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UNITED KINGDOM

Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V27, Page 604 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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UNITED KINGDOM. 18.7 19.2 20.0 16.9 17.1 15.6 England . 18.9 19.5 20.2 17•I 16.9 - 15'4 Scotland . . 19.3 18.9 20.7 16.6 17.9 - 16.0 Ireland 17.5 17.8 18.4 16.7 17.8 - 17.0 Belgium 21 2 21.3 21.2 17.5 17.2 - 16.4 Switzerland 22.4 20.7 20.6 17.8 18•o 17.9 - Germany . . . -25.5 26.2 23.4 20.8 20.7 19.8 -- France . 22.0 22.5 22.9 20.0 20.1 - 19.9 Japan 18.7 24.4 21.0 21.4 20.4 22.0 - Hungary 34.4 31.7 33.1 28.9 25.4 - 24.8 aastria 30.5 29.5 28.1 26.3 24.0 25.0 -- Russia in Europe*. 33.2 31.2 34'6 32.8 132'1 -- Not including Finland. The deaths in the United Kingdom in 1909 numbered 667,765, the rate per thousand being 14.8.distinguished in five great orders, according to the census of,19o1: England and Wales. Scotland. Ireland. Professional . 804,427 1oi,o6, 131,035 Domestic 1,994,197 201,230 219,418 Commercial 1,858,454 245,715 97,889 Agricultural 1,152,495 237,311 876,062 Industrial . . 7,534,994 1,197,495 639,413 Agriculture.-The following table illustrates broadly the difference in the position of agriculture in Great Britain and in Ireland:- Percentage to total area Great Britain. Ireland. of area- 1890. 1909. 1890. 1909. Cultivated 57.7 56.6 73.1 70.3 Under grain crops . . . . 14.1 12.4 7.3 6.1 Under green crops . . . 5'8 5.4 5.8 5.0 Under grasses and other crops . 8.5 7.9 5.9 11.2 In permanent pasture . . 28.2 30.2 53.4 43.1 Minerals and Mining.-The mineral production of the United Kingdom reached a total value in 1890 of £100,802,657 and in 1909 of £119,394,486, with a maximum during that period of £160,605,154 in 1900 and a minimum of £73,024,066 in 1893. These figures include pig-iron produced from foreign ores. About 73 % represents the value of the coal output. The figures for the more important minerals are as follows:- Description of Minerals. 1900. ' 1909. Value, 1909. Tons. Tons. Coal 225,181,300 263,774,312 106,274,900 Iron ore . . . . 14,025,208 14,979,979 3,689,777 Clay and shale. 14,049,694 14,067,810 1,718,056 Sandstone . . . 5,019,874 4,600,084 1,339,106 Slate .585,859 402,184 1,007,013 Limestone (not chalk) . 11,905,477 11,811,122 1,226,967 Igneous rocks . . 4,634,301 6,283,297 I ,235,046 Oil shale. . . 2,282,221 2,967,057 815,937 Tin ore (dressed) . 6,800 8,289 617,376 Salt 1,861,347 1,822,744 548,896 Gold ore, manganese ore and uranium ore are produced in small quantities, and the list of minerals worked in the United Kingdom also includes chalk, lead, alum, phosphate of lime, chert and flint, gravel and sand, zinc ore, gypsum, arsenic, copper, barytes, wolfram and strontium sulphate. Metals were obtained from the ores as follows:- Description of 1900. 1909. Metal, -- -- Value (avera ge . uantit market price). Quantity. Q y. Iron . 4,666,942 tons 4,802,163 tons 15,559,253 Tin . . . . 4,268 ,, 5,199 ,, 695,546 Lead . . 24,364 „ 22,463 298,945 Zinc . . .' . 9,066 „ 3,818 „ 87,146 Copper . . . 765 435 27,162 Gold . . . . 14,004 oz. 1,21 0 oz. 274,400 Silver . . . 190,850 „ 142,146 „ 14,030 The total number of persons employed in and about all the mines of the United Kingdom in 1901 was 839,178, and in 1909 1,126,372. The workers were thus distributed between the three kingdoms and the principality in 1905:- Coal Mines, &c. Metalliferous Quarries (b). Mines (a). England . . 606,206 19,561 60,725 Wales 137,124 7,333 17,277 Scotland 114,294 974 12,187 Ireland . . 