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Originally appearing in Volume V27, Page 786 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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UPSALA, or UPPSALA, a city of Sweden, the seat of a university and of the archbishop of Sweden, chief town of the district (lan) of Upsala, 41 M. N. of Stockholm by the Northern rail-way. Pop. (1900) 22,855. It has water-communication with Stockholm by the river Fyris and the northward arm of Lake Malar, into which it flows. The older part of the city lies on its sloping west bank, the cathedral and castle occupying dominating heights, with the university buildings below. West and south is a girdle of gardens. The new town occupies the flat east bank, and the whole is set in a fertile plain. The university, the chief and oldest in Sweden, was founded in 1477 by Archbishop Jakob Ulfsson. The university building, completed in 1887, lies west of the cathedral. It has a fine vestibule with galleries, lit from a cupola, a senate-hall, rooms for the governing body, and lecture rooms. The whole is very richly adorned. The library building was erected in 1819-41. It is on the site of the Academia Carolina, founded by Charles IX., and is known in consequence as Carolina Rediviva. Since 1707 the library has had the right of receiving a copy of every work printed in Sweden, and its MS. collection is also large and valuable. Among the MSS. is the famous Codex Argenteus (6th century), a translation of the Gospels in the Gothic of Bishop Ulfilas (4th century). Other university institutions are the chemical laboratory, the chemical, physical and pathological institutes, the anatomy house, and the collection of Northern antiquities. The last is situated in the old botanic garden, where Rudbeck and Linnaeus worked, and Linnaeus had, his residence. The new botanic garden, W. of the castle hill, was given by Gustavus III. in 1787. The astronomical observatory was founded in 1730, though there was a professorial chair in the preceding century. The Victoria Museum contains Egyptian antiquities. The Royal Society of Sciences, founded in 1710 by Archbishop Erik Benzelius, occupies a house of its own and has a valuable library. Among other learned societies in the university are the Royal Association for Literary Science, and the Society for Swedish Literature. The annual expenditure of the university amounts to about £56,000, a large proportion of which is covered by a grant from parliament. The revenue of the university itself, however, amounts to about £25,000, a considerable part of which is still drawn from the property with which Gustavus Adolphus endowed it in 1624 from his private estates, amounting to 36o farms. There are about sixty professors, and a large number of assistants, lecturers and docents. The number of students is from 15oo to 2000, but it fluctuates considerably; the average in 1886-90 was 1825. Every student must belong to a " nation " (landskap), of which there are thirteen, each comprising mainly students from a particular part of the country. Each nation has generally its own club-house and fund. There are also societies for special branches of study, athletics and music, especially singing, for which the studentshave a deservedly high reputation. A cap of white velvet with a black border is worn by the students. The cathedral stands nobly above the town; its tall western towers with their modern copper-sheathed spires are visible for many miles. It is of simple form, consisting of a nave with aisles and flanking chapels, short transepts, and choir with ambulatory and chapels and an apsidal eastern end. It is French in style (the first architect was a Frenchman, Etienne de Bonneuil) modified by the use of brick as building material. Ornamentation is thus slight except at the southern portal. The church was building from 1x87 to 1435. It suffered from several fires, and a thorough restoration was completed in 1893. The easternmost chapel is the fine mausoleum of Gustavus Vasa. The castle was founded in 1548 by Gustavus I. but was not finished till a century later, when it was often used as a royal residence. It was destroyed by fire in 1702, and is still in part ruined, but part is used as the offices of the government of the lan and the residence of the governor. Apart from the cathedral and a few insignificant buildings, there are no other medieval remains. Among institutions may be mentioned the Ultuna Agricultural Institute, immediately south of the city. The industries are unimportant. The name of Upsala originally belonged to a place still called Old Upsala nearly 2 M. N. of the present city. This Upsala, mentioned as early as the 9th century, was famous throughout Scandinavia for its splendid heathen temple, which, gleaming with gold, made it the centre of the country, then divided into a great number of small kingdoms. Three huge grave mounds or barrows remain here. In the same place the first cathedral of the bishops of Upsala was also erected (c. 1roo). On the destruction of this building by fire, the inconvenient situation caused the removal in 1273 of the archiepiscopal see to the present city, then called Ostra Aros,1 but within a short time it came