URBAN II . (
See also:Odo or
See also:Otho or Eudes de Lagary),
See also:pope from the 12th of
See also:March ,o88 to the 29th of
See also:July 1099, was
See also:born of knightly
See also:rank at Lagary (or Lagery or Lagny), near Reims . He studied for the
See also:church, became archdeacon of
See also:Auxerre, and later joined the
See also:congregation of
See also:Cluny . Displaying
See also:great ability as reformer and theologian, he was chosen subprior of the celebrated monastery . He was created
See also:bishop of
See also:Ostia in 1078 by
See also:Gregory VII., to whom he displayed such
See also:loyalty, especially as papal
See also:legate in Germany (1084), that he was imprisoned for a
See also:time by
See also:Henry IV . He was designated by Gregory as one of four men most worthy to succeed him, and, after a vacancy of more than five months following the decease of Victor III., he was elected pope on the 12th of March ro88 by
See also:forty cardinals, bishops, and abbots assembled at Terracina, together with representatives of the Romans and of Countess Matilda . He frankly took up the policy of Gregory VII., but, while pursuing it with equal determination, showed greater flexibility and
See also:diplomatic skill . Throughout the major
See also:part of his pontificate he had to reckon with the presence of the powerful antipope
See also:Clement III . (
See also:Guibert of Ravenna) in Rome; but a series of well-attended synods at Rome,
See also:Benevento and
See also:Troia, supported him in renewed declarations against
See also:investiture, and clerical marriages, and in a policy of continued opposition to Henry IV . He maintained an
See also:alliance with the Norman Duke Roger, Robert Guiscard's son and successor, and
See also:united the German with the
See also:Italian op-position to the emperor by promoting the
See also:marriage of the Countess Matilda with
See also:young Well. of
See also:Bavaria . He aided
See also:Conrad in his
See also:rebellion against his
See also:father and crowned him
See also:king of the Romans at Milan in 1093, and likewise encouraged the Empress Praxedis in her charges against her
See also:husband . By excommunicating
See also:Philip I. of France for matrimonial infidelity in 1095, Urban opened a struggle which was not terminated until after his
See also:death .
Invited toTuscany by the Countess Matilda, he convoked a council at
See also:Piacenza in March 1095, attended by so vast a number of prelates and laymen that its sessions were held in the open air, and addressed by ambassadors of Alexis, the
See also:Byzantine emperor, who sought aid against the Mussulmans . Urban crossed the
See also:Alps in the summer, and remained over a
See also:year in France and
See also:Burgundy, being everywhere reverently received . He held a largely attended council at Clermont in
See also:November 1095, where the preaching of the First Crusade marked the most prominent feature of Urban's pontificate . Thenceforth until his death he was actively engaged in exhorting to war against the infidels . Crusaders on their way through Italy drove the antipope Clement III. finally from Rome in 1097, and established Urban firmly in the papal see . With a view to facilitating the crusade, a council was held at Bari in
See also:October 1098, at which religious differences were debated and the exiled Anselm of Canterbury combated the Eastern view of the Procession of the
See also:Holy Ghost . Urban died suddenly at Rome on the 29th of July 1099, fourteen days after the capture of Jerusalem, but before the tidings of that event had reached Italy . His successor was
See also:Paschal II . It is well established that Urban preached the
See also:sermon at Clermont which gave the impetus to the
See also:crusades . The sermon was written out by Bishop Baudry, who heard it, and is to be found in full in J . M . Watterich, Pontif .
See also:Roman . Vitae . Letters of Urban are published in J . P .
See also:Migne, Patrol .
See also:Lat., vol . 151 . See J .
See also:Langen, Geschichte der romischen Kirche von Gregor VII. bis Innocenz III . (
See also:Bonn, 1893) ; F .
See also:Gregorovius, Rome in the
See also:Middle Ages, vol . 4, trans. by Mrs G .
See also:Hamilton (
See also:London, 1900–2); K . J. von
See also:Hefele, Conciliengeschichte, vol . 5 (2nd ed., I873—go); Jaffe-
See also:Wattenbach, Regesta pontif . Roman. vol. i (1885–88); H . H .
See also:History of Latin
See also:Christianity, vol . 3 (London, 1899); M . F .
See also:Steen, Zur Biographie
See also:des Papstes Urbans II . (Berlin, 1883); A. de Brimont, Un Pape au moyen age—Urbain II . (
See also:Paris, 1862); W .
Norden, Das Papsttum and Byzanz (Berlin, 1903); Gigalski, " Die Stellung des Papstes Urbans II. zu den Sacramentshandlungen der Simonisten, Schismatiker and Haretiker," in the Tiibinger theol . Quartalschrift (1897) .
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