749 733 4,464 The total figures given above include (a) 550 and (b) 166 workers in the Isle of Man; and the figures quoted for production include that of the isle. The production of coal in Great Britain, though marked by Coal fluctuation, has, on the whole, largely increased, and in 1901 the output was 42% greater than that of 1881. The maximum quantity extracted in any one yearbetween 1890 and 1910 was 267,830,962 tons in 1907, and the minimum 164,325,795 in 1893. The maximum estimated value, however, was £121,652,596 for the 225,181,300 tons raised in Igoo; the value in 1907 being £120,527,378. 1900. 1909. England. Tons. Tons. Cumberland 2,022,327 2,309,370 Derby 15,243,031 16,869,347 Durham 34,800,719 41,240,612 Gloucester 1,578,386 1,486,526 Lancashire 24,842,208 23,705,387 Leicester 2,106,343 2,661,606 Monmouth 9,818,829 13,204,357 Northumberland - 11,514,521 14,013,135 Nottingham 8,626,177 11,106,702 Somerset 1,046,792 1,140,818 Stafford 14,222,743 13,517,101 Warwick 2.957,490 4,447,978 York Wales 28,247,249 35,896,623 Carmarthen 1,333,880 1,950,429 Denbigh 2,447,092 2,556,612 Glamorgan 27,686,758 34,461,631 In the chief coal-producing counties of England and Wales the quantity raised in 1900 and in 1909 will be found in the table at the foot of preceding column. Thus it appears that of the coal raised in England the county of Durham contributes about 22 %, Yorkshire 17%, Lancashire 16%, Stafford and Derbyshire each about 9%, and Northumberland 7 %; while of the coal raised in Wales 85% is contributed by the county of Glamorgan; and that the coal production of England and Wales together constitutes, in quantity and value, 85% of the whole production of the United Kingdom. The export of coal greatly increased on the whole during the period 1890-1909. The following table shows this; the figures for 1893 are given as the lowest during the period. The tonnage of coke and patent fuel is included in the totals:-- Year. Tons. Year. Tons. 1890 30,442,839 1900 46,098,228 1893 29,031,955 1905 49,359,272 1895 33,101,452 1909 65,694,267 The chief receiving countries are, in order, Germany, France, Italy, Sweden, Spain, Russian Empire, Denmark, Egypt, Holland, Argentina, Norway and Brazil. The annual output of iron ore in the United Kingdom has on the whole decreased since 1882. In that year it reached a maximum of 18,031,957 tons; it then fell off to 13,098,341 tons in 1887, rose in the two years follow- ing to nearly 15,000,000, fell to little over 11,00o,000 in 1892-1893, rose fairly steadily to 14,461,330 in 1899, stood in 1900 at 14,028,208 tons of a value of £4,224,400, and then showed a further fall and rise, until in 1905 the tonnage was 14,590,703, and the value £3,482,184. The iron ore raised in the various countries, and in the most productive counties, is here shown:- 1900. 1909. - Tons. Tons. England 13,072,118 14,176,658 Cumberland 1103,430 1,246,228 Lancashire' 630,361 312,367 Leicester 750,708 514,896 Lincoln 1,924,898 2,037,363 Northampton 1,622,539 2,875,659 Stafford 2 1,084,797 902,565 York 5,550,677 6,234,589 Wales 7,418 38,043 Scotland 2 849,031 697,276 Ireland 99,641 68,002 The number of furnaces in blast (fractions showing the proportion of the year furnaces were in blast) was: in England 2981, Wales 19j'2; Scotland 85152, total 403 ,32. The total number of existing furnaces in 1900 was: in England 456, Wales 42, Scotland 106; total 604; so that 33% of the number stood unused. In 1905 furnaces in blast numbered: England 24411-2, Wales 131, Scotland 