UTAH ,' one of the Central Western states of the
See also:United States of
See also:America . It lies between latitudes 370 and 42° N. and between longitudes 32° and 37° W. from
See also:Washington (i.e. about lo9° 1' 34" and 114° 1' 34" respectively W. of
See also:Greenwich) . The state is bounded wholly by meridians and
See also:parallels, and is bordered on the N. by
See also:Idaho and
See also:Wyoming, on the E. by Wyoming and
See also:Colorado, on the S. by
See also:Arizona, and on the W. by
See also:Nevada . Utah has an
See also:area of 84,990 sq. m., of which 2806 sq. m. are
See also:surface, including
See also:Salt, Utah and other lakes . The state has a maximum length of 345 M . N. and S., and a maximum width of about 28o m . E. and W .
See also:Physical Features.—The eastern portion of Utah consists of high plateaus, and constitutes a
See also:part of the Colorado
See also:Plateau province . The remaining western portion of the state is
See also:lower, belongs in the Great
See also:Basin province, and is characterized by
See also:mountain ranges separated by
See also:desert basins . The high plateaus consist of great blocks of the
See also:earth's crust which are separated from each other by
See also:fault-lines, and which have been uplifted to different heights . Erosion has
See also:developed deep and sometimes broad valleys along the fault-lines and elsewhere, so that many of the blocks and portions of blocks are isolated from their neighbours . As a
See also:rule 1 The name is that of a Shoshonean
See also:Indian tribe, more commonly called Ute.813 the blocks have not been greatly tilted or deformed, but consist of nearly
See also:horizontal layers of
See also:sandstone, shales and
See also:limestone .
In some cases these sedimentary rockslie deeply buried under lavas poured out by volcanoes long
See also:extinct . The plateau summits rise to elevations of 9000, 10,000 and ii,000 ft., are generally forested, but are too difficult of
See also:access to be much inhabited . The
See also:people live along the streams in the valleys between the plateaus . In the
See also:southern part of the state the high plateaus are terminated by a series of
See also:giant terraces which descend to the general level of the
See also:Canyon Platform in
See also:northern Arizona . The terraces represent the out-cropping edges of hard sandstone layers included in the series of plateau sediments, and are named according to the
See also:colour of the
See also:rock exposed in the south-facing escarpments, the
See also:Pink Cliffs (highest),
See also:White Cliffs and
See also:Vermilion Cliffs . A still lower terrace, terminating in the Shinarump Cliffs, is less conspicuous; but the higher ones afford magnificent scenery . The northernmost member of the high plateaus is a broad east-west trending arch known as the Uinta Mountains .
See also:Local glaciation has carved the higher levels of this range into a
See also:maze of amphitheatres containing lakes, separated from each other by aretes and alpine peaks . Among the peaks are
See also:King's Peaks (13,498 ft. and 13,496 ft.), the highest points in the state; Mt . Emmons (13,428 ft.);
See also:Peak (13,422 ft.) ; Mt . Lovenia (13,250 ft.) ; and Tokewanna Peak (13,200 ft.) . In the south-eastern part of the state are lower desert plateaus, and several mountain groups which do not properly belong to the plateau
See also:system .
Most interesting among these are the
See also:Henry Mountains, formed by the intrusion of molten igneous rock between the layers of sediments, causing the overlying layers to arch up into dome mountains . Stream erosion has dissected these domes far enough to reveal the core of the igneous rock and to give a rugged topography . The highest peaks exceed x1,000 ft . By far the greater part of the high plateau
See also:district is drained by the Colorado
See also:river and its branches, the most important of which are the
See also:Green, Grand and
See also:San Juan, portions of whose courses lie in canyons of remarkable grandeur . The western members of the high plateaus drain into the Great Basin for the most part, and in this drainage system the
See also:Sevier river is perhaps most prominent . Inasmuch as the streams entering the basin have no outlet to the ocean, their
See also:waters disappear by evaporation, either directly from alluvial slopes over which they pass, or from saline lakes occupying depressions between the mountain ranges . The lower basin portion of Utah is separated from the high plateaus by a series of great fault scarps, by which one descends abruptly to a level of but 5000 or 6000 ft . One of the fault scarps is known as the
See also:Hurricane Ledge, and continues as a prominent landmark from a point south of the Grand Canyon in Arizona to the central part of Utah, where it is replaced by other scarps farther east . The
See also:floor of the Basin Region is formed of
See also:alluvium washed from the high plateaus and mountain ranges, a part of which has accumulated in alluvial fans, and part in the greatly
See also:expanded lakes which existed here in the glacial
See also:period . This alluvium gives gently sloping or level desert plains, from which isolated mountain ranges rise like islands from the
See also:sea . The barren " mud flats," frequently found on the desert floor, result from the drying up of temporary shallow lakes, or playas . Lake
See also:Bonneville is the name given to the most important of the much greater lakes of the glacial period, whose old
See also:shore-lines are plainly visible on many mountain slopes .
Great Salt Lake (q.v.) is a shrunken remnant of Lake Bonneville . The mountain ranges of the Basin Region are most frequently formed by faulted and tilted blocks of the earth's crust, which have been carved by stream erosion into rugged shapes . Oquirrh, Tintic,Beaver,
See also:House and
See also:Mineral Mountains are typical examples of these north-south " basin ranges," which rise abruptly from the desert plains and are themselves partial deserts . The Wasatch Mountain range constitutes the eastern margin of the Great Basin in central and northern Utah, and resembles the true basin ranges in that it is formed by a great
See also:block of the earth's crust uptilted along a north-south fault-
See also:line . Its steep fault scarp faces west, and rises from 4000 to 6000 ft. above the basin floor; the eastern slope is more gentle, but both slopes are much scored by deep canyons, some of which have been modified in
See also:form by
See also:ancient glaciers . Among the highest summits are Timpanogos Peak (11,957 ft.), Mt .
See also:Nebo (11,887 ft.), Twin Peak (11,563 ft.), and Lone Peak (11,295 ft.) . At the western
See also:base of the Wasatch are Salt Lake City,
See also:Provo and other smaller towns, situated where streams issue from the mountains, soon to disappear on the desert plains . In such places
See also:agriculture is made possible by irrigation, and the Mormon villages, both here and farther south along the base of the Hurricane Ledge, depend largely on this
See also:industry . Important
See also:mining operations are carried on in the Wasatch Mountains and in a number of the basin ranges . Mercur, Tintic,
See also:Bingham and
See also:Park City are well-known mining centres .
See also:Fauna.—In the open
See also:country the
See also:deer, the pronghorn
See also:antelope and the
See also:coyote are found, and the bison formerly ranged over the north-eastern part of the state; the side-striped ground-squirrel, Townsend's spermophile, the desert
See also:rat and the desert pack-
See also:rabbit inhabit the
See also:flat country .
