See also:Spanish musical composer, was
See also:born at Avila (unless, as Haberl conjectures, his title of Presbyter Abulensis refers not to his birthplace but to his
See also:parish as
See also:priest, so that his name would indicate that he was born at
See also:Vittoria) . In 1573 he was appointed as
See also:Maestro di Cappella to the Collegium Germanicunt at Rome, where he had probably been trained .
See also:left Rome in 1589, being then appointed
See also:master of the Royal
See also:Chapel at
See also:Madrid, a
See also:post which he held until 1602 . In 1603 he composed for the funeral of the empress Maria the greatest
See also:requiem of the
See also:Golden Age, which is his last known
See also:work, though in 1613 a contemporary speaks of him as still living . He was not ostensibly Palestrina's
See also:pupil; but Palestrina had the
See also:main influence upon his
See also:art, and the
See also:personal relations between the two were as intimate as were the
See also:artistic . The work begun by Morales and perfected by Palestrina left no stumbling-blocks in Victoria's path and he was able from the outset to
See also:express the purity of his ideals of religious
See also:music without having to sift the
See also:good from the
See also:bad in that Flemish tradition which had entangled Palestrina's path while it enlarged his
See also:style . From Victoria's first publication in 1572 to his last requiem (the Officium Defunctorum of 1605) there is practically no
See also:change of style, all being pure
See also:church music of unswerving loftiness and showing no inequality except in concentration of thought . Like his countryman and predecessor Morales, he wrote no secular music;' yet he differs from Morales, perhaps more than can be accounted for by his later date, in that his devotional spirit is impulsive rather than ascetic . His work ' One French
See also:song is mentioned by
See also:Hawkins, but no secular music appears in the prospectus of the
See also:complete edition of his
See also:works published by Breitkopf and Hartelis the
See also:crown of Spanish music: music which has been regarded as not constituting a
See also:special school, since it absorbed itself so thoroughly in the Rome of Palestrina . Yet, as has been aptly pointed out in the admirable article " Vittoria " in
See also:Dictionary of Music and Musicians,
See also:Roman music owes so much to that Spanish school which produced
See also:Guerrero, Morales and Victoria, that it might fairly be called the Hispano-Roman school . In spite of the
See also:comparative smallness of Victoria's output as compared with that of many of his contemporaries, there is no mistaking his claim to
See also:rank with Palestrina and Orlando di
See also:Lasso in the triad of supreme 16th-century masters . In any extensive
See also:anthology of liturgical polyphony such as the Musica Divina of Proske, his work stands out as impressively as Palestrina's and Lasso's; and the style, in spite of a resemblance to Palestrina which amounts to imitation, is as individual as only a successful imitator of Palestrina can be .
That is to say, Victoria's individuality is strong enough to assert itself by the very
See also:act of following Palestrina's path . When he is below his best his style does not become crabbed or harsh, but over-facile and thin, though never failing in euphony . If he seldom displays an elaborate technique it is not because he conceals it, or lacks it . His mastery is unfailing, but his methods are those of
See also:direct emotional effect; and the intellectual qualities that strengthen and deepen this emotion are themselves innate and not sought out . The emotion is reasonable and lofty, not because he has trained himself to think correctly, but because he does not know that any one can think otherwise . His works fill eight volumes in the complete edition of Messrs Breitkopf and Hartel . ( D . F .
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