87182 ; total 345132 ; and those existing: in England 412, Wales 31, Scotland tot ; total 544; and the percentage unused was thus 36. In 1888 the imports of iron ore amounted to 3,562,071 tons, in 1898 to 5,468,396 tons, in 1899 to 7,054,578 tons, in 1900 to 6,297,953 tons, in 1901 to 5,548,888 tons and in 1909 to 6,361,571 tons, of which the bulk was imported from Spain. The amount of pig-iron obtained found its minimum, during the period 1890-1910, of 6,976,990 tons in 1893, and its maximum of 10,183,860 in 1906, and in 1905 the quantity produced from foreign ores (4,847,899 tons) for the first time exceeded that produced from British ores (4,760,187). The quantity of lead ore produced within the United Kingdom has decreased. It is now less than one-half of the output of about 1877, and the value has decreased more than proportionately. In the period 1890-1908 the maxi- Lead. mum annual production of metallic lead from British ore was 33,590 tons in 189o, valued at £449,826 ; the production fluctuated somewhat, but generally fell, to the minimum of 17,704 tons in 1902 (value £198,875). The most productive counties are Flint, Durham and Derby; the ore obtained in the Isle of Man is increased in value by the silver it contains. ' These counties supply the richest ore in the United Kingdom 2 In these cases the greater proportion of ore is from mines also I producing coal. Iron. The annual output of tin ore, which in 1878 amounted to 15,045 tons, valued at £530,737, fell to 12,898 tons in 1881, Tin. though the value in that year rose to £697,444. During the years 1882-1892 the average output was over 14,000 tons, and its average value about £770,000, but in 1893 a decline began in the output (not however accompanied closely by a decline in the value), slightly relieved about 19o5. Year. Tin Ore. Value. Tons. £ 1893 13,689 637,053 1900 6,800 523,604 1905 7,201 574,183 1909 5,193 617,376 Tin ore is obtained almost exclusively in Cornwall. Like others of the less important mining industries, copper mining in the United Kingdom has declined. In 1881 the copper. output of ore amounted to 52,556 tons, in 1891 to 9158 tons, in 1893 to J576 tons, in 1905 to 7153 tons, valued at £32,696 and yielding 716 tons of metal by smelting. The total tonnage of ore included 5757 tons from England (chiefly from Cornwall) and 1146 from Ireland (Wicklow, &c.). Copper precipitate is taken from water pumped up from old copper mines on Parys Mountain in Anglesey. Zinc ore is obtained chiefly from mines in Cumberland, Wales and the Isle of Man. In 1881 the output reached 35,527 tons, Zinc valued at £110,043; in 1891 the output was only 22,216 tons, but its value was £113,445. In 1897 the quantity was 19,278 tons, and the value £69,134; but in 1898 the price had risen so that the output of 23,552 tons was worth £117,784. In 1900 the output of 24,675 tons was worth £97,606; and in 1905 that of 23,909 tons was worth £139,806. During the period 1890-1905 gold mines were worked continuously in Merionethshire. Notices of the discovery of gold Gold. elsewhere (as in the Forest of Dean, Argyllshire and Ireland) have appeared from time to time. The principal fluctuations in production were as follows: Year. Ore. Gold. Value. Tons. Oz. £ 1890 575 206 675 1891 14,117 4,008 13,700 1893 4,489 2,309 8,691 1895 13,266 6,600 18,52o 1898 703 395 1,229 1900 20,802 14,004 52,147 1902 29,953 4,181 14,570 1904 23,203 19,655 73,925 1905 15,981 5,797 21,222 1908 - 915 3,311 It should be noted also that from imported cupreous iron pyrites, copper, gold and silver are extracted at some fifteen metal extraction works in Great Britain. From 386,858 tons of burnt ore in 1900 there were obtained 13,925 tons of copper, 1777 oz. of gold and 309,486 oz. of silver; and in 1905 the figures were: ore, 402,863 tons; copper, 14r502 tons; gold, 185o oz.; silver, 322,291 oz. Textile Industries.