In the mountainous districts and high plateaus are the grizzly, formerly more
See also:common, the black bear, the four-striped chipmunk and the yellow-haired porcupine . Various
See also:species of small native mice and voles are abundant . In the marshes of the Salt Lake breed grebes, gulls and terns, and formerly the white pelican . Many ducks breed here, and many others pass through in
See also:migration: of the former, the most numerous are mallard and
See also:teal; of the latter, pintail,
See also:neck ducks, and mergansers .
See also:Wood and glossy ibises are commonly seen, and the white
See also:ibis breeds in numbers; the sand-
See also:crane is less common than formerly . A few varieties of shore birds breed here, as the Western willet, the Bartramian
See also:sandpiper, and the long-billed
See also:curlew . Gambel's
See also:partridge is
See also:resident in the southern part of the state, and the
See also:hen and
See also:grouse on the plains . The dusky grouse and
See also:grey ruffed grouse are confined to the mountains and plateaus . The California
See also:vulture is very rare; various species of
See also:hawks and
See also:golden and bald eagles are common . The burrowing.
See also:owl is found on the plains, and various species of small birds are characteristic of the different physical divisions of the state . A few lizards are found in the arid districts . The
See also:trout of the Utah mountain streams is considered a distinct species .
See also:Flora.—Western Utah and vast areas along the Colorado river in the east and south-east are practically treeless . The lower plateaus and many of the basin ranges, as well as the basins them-selves, are deserts . The higher plateaus, the Uinta and Wasatch mountains, bear forests of
See also:fir, spruce and
See also:pine, and the lower slopes are dotted with pinon,
See also:juniper, and scrub
See also:cedar . On the slopes of mountain valleys grow cedars, dwarf maples and occasional oaks . Willows and cottonwoods grow along streams . The west slope of the Wasatch has been largely denuded of its forests to supply the demands of the towns at its base . Among other
See also:plants common to the state are the elder,
See also:hop, dwarf
See also:sunflower, and several species of greasewood and cacti . The sagebrush, artemisia, is characteristic of the desert areas . Bunch grass is abundant on the hillsides the
See also:round, and affords valuable pasturage .
See also:Climate.—On account of its great diversity in topography, the state of Utah is characterized by a wide range in
See also:climatic conditions . Extremely
See also:weather may occur on the lofty plateaus and mountain ranges, while the intervening valleys and basins have a milder climate . The mean temperature of the state ranges from 58° in the extreme south to 42° in the north .
Winter temperatures as low as 36° below zero are known for the higher altitudes; in the south, summer temperatures of 110° and higher have been recorded . At Salt Lake City the mean winter temperature is 31 °, the mean summer temperature 73° . Corresponding figures for St
See also:George, in the south-western part of the state, are 38 and 8o° . In general Utah may be said to have a true
See also:continental climate, although the presence of Great Salt Lake has a modifying effect on the climate of that portion of the Basin Region in which it lies . Killing frosts occur early in
See also:September and as
See also:late as the last of May, and in the higher valleys they may occur at any
See also:time . The mean
See also:annual precipitation is only I I in., the greater part of which occurs in the form of
See also:snow in the winter months, summer being the dry
See also:season . At Salt Lake City the annual precipitation is 15.8 in., of which 2 in. fall in summer . For St George the figures are: annual precipitation, 6.6 in.; summer, 1.3 in . Both Salt Lake City and St George are near the boundary between the Basin Region and the high plateaus . Well out in the basin deserts the precipitation is still less; and the same holds true for the low desert plateaus in the south-eastern part of the state, where Hite has an annual precipitation of only 2.3 in., of which 0.4 in. falls in the summer . On the other
See also:hand, the precipitation on the high plateaus probably exceeds 30 in. in places . In the inhabited parts of the state, irrigation is generally necessary for agriculture .
See also:Soil.—The alluvium of the desert basins furnishes much
See also:good soil, which produces abundant crops where irrigated .
See also:Alkali soils are also common in the basins, but when water is available they can often be washed out and made productive . Very
See also:rich floodplain soils occur along the larger streams . Vast areas of unreclaimable desert exist in the west and south-east . In the protected valleys between the high plateaus alluvial soils are cultivated; but the plateau summits are relatively inaccessible, and, being subject to summer frosts, are not cultivated . Comparatively poor, sandy soil is found on the lower desert plateaus in the south-east, where population is scanty . Forests.—The
See also:forest resources of Utah are of little value: the
See also:total wooded area was about 10,000 sq. m. in 1900, or about 121 % of the
See also:land area of the state . The only
See also:timber of commercial importance is found in the Uinta Range in the north-eastern corner of the state, and is chiefly yellow pine . The timber of the Wasatch Range is small and scattering . In 1910 there were in the state fourteen
See also:national forests varying in
See also:size from 1,250,610 acres (the Uinta reserve), 947,490 acres (the
See also:Ashley reserve), and 786,080 acres (the Manti reserve), down to the smallest Pocatello (10,720) on the Idaho border . The total area of these reserves was 7,436,327 acres . Irrigation.—Under the Federal Reclamation Fund, established in 1902, $830,000 was allotted to Utah in 1902-9, and $200,000 more in 1910, for the development of the
See also:Strawberry Valley project .
This project, which was about one-third completed in the beginning of 1910, provides for the irrigation in Strawberry Valley (Utah and Wasatch counties, S. of Provo), of 6o,00o acres, by a 6800-acrereservoir of
See also:I10,000 acre-feet capacity, on Strawberry river; by a tunnel, 19,000 ft. long, connecting the
See also:reservoir with
See also:Fork, a tributary of
See also:Spanish Fork river; by a storage
See also:dam, 5o ft. high, of 6o,00o cub. yds. contents, diverting water from Spanish Fork river into two canals, one on each side of the river, for the irrigation of land in the valley of Utah lake ; by a hydro-electric power plant about 3 m. below the diversion dam ; and by the enlargement of existing canal systems . The diversion dam, the power canal, and the first unit of the power plant were completed in 1909 . Irrigation of the arid western regions of the United States began in the Great Basin of Utah when the Mormon pioneers in 1847 diverted the waters of City Creek upon the parched soil of Salt<Lake Valley . In 1900 nearly 90 % of the land reclaimed by irrigation in the whole state
See also:lay within the Great Basin . Between 1889 and 1899 the number of irrigators in the state (exclusive of Indian reservations) increased from 9724 to 17,924, or 84.3 %, and the number of acres irrigated from 263,473 to 629,293, or 138.8 % . In 1900, of the total improved acreage (1,029,226 acres) 61.2 % (629,293 acres) was irrigated; and in 1899, of the 686,374 acres in crops, 537,588 acres, or78.3% . Agriculture.—The number of farms in Utah (not including those of less than 3 acres and of small productivity) in 188o was 9452; in 1890, 10,517 ; and in 1900, 19,007: their
See also:average size in 1880 was 69.4 acres; in 189o, 125.9 acres; and in 1900, 216.6 acres . The total number of all farms in the state in 1900 was 19,387; and the number of white farmers, 19,144 . The greatest number of farms were between Too acres and 500 acres—1916 in 1880, and 5565 in 1900 . Other holdings were as follows: between 20 acres and 50 acres, 3688 in 1880, and 5261 in 1900; between 50 acres and 100 acres, 2056 in 188o and 3741 in 1900; less than 10 acres, 434 in 188o and 1622 in 1900; 1000 acres and more, 9 in 188o and 248 in 1900 . The proportion of farms operated by owners decreased from 95.4 % (9019 farms) in 188o to 91.2 % 7,674 farms) in 1900; those operated by
See also:cash tenants increased from 0.6 % (6o farms) in 1880 to 2.6 % (506 farms) in 1900, and those operated by
See also:share tenants from 4% (373 farms) in 1880 to 6.2 % (1207 farms) in 1900 . The total area of farms increased from 655,524 acres in 1880 to 4,116,951 acres in 1900, but the proportion of improved land decreased from 63.5% (416,1'05 acres) in 188o to 25.1 % (1,032,117 acres) in 1900, indicating the great increase in land used for grazing .
