier Street, is the Cotton Exchange (1882–1883), and in Magazine Street the Produce Exchange. The large office buildings are on Canal, Carondelet, Common and Gravier streets; among them may be mentioned the Maison Blanche, the Hennen Building, the Tulane Newcomb Building and the Canal Louisiana Bank and Trust Company Building. On Camp Street, between Gravier and Poydras, are the office buildings of the Picayune and the Times-Democrat ; on Carondelet and Gravier are the wholesale cotton houses; on Poydras and Tchoupitoulas are the wholesale
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