-The most important of the textile industries of Great Britain is cotton manufacture. The quantities cotton. of raw cotton imported, exported and retained for consumption for various years during the period 1890-1910 were as follows: Year. Imported. Exported. Retained. lb lb lb 1890 1,793,495,200 214,641,840 1,578,853,360 1893 1,416,780,064 224,621,488 1,192,158,576 1895 1,757,042,672 203,284,592 1,553,758,080 1898 2,128,548,352 203,072,464 1,925,475,888 1900 1,760,206,672 215,747,168 1,544,459,504 1905 2,203,595,520 283,177,888 1,920,417,632 1907 2,386,901,104 330,352,064 2,056,549,040 1909 2,188,761,456 268,633,456 1,920,128,000 During the same period the minimum and maximum amount of raw cotton (in lb) imported into the United Kingdom from the principal countries whence it is exported was as follows: United States of America (1893), 1,055,855,360; (1898), 1,805,353,424; Egypt (189o), 181,266,176; (1907), 423,052,448; British possessions in the East Indies (1898), 27,349,728; (189o), 238,746,704; (1909), 75,621,168; Brazil (1899), 5,464,592; (1906), 54,362,000; Peru (1891), 6,175,344; (1909), 24,413,648. In 1905 there were imported 7,941,920 lb from Chile (only 195,328 in 1909); 6,033,104 lb from Canada (this also fluctuates greatly; 1,8o, 072 in 1909); 1,241,408 lb from British West Africa (4,985,232 in 1909); 1,126,720 lb from the British West Indies and Guiana (3,022,208 in 1908). According to the census returns of 1901 there were 546,065 per-sons employed in cotton factories, 199,920 male and 346,145 female. Of the total number of workpeople, 529,131 were employed in England and Wales, 14,805 in Scotland and 212 in Ireland. In 1907 the total had risen to 576,82o (217,742 males and 359,078 females). The extent of the woollen and worsted manufactures of the United Kingdom is indicated by the following table showing the imports and exports of wool and the quantity Wool. retained for use in various years (1890-1905):- Year. Imports. Exports of Retained. imported Wool. lb lb lb 1890 633,028,131 340,712,303 292,315,828 1895 775,379,063 404,935,226 370,443,837 1898 699,555,048 283,317,748 416,237,300 1900 558,950,528 196,207,261 362,743,267 1905 620,350,885 277,864,215 342,486,670 1907 764,286,625 313,519,282 450,767,343 1909 808,710,087 390,695,182 418,014,905 During the same period the minimum and maximum amount of wool (in lb) imported into the United Kingdom was as follows: Australia (1904), 22o,483,961; (1895), 417,163,078; New Zealand (189o), 95,632,598; (1909), 176,457,150; British possessions in South Africa (1900), 32,219,369; (1909), 115,896,598; South America (1890), 11,173,692; (1908), 78,938,157; British possessions in the East Indies (1901), 24,069,571; (1909), 56,238,633; France (1890), 10,873,788; (1902), 27,770,790; Turkish Empire 1908), 5,705,671; (1897), 25,727,462. In the woollen and worsted industries 239,954 persons were employed according to the census of 1901, of whom 99,425 were males and 140,529 females. Of the total number 209,700 were employed in England and Wales, 24,906 in Scotland and 5348 in Ireland. The numbers of persons employed ih the other principal textile industries in 1901 was as follows: England United Kingdom. and Scotland. Ireland. Total. Wales. Males. Females. Flax 4,493 23,570 71,464 29,226 70,301 99,527 Hemp, jute, 2,750 39,200 639 11,618 30,971 42,589 &c. . Silk . 