The value of
See also:property, including land with improvements, implements and machinery, and live-stock was $19,333,569 in 188c and $75,1i5,141 in 1900; the average value per farm was $2045 in 188o and $3878 in 1900; and the average value, per acre of farm land was $29.49 in 1880 and $18.26 in 1900 . The value of all farm products was $3,337,410 in 1879 and $16,502,051 in 1899, and the amount expended for fertilizers increased only from $11,394 to $14,300 . In 1899
See also:hay and
See also:grain furnished the
See also:principal income from 35.4 % of all farms in the state, and live-stock from 28.1% of all farms . In 1899, 255,699 acres, or 37.3 % of the acreage of all crops, was sown to cereals, which were valued at $2,386,789, or 29 % of the value of all crops . The production of cereals (which grow chiefly in the northern counties of the state) was 130,842 bu. in 1849, 770,287 bu. in 1869, 2,395,744 bu. in 1889, and 5,381,125 bu. in 1899 . The principal cereal was wheat, the value of which was $1,575,o64 (3,413,470 bu.) in 1899, and $5,481,000 (6,090,000 bu.) in 1909.1 The value and product of oats in 1899 was $553,847 (1,436,225 bu.), and in 1909, $1,319,000 (2,536,000 bu.); of Indian corn, in 1899, $121,872 (250,020 bu.), and in 1909, $355,000 (408,000 bu.); of
See also:barley, in 1899, $I2I,826 (252,140 bu.), and in 1909, $343,000 (520,000 bu.); of
See also:rye in 1899, $13,761 (28,630 bu.), and in 1909, $46,000 (66,000 bu.) .. The value of the hay and
See also:crop in 1899 was $3,862,820, or 46.9 % of the value of all crops, and its acreage was 388,043 acres, or 56.5% of the acreage of all crops; in 1909, the acreage in hay was 375,000 acres, and its value was $9,792,000 .
See also:Alfalfa (or lucerne) formed the principal part of the hay crop in 1899, and was produced chiefly in the counties of Utah (95,316 tons), Salt Lake (91,266 tons), Cache (64,543 tons) and Boxelder (50,019 tons), all in the northern part of the state . The
See also:vegetable crop in 1899 occupied 24,042 acres, or 3.5 % of the acreage of all crops, and its value was $1,250,713, or 15.2 % of the value of all crops . The product of potatoes increased very rapidly from 519,497 bu. in 1889 to 1,483,570 bu. valued at $487,816 in 1899, and to 2,700,000 bu. valued at $1,161,000 in 1909 . The production of other vegetables in 1899 was as follows: water-melons, 620,440;
See also:musk-melons, 516,500; tomatoes, 254,052 bu.; cabbages, 997,690 heads, and sweet corn, 16,192 bu . For the important
See also:beet crop, see below under Manufactures .
On Gunnison and
See also:Hat islands in Great Salt Lake are valuable guano deposits which are used as fertilizers for vegetable gardens . The value of live-stock on farms and ranges in 1890 was $9,914,766; on farms in 1900, $21,474,241 . The number of neat
See also:cattle in 1900 was 343,690, valued at $7,152,844; on
See also:January 1, 1910,E 415,000, 1 1909
See also:statistics are from the Year
See also:Book of the U.S . Department of Agriculture . 2 These 1910 figures for live-stock are taken from the Year Book (1909) of the United States Department of Agriculture . valued at $8,976,000, of which 88,000 were milch cows valued at $2,992,000 . The number and value of other live-stock were as follows:
See also:sheep, in 1900, 3,818,423 ($10,256,488), and on January I, 1910, 3,177,000 ($13,026,000); horses, in 1900, 115,884 ($3,396,313), and in 1910, 130,000 ($11,050,000); mules, in 1900, 2116 ($58,850), and in 1910, 3000 ($240,000);
See also:swine, in 1900, 65,732 ($293,115), and in 1910, 61,000 ($549,000) . The total value of
See also:dairy products in 1899 was $1,522,932 . The principal products were: milk, in 1890, 8,614,694 gals., and in 1899, 25,124,642 gals . (received from sales, $645,550);
See also:butter, in 189o, I,759,354 lb and in 1899, 2,812,122 lb (received from sales, $214,910) ;
See also:cheese, in 189o, 163,539 lb, and in 1899, 169,215 lb (received from sales, $122,933) . The value of all poultry raised in 1899 was $262,503; the product of eggs was 3,387,340 doz., and their value, $424,628 . The product of wool in 1890 (exclusive of wool shorn after the 1st of
See also:June) was 9,685,513 lb, in 1900, 17,050,977 lb, and in 1910, 14,850,000 lb .
