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Originally appearing in Volume V23, Page 237 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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UXOR ET LIBERI enjoyed also by the exercises of Aelius Theon (of uncertain date; see THEON). (See further the editions of the Rhetores Graeci by L. Spengel and by Ch. Wa1z.) During the first four centuries of the empire the practice of the art was in greater vogue than ever before or since. First, Praaice there was a general dearth of the higher intellectual of Rhet- interests: politics gave no scope to energy; philosophy oric was stagnant, and literature, as a rule, either arid or wider the frivolous. Then the Greek schools had poured their Empire. rhetoricians into Rome, where the same tastes which revelled in coarse luxury welcomed tawdry declamation. The law-courts of the Roman provinces further created a continual demand for forensic speaking. The public teacher The "So- of rhetoric was called " sophist," which was now an phists." academic title, similar to " professor " or " doctor." In the 4th century B.C. Isocrates had taken pride in the name of tro$toTT1]s, which, indeed, had at no time wholly lost the good, or neutral, sense which originally belonged to it. The academic meaning which it acquired under the early empire lasted into the middle ages (see Du Cange, s.v., who quotes from Baldricus, " Egregius Doctor magnusque Sophista Geraldus "). While the word rhetor still denoted the faculty, the word sophistes denoted the office or rank to which the rhetor might hope to rise. So Lucian (" Teacher of Rhetoricians," § I) says: " You ask, young man, how you are to become a rhetor, and attain in your turn to the repute of that most impressive and illustrious title, sophist." Lucian also satirizes the discussions of the nature of rhetoric in his parody the Parasite (cf. also his Bis Accusatus). Vespasian (70–79 A.D.), according to Suetonius, was the first emperor who gave a public endowment to the teaching of rhetoric. Under Hadrian and the Antonines (A.D. II7–18o) Chairs of the public chairs of rhetoric became objects of the Rhetoric highest ambition. The complete constitution of the schools at Athens was due to Marcus Aurelius. The Philosophical school had four chairs (Opovot)—Platonic, Stoic, Peripatetic, Epicurean. The Rhetorical school had two chairs, one for " sophistic," the other for " political " rhetoric. By " sophistic " was meant the academic teaching of rhetoric as an art, in distinction from its " political " application to the law-courts. The " sophistical " chair was superior to the " political " in dignity as in emolument, and its occupant was invested with a jurisdiction over the youth of Athens similar to that of the vice-chancellor in a modern university. The Antonines further encouraged rhetoric by granting immunities to its teachers. Three sophists " in each of the smaller towns, and five in the larger, were exempted from 'taxation (Dig. xxvii. 1, 6, .§ 2). The wealthier sophists affected much personal splendour. Polemon (c. A.D. 130) and Adrian of Tyre. (c. A.D. 170) are famous examples of extravagant display. The aim of the sophist was to impress the multitude. His whole stockin-trade was style, and this was directed to astonishing by tours Dec/de force. The scholastic declamations were chiefly of bons. two classes. (I) The suasoriae were usually on historical or legendary subjects, in which some .course of action was commended or censured (cf. Juv. Sat.). These suasoriae belonged to deliberative rhetoric (the i3ovXeurzKOv yfpor, deliberativum genus). (2) The controversiae turned especially on legal issues, and represented the forensic rhetoric (btKaptsbe yivos, judiciale genus). But it was the general characteristic of this period that all subjects, though formally " deliberative " or " forensic," were treated in the style and spirit of that third branch which Aristotle distinguished, the rhetoric of iri&et.ts or " display." The oratory produced by the age of the academic sophists can be estimated from a large extant literature. It is shown under various aspects, and presumably at its best, by such writers as Dio Chrysostom at the end of the 1st century, Aelius Aristides (see ARISTIDES, AELIUS) in the and, the chief rhetorician under the Antonines, Themistius, Himerius and Libanius in the 4th. Amid much which is Rhetoric at the Universities. " The only advantage of celibacy and childlessness is in case of exile." This is quite in the spirit of Aristotle's treatise. The popularity enjoyed by Blair's Rhetoric in the latter part of the 18th and the earlier part of the 19th century was merited rather by the form than by the matter. Campbell's Philosophy of Rhetoric, which found less wide acceptance than its predecessor, was superior to it in depth, though often marred by an imperfect comprehension of logic. But undoubtedly the best modern book on the subject is Whately's Elements of Rhetoric. whatefy. Starting from Aristotle's view, that rhetoric is " an offshoot from logic," Whately treats it as the art of " argumentative composition." He considers it under four heads: (I) the address to the understanding =Aristotle's XoytKi7 aivrzs); (2) the address to the will, or persuasion (=Aristotle's i00c) and For. " Attachment to the state begins from the family." " Wife and children are a discipline in humanity. Bachelors are morose and austere." Against. " He who marries, and has children, has given hostages to fortune." " The immortality of brutes is in their progeny; of men, in their fame, services; and institutions." " Regard for the family too often overrides regard for the state." ratp-ucii ri?Tls); (3) style; (4) elocution, or delivery. But when it is thus urged that " All a rhetorician's rules But teach him how to name his tools," the assumption is tacitly made that an accurate nomenclature and classification of these tools must be devoid of practical use. The conditions of modern life, and especially the invention of printing, have to some extent diminished the importance which belonged in antiquity to the art of speaking, though modern democratic politics and forensic conditions still make it one which may be cultivated with advantage. Among more modern works are J. Bascom, Philosophy of Rhetoric (New York, 1885) ; and numerous books on voice culture, gesture and elocution. For ancient rhetoric see Sir R. C. Jebb's translation of Aristotle's Rhetoric (ed. J. E. Sandys, 1909), and his Attic Orators (1876); also Spengel, Artium Scriptores (1828); Westermann, Gesch. der Beredtsamkeit (1833–35;) Cope, in the Cambridge Journal of Classical and Sacred Philology (1855–5) ; introductions to Cicero's De Oratore (A. S. Wilkins) and Orator (J. E. Sandys); Volkmann, Die Rhetorik der Griechen and Romer in system. Ubersicht (ed. 2, 1885). (R. C. J.; X.)
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