34,847 2,424 209 11,058 26,422 37,48o Hosiery 48,374 11,957 611 15,067 45,875 6o,942 Commerce.-British commerce received an enormous development after the first quarter of the 19th century. In 1826 the aggregate value of the imports into and exports from the United Kingdom amounted to no more than £88,758,678; while the total rose to £110,559,538 in 1836 and to £205,625,831 in 1846. In 1856 the aggregate of imports and exports had risen to £311,764,507, in 1866 to £534,195,956 and in 1876 to £631,931,305. Thus the commercial transactions of the United Kingdom with foreign states and British colonies increased more than sevenfold in the course of fifty years. - An important fact in connexion with the foreign -commerce of the United Kingdom is that there has been a steady increase in imports, but there has been no corresponding steady increase in exports of British produce and manufactures; Many industries, which formerly were mainly in British hands, have been developed on the continent of Europe, in America, and to some extent in the East. The movement began in 1872. Up to that time the exports of British home produce had kept on increasing with the imports, although at a lesser rate, and far inferior in aggregate value; but a change took place in the latter year. While the imports continued their upward course, gradually rising from £,354,693,624 in 1872 to £375,154,703 in 1876, the exports of British produce fell from £256,257,347 in 1872 to £200,639,204 in 1876. The decline in exports, regular and steady throughout the period, and with a tendency to become more pronounced every year, affected all the principal articles of British Country. 1899. 1895. 1900. 1905. 1909. I.—BRITISH POSSESSIONS India and Ceylon Imports 37,856,598 31,076,761 32,861,217 40,540,341 40,995,633 Exports 38,254.769 27,519,909 32,$85,147 45,796,432 46,617,909 Straits Settlements,Malaysia Imports 6,412,865 5,404,887 8,092,057 7,222,215 8,948,582 and Hong Kong . Exports 5,766,059 4,077,436 6,162,526 7,162,908 7,455,726 Africa Imports 11,290,022 12,522,366 9,703,086 14,755,353 13,130.724 Exports 10,744,904 13,325,089 16,725,092 21,338,292 20,181,408 Canada and Newfoundland } Imports 12,444,489 13,400,570 22,240,325 26,204,205 27,674,340 , { Exports 8,272,743 6,594,903 9,659,138 14,267,967 18,750,970 Rest Indies, Bermudas,Hon- Imports 2,992,472 2,831,343 2,483,648 2,717,318 2,969,772 duras and Guiana . . . ? Exports 4,262,669 3,230,189 2,954,477 3,324,665 3,777,244 Australia Imports 20,992,185 24,954,779 23,800,820 26,968,977 32,655,709 . Exports 21,750,705 15,867,979 23,545,565 19,476,463 27,207,430 New Zealand Imports 8,347,430 8,383,058 11,615,881 13,391,222 17,730,556 . . . . .. Exports 3,705,428 3,443,688 5,899,292 6,994,806 8,081,422 Other _ Imports 1,720,583 1,952,431 2,287,537 3,731,132 2,800,939 II. FOREIGN COUNTRIES— ( Exports 3,826,012 3,045,184 4,252,072 4,351,367 4,246,362 France. .Imports 44,828,148 47,470,583 53,618,656 53,072,900 50,690,785 .. Exports 24,710,803 20,324,998 25,877,453 23,232,663 31,515,320 Germany y Imports 26,073,331 26,992,559 31,181,667 35,799,758 40,115,450 Exports 30,516,281 32,736,651 38,542,790 42,742,300 47,168,852 Imports 17,383,776 17,545,169 23,502,603 27,751,288 29,217,560 Belgium 13,594,966 11,934,653 14,846,307 14,818,923 19,284,791 . . Exports Holland . . . } Imports 25,900,924 28,419,944 31,381,023 35,481,059 37,371,702 , . . 