The value of the
See also:honey and
See also:wax produced in 1899 was $94,364 . Honey was a large crop with the early settlers, who put a hive and honey-bees on the state-seal of Deseret and of Utah . Mining.—The mineral resources of Utah are varied and valuable, but their development was retarded for many years by the policy of the Mormon
See also:Church, which practically forbade its members to do any mining; more recently the development has been slow be-cause of inadequate transportation facilities, and the inaccessibility of some of the deposits . In 1902 the state ranked fourteenth among the states in the value of its mineral products, $12,378,350, and took thirteenth
See also:rank in 1907, with a product of $38,099,756, but dropped to the fifteenth rank in 1908, when the total value of its product was $26,422,121.1 The value of products manufactured from minerals in 1902 was "•,123,228, or 43.1% of all the manufactures in the state . The relative importance of mining and manufacturing may be shown thus: In 1902 the mines and quarries of the state employed 5712 wage-earners and paid to them $5,089,122, and in 1900 manufacturing
See also:industries employed 6615 wage-earners, who received $3,388,370 in wages . Systematic prospecting for the precious metals did not begin in Utah until 1862, when Colonel Patrick E . Connor (1820-1891) of the Third California
See also:Infantry established
See also:Douglas near Salt Lake City . He permitted many members of his regiment who had been prospectors in California to prospect the territory, with the result that mines were located at Stockton, Bingham Canyon, Little Cottonwood and elsewhere; but attempts to smelt lead-
See also:silver ore near Stockton about 1866 were not successful, and the mining of precious metals did not become an established industry in the Territory until about 1870 . Ores of good quality are now known to be quite generally distributed throughout the state . In 1902 the state ranked third in the value of its gold and silver production, $8,500,904; in 1908 it ranked
See also:sixth in gold, $3,946,700 (a decrease of $1,174,900 since 1907), and
See also:fourth in silver, $4,520,600 (a decrease of $3,007,900 since 1907) . In 1908 the richest producers of gold were Salt Lake (60,872.63 oz.), Juab (58,679.17 oz.) and Tooele (41,969.96 oz.) counties, which produced about nine-tenths of the total for the state; in Salt Lake and Juab counties the principal source was copper ore, but in Tooele
See also:county almost all the gold was from siliceous ores . For the whole state, of a total of 179,054.60 OZ. in 1908, III,o86•I2 were from copper ore, 47,439.15 from siliceous ores, and 19,986.36 from lead ores .
In the same year the largest producing gold mines were the Centennial
See also:Eureka in Juab county, the Mercur in Tooele county, and the Utah Consolidated and the Utah Copper in Salt Lake county . The principal silver regions in 1908 were the Tintic, in Juab and Utah counties, and the Park City, in
See also:Summit and Wasatch counties . Of the total production, 8,451,338 oz . (valued at $4,479,209) in 1908, 2,748,289 oz . (of which more than two-thirds was from copper ores) were from Juab county; 2,463,735 OZ . (all but 9586 oz., which were from lead
See also:zinc ore, being from lead ores) were from Summit and Wasatch counties; 1,561,983 oz . (all from lead ore, except 1158 oz. from copper ore) were from Utah county; 1,125,209 oz . (704,358 from copper ore, 329,276 from lead ore, 47,130 from copper-lead ore and 44,445 from siliceous ore) were from Salt Lake county; and 378,373 oz . (of which 341,375 oz. were from lead ore) were from Tooele county . The principal source of the silver was the lead ores
See also:mined, from which in 1908 about two-thirds of the total of the silver was secured . Far larger in value than either gold or silver, and larger than both together, was the output of copper in Utah in 1907 ($12,851,377) and in 1908 ($I I,463,383) . Up to 1905 the output of silver in the state was greater than that of copper .
In the production of copper in 1908 Utah ranked fourth among the states . Most of the
See also:metal was produced in the Bingham, or West Mountain district, Salt Lake county, where there were four mines in 1908 with an output of more than i,000,000 lb; the Tintic district in Juab county; the Frisco district in Beaver county; and the Lucin district 1 The 1907 and 1908 statistics are from the Mineral Resources of the United States, published by the United States
See also:Geological Survey.in Boxelder county . In 1908 more than two-thirds of the total output was from the low-grade porphyry ores mined at New-house, Beaver county, and at Bingham, Salt Lake county . There are copper smelters at
See also:Garfield, Copperton and
See also:Binghamton . An
See also:injunction in 1908 closed the furnaces in.the immediate vicinity of Salt Lake City . The production of copper in 1883 was 341,885 lb; in 1890, 1,006,636 lb; in 1895, 2,184,708 lb; in 1900, 18,354,726 lb; in 1904, 46,417,234 lb; in 1907, 64,256,884 lb; and in 1908, 81,843,812 lb 2 Third in value (less than copper or silver) in 1908, but usually equalling silver in value, was the state's output of lead . The maxi-mum production, 125,342,836 lb, was in 1906; in 1908 the output was 88,777,498 lb (valued at $3,728,655) . The decrease in output and value is largely due to the lower price of lead in the market and the higher smelting
See also:rate . In 1908 the following mines produced more than 5,000,000 lb each of lead: Silver King at Park City, the Colorado in the Tintic district, the
See also:Daly West and the Daly
See also:Judge in the Park City district, and the Old
See also:Jordan and the Telegraph at Bingham, and there were fifteen other mines that produced between I,000,000 and 3,000,000 lb of lead . Zinc has been produced in commercial quantities in Summit, Tooele and Beaver counties . In 1906 the output was 6,474,615 lb, valued at $394,952; in 1908 it was 1,460,554 lb, valued at $68,646, and almost the entire output was from Summit county . The apparently inexhaustible supplies of iron ore in southern Utah, and especially in Iron county, had teen little worked up to 1910 on account of their inaccessibility .
The beds of
See also:magnetite and hematite, in the southern portion of the Wasatch Mountains, are the largest in the western United States; in 1902 the four productive mines in
See also:Milford, Juab and Utah counties produced 16,24o tons of ore, valued at $27,417 . There are valuable
See also:manganese deposits in the sandstone of the eastern plateau .
See also:Coal was first discovered in Utah in 1851 along Coal Creek near Cedar City (in what is now Iron county) in the south-western part of Utah, and there was some mining of coal at
See also:Wales, Sanpete county, as early as 1855, but there was no general mining until about twenty years later, and the industry was not well established until 1888 . Thereafter its development was rapid, and the
See also:discovery of outcroppings throughout the central and southern parts of the state gave evidence of the existence of great bodies of the mineral . The only important region of coal mining in the state up to 1910 was in Carson county, where more than nine-tenths of the total output of the state was mined in 1907 and in 1908 . The production in 1870 was 5800 tons; in 188o, 14,748 tons (probably an under-estimate); in 189o, 318,159 tons; in 1900, 1,147,027 tons; in 1903, 1,681,409 tons; in 1907, 1,947,607 tons (the maximum); and in 1908, 1,846,792 tons . The total production from 187o to 1908 was 20,683,974 tons, or allowing for coal lost, about 31,000,000 tons, which is estimated to represent 0.016% of the
See also:original supply . In 1909 the United States Geological Survey reported workable beds of coal aggregating 13,130 sq. m. in area, and 2000 sq. m. more in which it seemed probable that coal might be found . The shales of Utah, Sanpete, Juab and San Juan counties may furnish a valuable supply of petroleum if transportation facilities are improved; and there are rich supplies of asphalt—19,o33 tons (valued at $100,324) was the output for 1908 . Salt is obtained by solar evaporation chiefly of the waters of Great Salt Lake and other brine found in that vicinity; at Nephi City, Juab county; near Gunnison, Sanpete county; in Sevier and Millard counties, and at Withee Junction in Weber county . The value of this product in 1907 was $199,779 (345,557 bbls.), and in 1908, $169,833 (242,678 bbls.) . Of other non-metallic products, among" the most important were limestone—valued in 1902 at $186,663, and in 1908 at $253,088—and sandstone—valued in 1902 at $105,o11 and in 1908 at $25,097 .