to be generally called Upsala. During the middle ages the cathedral and the see of the archbishop made Upsala a kind of ecclesiastical capital. Here the kings were crowned, after their election had taken place at the Mora Stones, 10 m. S.E. of Upsala. In 1567 Eric XIV. murdered in the castle five of the most eminent men of the kingdom, three of them belonging to the family of Sture. In 1593 was held the great synod which marks the final victory of Protestantism in Sweden; in the same year the university was restored by Charles IX. In the castle, Christina, daughter of Gustavus Adolphus, resigned her crown to Charles X. in 1654. In 1702 nearly the whole city, with the castle and the cathedral, was burnt down. Among the teachers of the university who have carried its name beyond the boundaries of their own country the following (besides Linnaeus) deserve to be mentioned: Olof Rudbeck the elder, the author of the Atlantica (163o-1702); Torbern Bergman (1735-1784), the celebrated chemist; and Erik Gustaf Geijer (1783-1847), the historian. UR, one of the most important of the early Babylonian cities, represented to-day by the ruin mounds called Mughair (Moghair), or, more properly, Muqayyar (Mulayyar), " the pitched," or " pitch-built." It lay 140 M. S.E. of Babylon (300 95' N., 46° 5' E.), about 6 m. S. of the present bed of the Euphrates, half-way between that and the low, pebbly sand-stone hills which form the border of the Syrian desert, and almost opposite the mouth of the Shatt-el-Hai; on the Sa'ade canal. It was the site of a famous temple, E-Nannar, " house of Nannar," and the chief seat in Babylonia of the worship of the moon-god, Nannar, later known as Sin (q.v.). Under the title Ur of the Chaldees, it is mentioned in the Bible as the original home of Abraham. It is worthy of notice that Haran, in upper Mesopotamia, which also was a home of Abraham, was likewise a famous site of worship of the god Sin, and that the name of that god also appears in Mount Sinai, which was historically connected with the origin of the Hebrew nation and religion. While not equal, apparently, in antiquity, and 1 The name first occurs in Snorro Sturluson in connection with events of the year 1018; it signifies " the mouth of the eastern river." certainly not in religious importance, to the cities of Nippur, Eridu and Erech, Ur, from a very early period, played a most important part politically and commercially. Lying at the junction of the Euphrates and Tigris, at the head of the Persian Gulf, it enjoyed very extensive water-communications with rich and important regions. Lying close to the Syrian desert, at a natural point of communication with Arabia, it was the centre of caravan communication with interior, southern and western Arabia. In the Sumerian period, antedating the time of Sargon, about or before 3000 B.C., we find Ur exercising hegemony in Babylonia under a king whose name is read Lugal-Kigub-Nidudu. Comparatively early, however, it be-came a centre of Semitic influence and power, and immediately after the time of the Sargonids it comes to the front, under King Ur-Gur, or Ur-Engur, the great builder of ziggurats (stage-towers) in the ancient Babylonian cities, as mistress of both northern and southern Babylonia, and even seems to have exacted tribute from countries as far remote as southern Syria. With relatively brief intervals, during which Erech and Isin come to the fore, Ur held the hegemony in Babylonia until or shortly before the Elamite invasion, when Larsa became the seat of authority. After the period of the Elamite dominion and the establishment of the empire of Babylon, under Khammurabi, about or shortly after 2000 B.c., Ux lost its political independence and, to a considerable extent, its political importance. The gradual filling up of the Persian Gulf had probably also begun to interfere with its trade supremacy. It continued, however, to be a place of religious and literary importance until the close of the Babylonian period. The ruins of the ancient site were partly excavated by Loftus and Taylor in 18J4. They are egg-shaped, with the sharper end towards the north-west, somewhat elevated above the surrounding country, which is liable to be inundated by the Euphrates, and encircled by a wall 2946 yards in circumference, with a length of 1056 and a greatest breadth of 825 yds. The principal ruin is the temple of E—Nannar, in the north-western part of the mounds. This was surrounded by a low outer wall, within which rose a platform, about 20 ft. in height, on which stood a two-storeyed ziggurat, or stage-tower, a right-angled parallelogram in shape, the long sides towards the north-east and south-west. The lower stage measured 198 ft. in length by 133 ft. in breadth, and is still standing to the height of 27 ft. The second storey was 14 ft. in height and measured 119 by 75 ft. The ascent to the first storey was by a stairway 8 ft. broad, on the north-east side. Access to the summit of the second storey was had on the same side, either by an inclined plane or a broad stairway—it is not clear which—extending, apparently, the whole length of that stage. Ruins on the summit show that there was a chamber on top, apparently of a very ornamental character, like that