16,445,992 11,272,258 14,931,090 14,516,887 16,303,884 Exports Denmark, Faeroe, Iceland, Imports 7,753,389 9,799,328 13,187,757 15,606,991 19,427,483 . Greenland Exports 2,928,006 3,135,122 4,724,121 4,609,671 5,705,415 Norway !Imports _ 3,831,727 5,756,018 5,954,870 6,574,319 t Exports 2,532,050 3,910,982 3,712,532 3,835,436 Sweden Imports _ 8,784,256 10,635,060 9,827,993 9,245,303 ) ( Exports 4,036,729 6,495,223 6,016,332 7,114,071 Austria-Hungary Imports 1,728,337 1,221,783 1,375,245 1,488,604 1,208,499 Exports 1,694,318 2,149,552 3,157,716 2,603,223 4,333,269 Rumania 4,447,159 2,118,505 1,396,639 1,689,513 3,395,474 ..Imports Exports 1,350,497 944,034 616,287 1,305,658 1,749,996 Greece S Imports 1,962,798 1,241,406 2,227,212 1,328,234 1,613,174 Exports 1,235,126 860,193 1,1424,196 1,251,642 1,513,744 Italy }Imports 3,093,918 3,132,720 3,417,790 3,324,595 3,634,073 Exports 8,523,209 6,211,337 9,444,498 9,787,306 13,274,764 Spain Imports 12,508,533 11,314,518 15,882,346 13,858,631 13,362,959 Exports 5,702,804 4,052,806 6,333,857 4,841,774 5,352,017 Portugal Imports 2,942,194 2,491,926 3,241,367 2,929,634 2,912,994 Exports 2,612,638 1,865,973 2,529,305 2,826,257 2,777,201 Russian Empire } Imports 23,750,868 24,736,919 21,983,952 33,366,234 36,897,746 t Exports 8,846,054 10,686,333 16,360,475 14,884,050 18,325,844 Turkey Imports 8,368,851 i 5,630,240 5,657,627 5,491,443 5,085,435 Exports 7,340,868 5,566,187 5,372,956 6,979,147 7,789,432 Japan Imports 1,024,993 1,143,382 1,540,526 1,860,313 4,232,716 Exports 4,187,373 4,772,829 9,933,925 9,796,900 8,618,821 China . Imports 4,830,850 2 3,343,865 2 2,359,821 2,340,3a6 3 3,725,502 S Exports 6,763,221 2 5,363,536 2 5,634,313 13,298,828 3 8,558,275 Netherlands—India Imports 1,223,037 874,313 z87,454 2,129,479 2,436,518 Exports 1,675,054 1,988,479 2,881,601 3,558,562 3;768,264 Egypt . } Imports 8,368,851 9,524,507 12,585,578 14,976,188 19,872,288 Exports 3,459,991 3,414,556 6,159,468 8,059,668 8,142,325 U.S.A Imports 97,283,349 86,548,860 138,789,261 115,573,051 118,269,777 t Exports 46,340,012 44,067,703 37,343,955 47,282,088 59,254,166 MexicoandCentralAmerican Imports 1,863,284 1,443,345 1,144,590 2,138,574 2,595,356 States Exports 3,050,051 3,035,097 3,149,652 3,022,0 74 3,179,577 Brazil S Imports 4,350,675 3,614,155 5,946,547 8,109,208 11,271,890 j Exports 7,795,073 7,643,739 6,156,600 6,91'6,617 8,809,226 Imports 4,129,802 9,084,497 13,080,466 25,034,325 32,528,446 Argentina . Exports 8,530,427 5,48o,848 7,438,238 13,383,835 19,202,496 Chile . . , S Imports 3,473,348 3,436,142 4,828,371 6,068,031 6,607,415 , , Exports 3,365,824 3,454,332 3,535,736 4,782,382 5,054,144 Other countries in Asia Imports 376,969 344,895 373,344 611,096 1,043,280 Exports 516,846 720,350 684,440 699,556 1,214,041 Africa Imports 2,345,843 1,683,319 2,503,823 2,901,281 4,538,518 Exports 3,262,462 3,052,023 4,686,727 6,063,114 7,783,508 Imports 2,080,466 2,437,294 2,355,801 3,897,595 5,657,201 South America ) . • • Exports 5,674,325 4,489,592 4,088,731 5,129,351 6,137,748 Other countries Imports 3,206,713 3,447,034 3,190,888 6,289,947 4,260,790 Exports 6,605,220 3,901,551 6,370,943 8,352,264 7,440,065 Total for British possessions } Imports 100,279,852 100,405,592 113,074,557 134,530,683 146,908,244 t Exports 94,522,469 76,138,896 102,083,109 122,712,920 136,318,471 Total for foreign countries S Imports 324,530,783 321,038,151 413,434,242 437,151,191 477,796,713 Exports 233,729,649 209,693,511 252,290,645 284,883,607 333,206,695 Grand total S Imports 420,691,997 416,689,658 523,075,163 565,019,917 624,704,957 Exports 328,252,118 285,832,407 354,373,754 407,596,527 469,525,166 1 Including Cyprus in this year. 2 Including Korea. 