Somemarble is quarried at Beaver in Beaver county, and Utah
See also:onyx has been used for interior decoration, notably in the city and county
See also:building of Salt Lake City . The
See also:clay products of the state in the same year were valued at $658,517 . There are considerable deposits of
See also:sulphur, of varying degrees of richness, near Black Rock in Beaver county . Many semi-precious and precious stones are found in Utah, including garnet (long sold to tourists by the
See also:variscite (or " Utahlite "),
See also:diopside and Smithsonite . In 1908 the reported value of precious stones from Utah was $20,350 . Manufactures.—The manufacturing industry was long comparatively unimportant, being largely for local markets . It is still largely dependent on local raw material . But, with the growth of the mineral industry and of the cultivation of sugar
See also:beets, there was a remarkable growth in manufacturing between 1900 and 1905: the amount of capital increased from $13,219,039 to $26,004,011, or 96.7%; the average number of wage-earners from $413 to 8052, or 48.8; and the value of factory products from $17,981,648 to $38,926,464, or 116.5% . In the period under 2 These statistics for 1904, 1907 and 1908 are from Mineral Re-
See also:sources of the United States for 1908 . discussion, urban establishments (i.e. those in the two municipalities—Salt Lake City and Ogden—having a population in 1900 of at least 8000), increased in number from 205 to 256 or 24.9%, and rural establishments decreased in number from 370 to 350 (5.4 %); the. capitalization of urban establishments increased from $4,212,972 to $7,700,750 (82.8 %), and that of the rural from $9,006,067 to $18,303,361 (103.2 %) ; the average number of wage-earners in urban establishments increased from 2832 to 3859 (36.3%), and those in rural establishments from 2581 to 4193 (62.5%); the value of the products of urban establishments increased from $5,521,140 to $10,541,040 (90.9%) and that of rural establishments from $12,460,508 to $28,385,424 (127.8%) . This unusual predominance of rural over urban manufacturing is further shown by the fact that in 1900, 64.3 % of the establishments
See also:reporting, and 69.3 % of the value of their products were from factories classified as rural, and in 1905 the proportion of rural factories was 58.8%, and the value of their products 72.9 % of the total . This predominance was largely• due to the smelting and refining industry, the smelters being chiefly in the rural districts .
See also:flour and grist
See also:mill industry was the most important in the state, with products valued at $1,659,223 in 1900, and $2,425,791 in 1905 . The values of the products of other industries in 1900 and 1905, in the
See also:order of their importance, were as follows:
See also:Car and general
See also:shop construction and repairs by steam railway companies, in 1900, $1,306,591, and in 1905, $1,886,651; printing and
See also:publishing, in 1900, $770,848, and in 1905, $1,466,549; confectionery, in 1900, $403,379, and in 1905, $1,004,601; canning and preserving fruit and vegetables in 1900, $300,349, and in 1905, $801,958 . The value of the products of industries of lesser importance in 1905 were: slaughtering and
See also:meat packing (wholesale), $653,314;
See also:malt liquors, $636,688; and foundry and machine shop products, $587,484 . The beet sugar industry is one of growing importance in Utah: there were in 1900 3 refineries, having a daily total capacity of 1100 tons of beets; in 1905, 4, with a daily total capacity of 285o tons; and in 1909,1 5, which treated 455,064 tons of beets and produced 48,884 tons of sugar . In 1853 a sugar factory bought in England was erected at Provo, but no sugar was manufactured there, and none was successfully refined until 1889 . Sugar beets were first grown by irrigation in Utah; under that system it becomes possible to estimate closely the
See also:tonnage of the product . Slicing stations established at distances of from 12 to 25 m. from a factory receive the beets, extract the juice and force it through pipes to the factory . Transportation.—The first
See also:trade route to be established by white men within the
See also:present boundaries of Utah was the old Spanish trail from
See also:Santa Fe to Los Angeles . The trail entered what is now Utah, just east of the Dolores river, crossed the Grand river near the Sierra La Salle and the Green river at the present
See also:crossing of the
See also:Denver & Rio Grande railway, proceeded thence to the Sevier river and southward along its valley to the headwaters of the Virgin river, which it followed southward, and then westward, so that its line
See also:left the present state near its south-west corner . The presence of this and other trails to California was of great importance during the gold excitement of 1849, when many miners outfitted at Salt Lake City and the
See also:grew rich in this business . The first considerable railway enterprise in the territory was the Union Pacific, which was completed to Ogden in 1869 . This system (which includes the
See also:Short line) has since been supplemented by the Denver & Rio Grande, the Southern Pacific, the San Pedro, Los Angeles & Salt Lake, and various connecting lines .
The railway mileage in 187o was 257 M . ; in 1890, 1265 m . ; and in 1909,1962.87 m . Population.—The population in 1850 was 11,380; in 1860, 40,273; in 1870, 86,786; in 188o, 143,963; in 1890, 207,905; in 1900, 276,749; and in 1910, 373,351 . Of the population in 1900, 219,661 were native whites, 53,777, or 19.4%, were
See also:born, 2623 were Indians (of whom 1472 were not taxed), 672 were negroes, 572 were
See also:Chinese and 417 were
See also:Japanese . The reservation Indians in 1909 were chiefly members of the Uinta, Uncompahgre and White River Ute tribes on the Uinta Valley reservation (179,194 acres unallotted) in the north-eastern part of the state.2 Of the 1900 native-born population 3870 were born in
See also:Illinois, 3032 in New
See also:York, 2525 in
See also:Ohio and 2519 in Pennsylvania . Of the foreign-born by far the largest number, 18,879, were natives of England, 9132 were Danes, 7025 were Swedes; and natives of Scotland, Germany, Wales and Nor-way were next in numbers . The large
See also:English immigration is to be ascribed to the successful proselytizing efforts of the Mormons in England . The same influence may be traced in the other immigration figures . There was, however, a relative Year Book of the United States Department of Agriculture . 2 The
See also:Report of the
See also:commissioner of Indian Affairs for 1909 gives the following figures for the Indian population: under the Panguitch School, Kanab
See also:Kaibab, 81, Shivwitz
See also:Paiute, 118; under the Uinta and Puray Agency, Uinta Ute, 443, Uncompahgre Ute, 469, White River Ute, 296; not under agency, Paiute 370.decrease in the number of foreign-born in the state from 1890 to 1900 . Of the total 1900 population 169,473 were of foreign parentage (i.e. either one or both parents were foreign-born), and 42,735 were of English, 18,963 of Danish and 12,047 of
See also:Swedish parentage, both on the
See also:father's and on the
See also:mother's side .
