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URBAN V

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Originally appearing in Volume V27, Page 791 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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URBAN V. (Guillaume Grimoard or Grimaud de Beauvoir), pope from the 28th of October 1362 to the 19th of Decemoet 1370, was born in 1309 near Lozere in Languedoc, and entered the Benedictine priory of Chiriac. After receiving orders he became successively professor of canon law at Avignon and Montpellier, vicar-general of the dioceses of Clermont and Uzes, abbot of St Germain d'Auxerre, abbot of St Victor at Marseilles, administrator of the bishopric of Avignon, and papal legate to Naples. He was returning from his mission to Italy when news reached him at Corneto that he had been chosen to succeed Innocent VI. He announced his acceptance from Marseilles, and was consecrated at Avignon on the 6th of November 1362. Urban witnessed the completion of the work of tranquillizing Italy under the able Cardinal Albornoz, and in 1364, in the interests of peace, made heavy concessions to Bernabo Visconti. Moved by Peter of Lusignan, king of Cyprus, and by the celebrated Carmelite Peter Thomas, who had come to Avignon in February 1363, the pope proclaimed another crusade, which found some echo in France and resulted in the temporary occupation of Alexandria (1365). Urban, yielding to the entreaties of the Emperor Charles IV. and of Petrarch, left Avignon on the 3oth of April 1367, despite the opposition of the French cardinals, and made his entry into Rome on the 16th of October. The following year he was visited by Charles IV., and crowned the Empress Elizabeth (1st of November); and in 1369 he received the Greek emperor, John Palaeologus, who renounced the schism but for whom the pope was unable to secure assistance. See L. Pastor, History of the Popes, vol. i, trans. by F. I. Antrobus Urban sanctioned the order of Jesuates and founded the (London, 1899) ; M. Souchon, Die Papstwahlen in der Zeit des medical school at Montpellier. On account of the repair grossen Schismas, vol. 1 (Brunswick, 1898) ; N. Valois, La France poor rePa et le grand schisme d'Occident (Paris, 1896-1902); M. Creighton, of Rome, the restlessness of the Romans and the discontent of History of the Papacy, vol. r (London, 1899) ; F. Gregorovius, Rome in the Middle Ages, vol. 6, trans. by Mrs G. W. Hamilton (London, 1900-2); R. Jahr, " Die Wahl Urbans VI." in Hallische Beitrage zur Geschichtsforschung (1892) ; T. Lindner, " Papst Urban VI.," in Zeitschrift fur Kirchengeschichte, iii. (1879); W. St C. Baddeley, Charles III. of Naples and Urban VI. (1894) ; J. B. Christophe, Histoire de la papaute pendant le XIVe siecle, vol. 3 (Paris, 1853). (C. H. HA.)
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