at Eridu. The bricks of the lower stage are laid in bitumen, and bear the inscription of Ur-Gur. The bricks of the upper stage are laid in mortar, and clay cylinders found in the four corners of this stage bore an inscription of Nabonidus, the last king of Babylon (639 B.C.), closing with a prayer for his son Belshar-uzur (Bel-sarra-Uzur), the Belshazzar of the book of Daniel. Between these two extremes were found evidences of restoration by Ishme-Dagan of Isin and Gimil-Sin of Ur, somewhere towards the middle of the 3rd millennium B.C., and of Kuri-galzu, a Cossaean (Kassite) king of Babylon, of the 14th century B.C. Nebuchadrezzar also claims to have rebuilt this temple. Taylor further excavated an interesting Babylonian building, not far from the temple, and part of an ancient Babylonian necropolis. All about the city he found abundant remains of burials of later periods. Apparently, in the later times, owing to its sanctity, • Ur became a favourite place of sepulture, so that after it had ceased to be inhabited it still continued to be used as a necropolis. The great quantity of pitch used in the construction of these ruins, which has given them the name by which they are to-day known among the Arabs, is evidence of a peculiarly close relation with some pitch-producing neighbourhood, presumably Hit, which lay at the head of the Sa'ade canal on which Ur was located. Large piles of slab and scoria, in the neighbourhood of Ur, show, apparently, that the pitch was also used for manufacturing purposes, and that Ur was a manufacturing as well as a commercial city. Since Taylor's time Mughair has been visited by numerous travellers, almost all of whom have found ancient Babylonian remains, inscribed stones and the like, lying upon the surface. The site is rich in remains, and is relatively easy to explore. See J. E. Taylor, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (1855), vol. xv.; W. K. Loftus, Chaldaea and Susiana (1857); John P. Peters, Nippur (1897) ; H. V. Hilprecht, Excavations in Assyria and Babylonia (1904). (J. P. PE.) URAL-ALTAIC, the general term for a group of languages (also called Turanian, Finno-Tatar, &c.) constituting a primary linguistic family of the eastern hemisphere. Its subgroups are Turkish, Finno-Ugrian, Mongol and Manchu. Philologists have differentiated various forms of the languages into numerous subdivisions; and considerable obscurity rests on the relation-ship which such languages as Japanese or ancient Accadian and Etruscan bear to the subgroups already named, which are dealt with in other articles. In its morphology Ural-Altaic belongs to the agglutinating order of speech, differing from other languages of this order chiefly in the exclusive use of suffixes attached to the unmodified root, and partly blended with it by the principle of progressive vowel harmony, in virtue of which the vowels of all the suffixes are assimilated to that of the root. Thus the typical formula is R+R+R+R, &c., where R is the root, always placed first, and R, R, R . . . the successive postfixed relational elements, whose vowels conform by certain subtle laws of euphony to that of the root, which never changes. These suffixes differ also from the case and verbal endings of true inflecting languages (Aryan, Semitic) in their slighter fusion with the root, with which they are rather mechanically united (agglutinated) than chemically fused into a term in which root and relational element are no longer separable. Hence it is that the roots, which in Aryan are generally obscured, blurred, often even changed past the possibility of identification, inUral-Altaic are always in evidence, unaffected by the addition of any number of formative particles, and controlling the whole formation of the word. For instance, the infinitive element mak of the Osmanli yaz-mak = to write becomes mek in sev-mek=to love (vowel harmony), and shifts its place in sev-il-mek = to be loved (imperfect fusion with the root), while the root itself remains unchanged as to form and position in sev-ish-il-mek = to be impelled to love,• or in any other possible combination with suffixed elements. The facility with which particles are in this way tacked on produces an exuberance, especially of verbal forms, which in Osmanli, Finnish, Magyar, Tungus and Mordvinian may be said to run riot. This is particularly the case when the numerous modal forms become further complicated by incorporating the direct pronominal object, as in the Magyar varjak=they await him, and the Mordvinian palasa=I embrace him. Thus arise endless verbal combinations, reckoned in Turki at nearly 30,000, and past counting in the Ugrian group. Another marked peculiarity of the Ural-Altaic, at least as compared with the inflecting orders of speech, is weak subjectivity, the subject or agent being slightly, the object of the action strongly accentuated, so that " it was done by him " becomes " it was done with him, through him, or in his place " (aped eum). From this feature, which seems to be characteristic of all the branches, there follow some important consequences, such as a great preponderance of locative forms in the declension, —the nominative, and often even the possessive, being expressed by no special suffix. Hence