See also:Saints (Mormons) are far more numerous than any other
See also:sect, this church having a membership in 1906 of 151,525 (of these 493 were of the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints) out of a total of 172,814 in all denominations; there were 479 members of this denomination to every l000 of the population in the state, and the next largest sect, the
See also:Roman Catholics, had only 26 per l000 of population and no
See also:body more than 6 per r000 . In the same year there were 8356 Roman Catholics, 1902 members of the Northern Presbyterian Church, 1537 members of the Northern Methodist Episcopal Church, 1174 Congregationalists, and 987
See also:Baptists (of the Northern
See also:Conference) . The state in 1900 had 3.4 inhabitants to the sq. m . While this approached the average—3.5 for all the states west of the Rocky Mountains taken together, with the exception of Colorado, which had 5.2—it was noticeably higher than that of its immediate neighbours, Idaho (1.9), Arizona (1.1) and Nevada (0.4) . At the
See also:census of 188o the
See also:density of the population was 1.8 and in 1890 it was 2.6 . From 1890 to 1900 the urban population (i.e. the population of places having 4000 inhabitants or more) increased from 69,456 to 81,480, or 17.3%, the urban population in 'goo being 29.4% of the total; the semi-urban population (i.e. population of incorporated places, or the approximate
See also:equivalent, having less than 4000 inhabitants) increased from 36,867 to 83,740, 71'1% of the total increase in population; while the rural population (i.e. population outside of incorporated places) increased from 104,456 to 111,529, 10.7% of the total increase . The principal cities of the state are: the capital, Salt Lake City, pop . (1910) 92,777; Ogden, 25,580; Provo, 8925; and
See also:Logan, 7522 . Administration.—The state is governed under the first constitution adopted on the 5th of
See also:November 1895, and amended in November 1900, November 1906, and November 1908 . An amendment may be submitted to the people at the next general election by a two-thirds
See also:vote of the members elected to each house of the legislature, and only a majority of the electors voting thereon is required for approval . By a two-thirds majority the legislature may recommend that a constitutional
See also:convention be called; and if a majority of the electors at the next general election approve, the legislature shall provide for the convention, but the approval of a majority of the electors voting is necessary for ratification of the
See also:work of the convention . Article III., which guarantees religious freedom, forbids sectarian
See also:control of public
See also:schools, prohibits polygamy and defines the relation of the state to the public lands of the United States, is irrevocable except by consent of the United States .
See also:citizen of the United States, male or
See also:female, twenty-one years old or over, who has lived one year within the state, four months within the county and sixty days within the
See also:precinct has the right of
See also:suffrage, except that idiots, insane, and those convicted of treason or
See also:crime against the elective franchise are disfranchised; but in elections levying a
See also:special tax, creating indebtedness or increasing the rate of state
See also:taxation, only those who have paid a property tax during the preceding year may vote . A form of the Australian ballot with party columns is provided at public expense . As in so many of the newer Western states, the constitution specifies minutely many details which in the older
See also:instruments are left to be fixed by
See also:statute . For example, the employment of
See also:women or of
See also:children under fourteen 'in mines and the leasing of convict labour by contract are for-bidden, and eight
See also:hours must constitute a day's work in state, county or municipal undertakings . Executive.—The executive department consists of the
See also:governor, secretary of state, auditor, treasurer,
See also:attorney-general and
See also:superintendent of public instruction, all elected by the people at the time of the presidential election, and holding
See also:office for four years from the first day of January following . All these
See also:officers must be qualified electors and must have resided within the state for five years preceding their election . The auditor and treasurer may not succeed them-selves, and governor and secretary of state must be at least
See also:thirty years old . The governor may
See also:call the legislature in extra-ordinary session or may summon the
See also:Senate alone . With the consent of the Senate he appoints all officers whose election or
See also:appointment is not otherwise provided for, including the
See also:bank examiner, state chemist, dairy and
See also:food commissioners, the boards of labour and
See also:health, the
See also:directors of the state institutions, &c., and fills all vacancies in elective offices until new officers are chosen and qualified . The governor, justices of the supreme
See also:court and the attorney-general constitute a
See also:board of pardons . The governor and other state officers form other boards,
See also:Mat the legislature is given power to establish special boards of directors . The
See also:veto of the governor, which extends to
See also:separate items in appropriation bills, can be over-come only by a two-thirds vote of each house of the legislature; but if the
See also:bill is not returned to the legislature, within five days it becomes a
See also:law without the governor's approval .
The governor may not be elected to the United States Senate during his gubernatorial
See also:term . Legislative.—The legislative power is vested in (1) the legislature, consisting of the Senate and House of Representatives, and (2) in the people of Utah . The legislature meets biennially on the second
See also:Monday in January of the
See also:odd-numbered years . No
See also:person is eligible to either house who is not a citizen of the United States, twenty-five years of age, a resident of the state for three years and of the district from which he is chosen for one year . Senators are elected for four years, but one-
See also:half the membership of the Senate retires every two years . The representatives are elected for two years . No person who holds any office of profit or
See also:trust under the state or the United States is eligible to the legislature, and no member, during the term for which he was chosen, shall be appointed or elected to any office created, or the emoluments of which have been increased during his term . Each house is the judge of the election and qualification of its own members . The member-
See also:ship of each house is fixed by law every five years, but the number of senators must never exceed thirty, and the number of representatives must never be less than twice nor more than three times the number of senators . In 1909 the Senate had eighteen and the House
See also:forty-five members . The legislature is forbidden to pass any special
See also:act -where a general law can be made applicable, and is specifically forbidden to pass special acts on a number of subjects, including
See also:divorce, the rate of
See also:interest, and the incorporation of cities, towns or villages, or the amendment of their charters, &c . Neither the state nor any
See also:political subdivision may lend its
See also:credit or subscribe to the stock of any private corporation .
See also:powers of the houses are the same, except that the Senate confirms or rejects the governor's nominations and sits as an
See also:impeachment court, while the Representatives initiate impeachments . By an amendment of 190o, the legislature was instructed to provide that a fixed fraction of the voters might cause any law to be submitted to the people, or that they might require any legislative act (except one passed by a two-thirds vote of each house) to be so submitted before going into effect, but up to 1910 no law had been passed putting the amendment into force . Judiciary.—The judicial power is vested in the Senate sitting as a court of impeachment, in the Supreme Court, the district courts, in justices of the peace, and in " such inferior courts as may be established by law." The Supreme Court is composed of three justices (but the number may be increased to five whenever the legislature shall deem it expedient) each of whom must be thirty years old, learned in the law, and a resident of the state for five years preceding his election . They are elected by the people for a term of six years, but the term of one expires every two years, and that
See also:justice who shall have the shortest time to serve acts as chief justice . The court has original jurisdiction to issue writs of
See also:mandamus, certiorari,prohibition, quo warranto and habeas corpus . Otherwise its jurisdiction is exclusively appellate, and every final decision of a district court is subject to review . The court holds three terms yearly in the capital . The state is divided into seven districts, in which from one to four
See also:judges are elected for terms of four years . They must be twenty-five years old, residents of the state for three years, and of the district in which they are chosen . They have original jurisdiction of
See also:civil, criminal and
See also:probate matters, not specifically assigned to other tribunals, and appellate jurisdiction from the inferior courts . At least three terms yearly must be held in each county . In cities of the second class (5oon-3o,000 inhabitants) municipal courts may be established .