3 Excluding Wei-hai-wei. home produce just enumerated. The value of the cotton manu- The value of the chief articles factures exported sank from £80,164,155 in 1872 to £67,641,268 ( produce are similarly shown:—in 1876; woollen fabrics from £38,493, 411 to £23,020,719; iron and steel from £35,996,167 to £20,737,410; coals from £10,442,321 to £8,904,463; machinery from £8,201,112 to £7,210,426; and linen manufactures from £20,9J6,761 to £7,070,149. The decline during the four years, it will be seen, was greatest in all textile manufactures, and least in coal and machinery. The table' on p. 602 shows the subsequent movement in value of imports from other countries to the United Kingdom, and of exports to other countries from the United Kingdom, at bullion and specie being excluded. As regards fluctuations not revealed by the above figures, it may be mentioned that the highest total figures for any one year during the period covered are those for 1907, viz. imports £64J,807,942; exports £517,977,167. As to minima within the period, the lowest totals for British possessions were: imports £91,852,J34 in 1893, and exports, the figure quoted for 1895; for foreign countries, imports £312,836,644 in 1893, and exports £195,133,239 in 1894; grand totals, imports £404,688,178 in 1893, and exports £273,785,867 in 1894. It may be added that the maximal import figures for France within the period are those of 1906 (£53,871,661), for Germany those of 19o9, and for the United States those of 1901 (£141,015,465). For exports to the United States the figures for 1909 were highest, to France those of 1907 (f33,5o7,544) and to Germany those of 1907 (£56,729,988). The following table presents the value of the chief groups and articles of importation into the United Kingdom: 1895. 1900. 1905. 1909. £ £ £ £ Grain and flour 53,077,981 62,992,082 70,057,290 83,107,421 Meat 33,334,171 46,7$2,579 49,431,748 47,623,428 Other principal articles of food and 14,235,230 17,450,435 21,586,622 22,424,962 drink Butter Sugar 17,684,413 19,256,439 19,471,811 21,691,894 Tea " 10,242,999 10.686,910 9,302,713 11,617,031 Wine 5,448,088 5,192,909 4,072,199 3,746,489 Coffee 3,778,305 2,544,726 2,578,327 2,075,516 Fish (preserved) 2,289,260 2,895,330 2,493,876 2,509,573 Cocoa and chocolate 1,610,483 2,398,248 2,227,141 903,464 Principal fruits 960,273 1,224,657 2,065,193 2,007,911 Apples Oranges 1,925,415 2,120,790 1,949,496 2,522,491 Bananas — 548,956 1,770,256 1,752,190 Tobacco 3,353,916 4,799,417 3,721,920 4,986,663 Raw materials 30,522,016 41,117,308 52,370,878 60,295,049 Cotton Wool 28,494,249 24,073,917 26,648,737 35,041,766 Oils, &c 18,497,573 23,564,644 23,600,927 31,039,883 Wood and timber 16,392,181 27,875,913 23,274,020 23,591,579 Textile materials excluding cotton 11,378,608 11,553,114 14,511,978 12,127,707 and wool Caoutchouc 3,760,178 6,986,133 9,643,153 14,138,204 Hides and skins 7,360,070 8,465,660 8,084,793 11,617,756 Metallic ores excluding iron 4,575,929 5,575,272 7,610,990 8,327,193 Iron ore, &c 3,027,196 5,750,947 5,525,575 5,076,131 Manufactured articles — — 39,688,418 29,651,658 Yarns and textile fabrics . Metal, excluding iron and steel 11,196,315 21,844,683 21,840,696 24,346,328 Leather 11,035,870 11,823,132 11,037,983 11,617,130 Chemicals 8,714,360 8,628,279 9,624,638 10,596,593 Iron and steel (not machinery) — 7,314,696 8,589,405 7,971,594 Paper 2,845,730 4,412,440 5,256,065 5,647,437 Machinery — 3,475,887 4,537,871 4,438,336 Certain omissions are necessary in this table owing to alterations in classification of the returns. I Adapted from the Statistical Abstract for the United Kingdom, where it is specified that the value of new ships and boats, with their machinery, was not included in exports before 1899. and groups of export of home 1895. 