also the object normally precedes the subject, while the idea of possession (to have) is almost everywhere replaced by that of being (to be), so that, even in the highly developed Osmanli, " I have no money " becomes " money-to-me not-is " (Akchehim yokdur). In fact the verb is not clearly differentiated from the noun, so that the conjugation is mainly participial, being effected by agglutinating pronominal, modal, temporal, negative, passive, causative, reciprocal, reflexive and other suffixes to nominal roots or gerunds: I write = writing-to-me-is. Owing to this confusion of noun and verb, the same suffixes are readily attached indifferently to both, as in the Osmanli jan=soul, jdn-ler = souls, and yazdr=he will write, yfizdr-ler = they will write. So also, by assimilation, the Yakut kdtardor kotollor=the birds fly (from root kot=flying), where kotol stands for kotor, and dor for lor, the Osmanli ler, or suffix of plurality. But, notwithstanding this wealth of nominal or verbal forms, there is a great dearth of general relational elements, such as the relative pronoun, grammatical gender, degrees of comparison, conjunctions and even postpositions. Byrne's remark, made in reference to Tungus, that " there is a great scarcity of elements of relation, very few conjunctions, and no true postpositions, except those which are given in the declension of the noun,'" is mainly true of the whole family, in which nouns constantly do duty for formative suffixes. Thus nearly all the Ostiak postpositions are nouns which take the possessive suffix and govern other nouns in the genitive, precisely as in the Hindi: admi-ki-tdrdf (men) gdya=man-of-direction (in) I went =I went towards the man, where the so-called postposition tardf, being a feminine noun = direction, requires the preceding possessive particle to be also feminine (ki for ke). As there are thus only two classes of words—the roots, which always remain roots, and the suffixes, which always remain suffixes—it follows that there can be no true composition or word-building, but only derivation. Even the numerous Magyar nominal and adjectival compounds are not true compounds, but merely two words in juxtaposition, unconnected by vowel harmony and liable to be separated in construction by intervening particles. Thus in aran-sinii = gold-colour = golden, the first part aran receives the particle of comparison, the second remaining unchanged, as if we were to say " Bolder-colour " for " more golden "; and ata-f=relative becomes ata-m-f-a = my relative, with intrusion of the pronominal m =my. But, while these salient features are common, or nearly common, to all, it is not to be supposed that the various groups otherwise present any very close uniformity of structure or vocabulary. Excluding the doubtful members, the relationship between the several branches is far less intimate than between the various divisions of the Semitic and even of the Aryan family, so that, great as is, for instance, the gap between English and Sanskrit, that between Lapp and Manchu is still greater. After the labours of Castren, Csink, Gabelentz, Schmidt, BShtlingk, Zenker, Almqvist, Radlov, Munkacsi-Berat and especially Winkler, their genetic affinity can no longer be seriously doubted. But the order of their genetic descent from a presumed common organic Ural-Altaic language is a question presenting even greater difficulties than the analogous Aryan problem. The reason is, not only because these groups are spread over a far wider range, but because the dispersion from a common centre took place at a time when the organic speech was still in a very low state of development. Hence the various groups, starting with little more than a common first germ, sufficient, however, to give a uniform direction to their subsequent evolution, have largely diverged from each other during their independent development since the remotest prehistoric times. Hence also, while the Aryan as now known to us represents a descending line of evolution from the synthetic to the analytic state, the Ural-Altaic represents on the contrary an upward growth, ranging from the crudest syntactical arrangements in Manchu to a highly agglutinating but not true inflecting state in Finnish? No doubt Manchu also, like its congeners, had formerly possessive affixes and personal elements, lost probably through Chinese influences; but it can never have possessed the surprisingly rich and even superabundant relational forms so characteristic of 1 Gen. Prin. of Struct. of Lang. i. 391 (London, 1885). ' " Meine Ansichten werden sich im Fortgange ergeben, so namentlich dass ich nicht entfernt diefinnischen Sprachen fur flexivische halten kann " (H. Winkler, Uralaltaische Volker, 1884, i. p. 54). Yet even true inflexion can scarcely be denied at least to some of the so-called Yenisei Ostiak dialects, such as Kotta and others still surviving about the middle Yenisei and on its affluents, the Agul and Kan (Castren, Yen., Ostjak and Kort. Sprachlehre, 1858, Preface, PP. v-viii). These, however, may be regarded as aberrant members of the family, and on the whole it is true that the Ural-Altaic system nowhere quite reaches the stage of true inflexion. Magyar, Finn, Osmanli and other western