In cities of the first class (30,000 or more) a city court was established in 1901 . Special juvenile courts may be established in cities of the first and second class . Each precinct elects a justice of the peace, who has civil jurisdiction when. the
See also:debt or damage claimed does not exceed three
See also:hundred dollars, and has
See also:primary criminal jurisdiction . Local
See also:Government.—The county is the unit of local government . The chief fiscal and
See also:police authority is the Board of County Commissioners of three members, two elected every two years, one for two years and one for four . They create and alter subdivisions,
See also:levy taxes, care for the poor, construct, maintain and make regulations for roads and bridges, erect and care for public buildings,
See also:grant franchises, issue licences, supervise county officers, make and enforce proper police regulations (but the authority does not extend to incorporated towns or cities), and perform such other duties as may be authorized by law . Other county officers are the clerk (who is ex officio clerk of the district court and of the commissioners),
See also:sheriff, treasurer, auditor, recorder, surveyor, assessor, attorney and superintendent of district schools, but where the assessed valuation of any county is less than $20,000,000 the clerk is ex officio auditor, and the commissioners may consolidate offices . The precincts are laid off by the commissioners and each elects a justice of the peace and a
See also:constable . Cities are divided into classes (see above) according to population, and are governed by a mayor and a council . In cities of the first class fifteen, and of the second ten, councilmen are elected by wards, while in cities of the third class (all having less than 5000 inhabitants) five councilmen are elected on a general ticket .
See also:Laws.—Men and women may hold and dispose of property on the same terms, except that a
See also:husband cannot devise more than two-thirds of real
See also:estate away from his wife without her consent, and that a woman attains her majority at eighteen or when she marries . The property of an intestate leaving a widow or widower, but no issue, goes to the survivor if not over $5000 in value; if over that amount, one-half the excess goes to the survivor and one-half to the father and mother of the deceased or to either of them .
If neither father nor mother survives, their share goes to the
See also:brothers and sisters of the deceased or to their descendants . If there are no descendants, the whole goes to the surviving husband or wife . If a husband or wife and one
See also:child survive, they share the estate equally; if more than one child, the surviving husband or wife takes one-third and the children
See also:divide the
See also:remainder . If the intestate leaves issue but no husband or wife, the issue takes the whole . Failing all these, the estate goes to the next of
See also:kin . An illegitimate child is an
See also:heir of its mother and of the person who acknowledges himself to be its father . Estates exceeding $1o,000 pay an
See also:inheritance tax of 5 % on the excess . A
See also:homestead not exceeding $1500 for the
See also:head of the
See also:family and $500 additional for the husband or wife and $250 additional for each other member of the family is not subject to execution except for the
See also:purchase price, or mechanic's and labourer's liens, lawful
See also:mortgage or taxes . The district courts have exclusive jurisdiction in divorce, which may be granted because of impotency at time of
See also:adultery, wilful
See also:desertion for more than one year, wilful neglect to provide the necessities of
See also:life, habitual
See also:drunkenness, conviction for
See also:felony, intolerable cruelty, and permanent insanity which has existed for at least five years . An interlocutory decree is entered which becomes absolute at the end of six months, unless
See also:appeal is entered . The guilty party forfeits all rights acquired through marriage . Children over ten years of age may select the
See also:parent to whom they will attach themselves .
A marriage may be annulled on ground ofidiocy,. insanity, bigamy, loathsome disease at time of marriage, epilepsy, miscegenation (white and
See also:negro or white and Mongolian), or when a male is less than sixteen or a female less than fourteen years of age . A marriage licence is required . No female and no male under fourteen may work in a mine . Eight hours is the limit of a day's work in mines and smelters . A person sentenced to
See also:death may choose one of two methods of execution—hanging or
See also:shooting .
See also:Education.—Before 1890 some districts in the state under a local option law had established
See also:free schools, but the general free school system was founded in 1890 by a law which consolidated all the districts in each city into one large school district and classified Salt Lake City as a city of the first class, and Ogden, Logan and Provo as cities of the second class for school purposes; in 1908-9 six county school districts of the first class were formed . In 1892–1893 text-books and supplies were first furnished free to pupils in the grades; and in the same year supervisory work was introduced . At the head of the public school system is a state superintendent of public instruction, elected for four years, and a board of education, composed of the state superintendent, the
See also:president of" the state university, the president of the Agricultural
See also:College, and two appointees of the governor serving for four years . There is a county superintendent whose term is two years . And in each district there is a board of three trustees, one retiring each year . Two or more contiguous districts may unite to form a high school district . School attendance is compulsory for twenty
See also:weeks each year in rural districts and for thirty weeks each year in cities of the first and second class for all children between eight and sixteen years .
In 1900 the percentage of illiterates at least ten years old was 3.1 . In 1909 there were 685 public schools in the state; the total number of pupils of school age (ssix to eighteen years) was 102,050, the number enrolled in the public schools was 84,804, and the average daily attendance was 66,794;; the total number of teachers was 2255 (1645 women), and the average monthly
See also:salary of men teachers was $88•i3. and of women $57'44; and the total
See also:expenditure for public education was $2,762,581 for the year, being more than twice as much as was expended by the state ten years before . The laws of the state provide for a commission, in cities and counties, for the retirement of public school teachers on a pension . The university of Utah at Salt Lake City was opened in 1850 as the state university of the " state of Deseret." The State Agricultural College and Experiment Station (1888) is at Logan . At Cedar City, in Iron county, is a branch normal school, connected with the state university . There is a state school for the
See also:deaf and the
See also:blind (1884) at Ogden . The
See also:Art Institute at Salt Lake City has an annual art exhibit, a state art collection, and a course of public lectures on art . There is a state commission which promotes the
See also:establishment of free
See also:libraries and nasiums . The Mormons control Brigham
See also:Young University 1876) at Provo, Brigham Young College (1878) at Logan, the Latter-day Saints University (1887) at Salt Lake City, and
See also:academies at Ogden,
See also:Castle Dale, Beaver and Vernal . Other denominational schools are : St Mary's Academy (1875; Roman Catholic) in Salt Lake City; All Hallows College (1886; Roman Catholic) in Salt Lake City;
See also:Westminster College (1897; Presbyterian) in Salt Lake City, and Presbyterian academies at Logan, Springville and Mt . Pleasant;
See also:Hall Academy (1880; Protestant Episcopal) for girls at Salt Lake City; and
See also:Gordon Academy (1870; Congregational) at Salt Lake City . Charitable and Penal Institutions.—The state supports a
See also:Mental Hospital (1884, with
See also:provision for feeble-minded and non-insane epileptics since 1907) at Provo, a state
See also:Industrial School (1889) at Ogden and a state prison (1850) at Salt Lake City .