1900. 1905. 1909. Cotton yarn and manufactures . 63,74 ,463 69,75 ,279. 92,010,985 93,4 4,799 Iron and steel and manufactures 19,428,3832 31,623,3532 31,826.438 38,192,142 Woollen yarn and manufactures 29,094,568 24 259,766 29,916,807 30,917,807 Coal 14,600,326 36,409,614 24,859 129 37,129,978 Machinery 15,150,522 19 619 784 23,260.326 28,057,643 Chemicals 11,463,304 13 154,344 14,536,857 16,783,019 Textiles (not cotton or wool) 11,986,718 12,191,069 13,204,899 12,441,525 - Metal manufactures (not iron) 5,048,588 6.473,197 8,920,533 8,708,945 Clothing 5,615,594 6,499,086 6,021,242 9,824,125 Leather and leather goods 3,833,980 3,875,683 5,660,494 4,242,356 Ships — 8,587,710 5,431,298 5,927,114 quinquennial intervals; The proportion of imports and exports per head of population of the United Kingdom was: Year. Total Imports. Exports of British Produce. £ s. d. £ s. d. 1890 II 4 6 7 0 7 1895 10 12 6 5 15 4 1900 12 14 3 7 1 6 1905 13 I 5 7 12 7 1906 13 18 5 8 12 0 1907 14 12 6 9 13 3 1908 13 6 3 8 9 4 1909 13 17 7 8 8 1 The tables on p. 604 show the value of unregistered imports of gold and silver bullion and specie from British possessions and from foreign countries into the United Kingdom, specifying the most important countries individually. Shipping.—The table at foot of p. 604 shows the tonnage of vessels entered from and cleared to British possessions and cleared coastwise was as foreign countries at the principal ports of the United Kingdom. For the purpose of showing the relative importance of British and Irish ports falling below the list, the following figures may be quoted for 1909 only: Methil, entered 824,375 tons, cleared 1,105,048 tons ; Harwich, entered 792,980, cleared 776,595; Grangemouth, entered 988,007, cleared 1,064,217 ; Burntisland, entered 609,722, cleared 815,507 ; Bristol, entered858,933, cleared 615,266; Goole, entered 815,197, cleared 817,226; Hartlepool, entered 934,836, cleared 730,141; Newhaven, entered 385,313, cleared 376,083; Folkestone, entered 364,524, cleared 359697; Belfast,entered49o,5I3,cleared265,670; Borrowstounness (Bo'ness), entered 301,549, cleared 292,194; Dublin, entered 219,081, cleared 80,868; Cork, entered 146,724, cleared 9413; Mary-port and Workington, entered 118,388, cleared 67,494. The figures for Ply-mouth have included vessels which call " off " the port to embark passengers, &c., by tender only since 1907; for 1909 they were: entered, 2,455,6o5; cleared, 1,292,244. The table at the commencement of page 605 shows the total tonnage of vessels entered from and cleared to British possessions and foreign countries at ports in the United Kingdom, and also the nationality of vessels under British and the principal foreign flags. Out of the following totals steam vessels had an aggregate tonnage of 30,604,578 entered and 31,080,481 cleared in 189o, and 64,327,508 entered and 64,968,655 cleared in 1909. The total tonnage of vessels entered and follows: (189o), 47,738,612 entered, 2 Owing to an alteration in classification these figures are not strictly comparable with those for 1905.
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