See also:League, an organization for
See also:political purposes of
See also:Northern whites, later of
See also:Southern blacks, which originated in
See also:Ohio in 1862 when the Confederate military successes and political disaffection in the Northern states made the outlook for the
See also:North seem doubtful . Within one
See also:year it had spread over eighteen Northern states and among the Unionists of the South . The
See also:order raised troops, paid their expenses, sent supplies to the
See also:field and distributed political literature . At the close of the war it worked for
See also:radical reconstruction of the Southern states, punishment of the Southern leaders, confiscation of
See also:property and
See also:suffrage . The Southern Unio lists hoped to make it the nucleus of a new political party, but this was frustrated by the
See also:admission of the blacks for political purposes, after which the Southern whites generally deserted the League . After the Freedmen's Bureau agents and other Northern whites obtained command of the League in the South it became simply a machine to
See also:control the votes of the blacks . The League ceased to be important in the North, though headquarters were in New
See also:York City . Each Southern state had its
See also:grand council and each
See also:county one or more
See also:councils . A constitution and an elaborate ritual were adopted, making it an
See also:oath-bound secret order, whose members were sworn to support one another on all occasions, to
See also:vote in elections only for negroes or Northern men, and to overthrow the Southern "
See also:white oligarchy." No ex-Confederate and few Southern Unionists were permitted to join . At each
See also:meeting the members were taught from a catechism prepared by Radical members of Congress that they must beware of their white neighbours as their worst enemies, that the Democratic party, to which the Southern whites belonged,
See also:bad opposed emancipation and was still opposed to any rights for the negro . In order to prevent moral control of the negroes by former masters, the League, by an " exodus order," required all negroes who were
See also:stilt living with their former masters to find other homes . The negroes were taught the equality of men and the right of the negro to his
See also:master's property .
The votes of blacks, during reconstruction, were controlled by the few white Radical leaders . No negro could safely break away and vote independently . Negroes who voted with themass of the Southern whites were persecuted, beaten or (as in a few cases) killed . The League died out about 187o, but not before it had succeeded, with the Freedmen's Bureau and other forces, in permanently arraying the blacks and whites into opposing political parties . (W . L .
UNION (known locally as Union Hill and officially a...
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