Under a law of 1905, amended in 1907 and 1909, provision is made for separate juvenile courts in all districts in which there are cities of the first (Salt Lake City) or the second class (Ogden, Logan and Provo) with jurisdiction over children. under eighteen years of age; and similar jurisdiction is given to district courts elsewhere . In connexion with the juvenile court detention homes have been established, and in certain conditions justices of the peace are empowered to act as judges of the juvenile court in their respective precincts . There are many denominational charities, especially Mormon, the entire state being divided into ecclesiasticalunits or " stakes " for charity organization .
See also:Finance.—The principal source of public revenue is the property tax . An amendment of 1908 provides for the taxation of mines and mining property . The state assumed the Territorial debt of $700,000, and has added to it a bonded indebtedness of $200,000; the bonds, formerly 5%, have been refunded at 32 and 3 % . There were only private
See also:banks until 1872, when Brigham Young organized a national bank . The first savings bank was organized in 1873, and state banks now outnumber national banks . The banking business for many years was largely in the hands of high Mormon officials, and the
See also:loyalty of church members built up a remarkable
See also:financial confidence, so that no Utah banks failed even in the panic of 1893 .
See also:History.—Existing documents seem to indicate that Francisco Vasquez de Coronado, the Spanish explorer, sent out an expedition of twelve men under Captain Garcia
See also:Lopez de Cardenas in IJ40, which succeeded in reaching the Colorado river at a point now within the state of Utah . But more extended exploration was conducted by two Franciscan friars, Francisco Atanasio Dominguez and
See also:Silvestre Velez de Escalante, who, on the 29th of
See also:July 1776, left Santa Fe with seven others to discover a
See also:direct route to
See also:Monterey on the
See also:coast of Alta California . This party came in sight of Utah lake on the 23rd of
See also:August .
Almost half acentury later, in the winter of 1824-25,
See also:James Bridger, a trapper, discovered the Great Salt Lake while seeking the source of the Bear river . Manytrappers in their skin boats followed his lead, notably
See also:William H . Ashley, of the Rocky Mountain Fur
See also:Company, who, in 1825, at the head of about 120 men and a
See also:train of horses, left St
See also:Louis and established the fort named for him at Lake Utah . In 1843 General
See also:John C . Fremont with
See also:Kit Carson and three others explored the Great Salt Lake in a
See also:boat . With Brigham Young and his little
See also:band of Mormon followers (between 140 and 15o members), who entered the Great Salt Lake Valley in July 1847, begins the
See also:story of settlement and
See also:civilization (see MORMONS) . Before the end of 1848 about 5000 Mormons had settled in the Salt Lake Valley . The treaty of Guadalupe
See also:Hidalgo (Feb . 2, 1848) ceded to the United States the vast western territory which included Utah . Early in 1849 the Mormon community was organized as the state of Deseret 1 with Brigham Young as governor . Deseret then comprised not only the present state of Utah, but all Arizona and Nevada, together with parts of New Mexico, Colorado, Wyoming and California . Application was made to Congress to admit it as a state or Territory, and on the 9th of September 185o the Territory of Utah, then comprising the present state and portions of Nevada, Colorado and Wyoming, was established under an Act, which provided that it should be admitted as a state, with or without
See also:slavery, as the constitution adopted at the time of
See also:admission prescribed .
(SeeCOMPROMISE of 1850.) The Republican party and (less violently) the Democratic in their national platforms and in Congress attacked and opposed the Mormon institution of polygamy . Statehood, therefore, was not granted until the 4th of January 1896, owing to the apparent hostility of the Mormon authorities to non-Mormon settlers and to repeated clashes between the Mormon Church and the United States government regarding extent of control, polygamous practices, &c . And even after the admission of the state these questions arose in the
See also:matter of seating prominent Mormons who were elected to Congress . For a detailed account of these difficulties and of the growth of the " Gentile " or non-Mormon
See also:element see the article MORMONS . Through irrigation experiments agriculture became the industrial foundation of the desert community . The waters of City Creek were at first diverted and a canal was built; and the results were encouraging, though in the summer of 1848 crops were destroyed by a swarm of black crickets; but in turn this pest was devoured by sea-gulls, and the phrase " gulls and crickets " has become one of
See also:peculiar historic significance in Utah . After 1849 the gold-fever
See also:horde bound for California furnished a source of revenue to the Mormons, as their settlement afforded an admirable
See also:post for supplies . The division of land among the Mormons was singularly equitable . Each city block consisted of lo acres divided into eight r4-acre lots, which were assigned to professional and business men . Then a tier of 5-acre lots was apportioned to
See also:mechanics, and io- and 20-acre parcels of land were given to farmers, according to the size of their families . As Great Salt Lake City grew all landholders benefited, either by the location of their property or because of its size, the smaller lots being closer to the business centre and the larger tracts being in the outlying districts . In 1847 Brigham Young had succeeded
See also:Smith as president of the Mormons, and he held that position of veritable dictator until his death (1877); John
See also:Taylor succeeded him, and Wilford Woodruff in 1890 was chosen head of the organization; then Lorenzo Snow was president in 1898-19o1, and Joseph
See also:Fielding Smith was elected in 19o1 .
From time to time the Indians have risen against the Mormons . Between 1857 and 1862 outbreaks were frequent, and on the 29th of January 1863 occurred the
See also:battle of Bear river, where some 300 Shoshones and Bannocks and about 200 of Colonel P . E . Connor's command participated in a bloody engagement . In
See also:April 1865 an Indian war broke out under the leadership of Blackhawk, which lasted intermittently until the end of 1867 . But in June 1865
See also:treaties were concluded with the majority 'According to the Book of Mormon, " Deseret " means "land of the working bee." of Utah tribes, whereby they agreed to remove to Uinta Valley, where a reservation had been made for them . One other important reservation, the Uncompahgre, has also been opened for the Indians of the state . The state has chosen Republican
See also:governors and, except in 1896, when it gave its electoral vote to W . J .
See also:Bryan, the Democratic
See also:candidate for the
See also:presidency, has voted for the Republican nominees in presidential elections . GOVERNORS State of Deseret Brigham Young . . Territorial Brigham Young
See also:Cumming John W .
See also:Fuller (Acting Governor)
See also:Stephen S . Harding James Duane Doty
See also:Charles Durkee . . Edwin
See also:Higgins (Acting Governor) S . A .
See also:Mann (Acting Governor) . J .
See also:Wilson Schaffer . Vernon H .
See also:Vaughan (Acting Governor) George L . Woods . S . B .
Axtell George B .
See also:Emery Eli H .
See also:Caleb W . West Arthur L .
See also:Thomas Caleb W .
There are no comments yet for this article.
Do not copy, download, transfer, or otherwise replicate the site content in whole or in part.
Links to articles and home page are encouraged.