branches. As regards the mutual relations of all the groups, little more can now be said than that they fall naturally into two main divisions—Mongolo-Turkic and Finno-Ugro-Samoyedo-Tungusic—according to the several methods of employing the auxiliary elements. Certainly Turkic lies much closer to Mongolic than it does to Samoyedic and Tungusic, while Finno-Ugric seems to occupy an intermediate position between Turkic and Samoyedic, agreeing chiefly in its roots with the former, in its suffixes with the latter. Finno-Ugric must have separated much earlier, Mongolic much later, from the common connexion, and the latter, which has still more than half its roots and numerous forms in common with Turkic, appears on the whole to be the most typical member of the family. Hence many Turkic forms and words can be explained only by reference to Mongolic, which has at the same time numerous relations to Finno-Ugric and Samoyedic that have been lost in Turkic and Tungusic. It may therefore be concluded that the Finno-Ugric migrations to the north and west and the Tungusic to the east had been completed while the Turkic and Mongolic tribes were still dwelling side by side on the Altai steppes, the probable cradle of the Ural-Altaic peoples. How profoundly the several groups differ one from the other even in their structure is evident from the fact that such assumed universal features as unchangeable roots and vowel harmony are subject to numerous exceptions, often spread over wide areas. Not only is assimilation of final consonants very common, as in the Osmanli bulun-mak for the Uighur bulul-mak, but the root vowel itself is frequently subject to umlaut through the influence of suffixed vowels, as in the Aryan family. Thus in the Surgut dialect of Ostiak the long vowels of nominal stems become modified before the possessive suffix, a and a to i and o to u (Castren). It is still more remarkable to find that the eastern (Yenisei) Ostiak has even developed verbal forms analogous to the Teutonic strong conjugation, the presents tabaq', abbatag'an and datpaq' becoming in the past Wag', abbatog'an and datpiyaq' respectively; so also taig, torg and targ, present, past and imperative, are highly suggestive of Teutonic inflexion, but more probably are due to Tibetan influences. In the same dialects many nouns form their plurals either by modifying the root vowel, in combination with a suffixed element, or by modification alone, the suffix having disappeared, as in the English foot feet, goose—geese. So also vowel harmony, highly developed in Finnish, Magyar and Osmanli, and of which two distinct forms occur in Yakutic, scarcely exists at all in Cheremissian, Votyak and the Revel dialect of Esthonian, while in Mordvinian and Syryenian; not the whole word, but the final vowels alone are harmonized. The unassimilated Uighuric kilur-im answers to the Osmanli kilur-um, while in Manchu the concordance is neglected, especially when two consonants intervene between the root and the suffixed vowels. But too much weight should not be attached to the phenomenon of vowel harmony, which is of comparatively recent origin, as shown in the oldest Magyar texts of the 12th century, which abound in such discordances as halal-nek, tiszta-seg, for the modern halal-nak, tiszta-sag. It clearly did not exist in the. organic Ural-Altaic speech, but was independently developed by the different branches on different lines after the dispersion, its origin being due to the natural tendency to merge root and suffix in one harmonious whole. This progressive vocalic harmony has been compared to a sort of progressive umlaut, in which the suffixed vowels are brought by assimilation into harmony with those of the root. All vowels are broadly divided into two categories, the guttural or hard and the palatal or weak, the principle requiring that, if the root vowel be hard, the suffixed must also be hard, and vice versa. But in some of the groups there is an intermediate class of " neutral " vowels, which do not require to be harmonized, being indifferent to either category. In accordance with these general principles the vowels in some of the leading members of the Altaic family are thus classified by L. Adam : 2- Gutturals. Palatals. Neutrals. Finnish u, o, a fl, o, a . e, i Magyar u, o, a u, o e, i Mordvinian u, o, a a, i e, i Syryenian . 8, a a, i, e u, i Osmanli u, o, a, e u, o, e, i Mongolian . u, o, a u, 8, a Buriat u, o, a ii, o, a Manchu 6, o, a e A close analogy to this law is presented by the Irish rule of " broad to broad " and " slender to slender," according to which under certain conditions a broad (a, o, u) must be followed in the next syllable by a broad, and a slender (e, i) by a slender. Obvious parallelisms are also such forms in Latin as annus, perennis, ors, avers, Lego, diligo, where, however, the root vowel is modified by the affix, not the affix by the root. But such instances suffice to show ' De l'harmonie des voyelles dons les langues Ouralo-Altaiques (Paris, 1874). that the harmonic principle is not peculiar to the Ural-Altaic, but only more systematically developed in that than in most other linguistic families.
End of Article: UPSALA, or UPPSALA

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