VICTOR III . (Dauferius Epifani),
See also:pope from the 24th of May io86 to the 16th of
See also:September 1087, was the successor of
See also:Gregory VII . He was a son of Landolfo V.,
See also:prince of
See also:Benevento, and was
See also:born in 1027 . After studying in various monasteries he became
See also:provost of St Benedict at
See also:Capua, and in 1055 obtained permission from Victor II. to enter the cloister at
See also:Monte Cassino, changing his name to
See also:Desiderius . He succeeded
See also:Stephen IX. as
See also:abbot in 1057, and his
See also:rule marks the
See also:golden age of that celebrated monastery; he promoted
See also:literary activity, and established an important school of
See also:mosaic . Desiderius was created
See also:priest of Sta
See also:Cecilia by
See also:Nicholas II. in 1059, and as papal
See also:vicar in south Italy conducted frequent negotiations between the
See also:Normans and the pope . Among the four men suggested by Gregory VII. on his
See also:bed as most worthy to succeed him was Desiderius, who was favoured by the cardinals because of his
See also:great learning, his connexion with the Normans and his
See also:diplomatic ability . The abbot, however, declined the papal
See also:crown, and the
See also:year 1o85 passed without an election . The cardinals at length proclaimed him pope against his will on the 24th of May Io86, but he was driven from Rome by imperialists before his consecration was
See also:complete, and, laying aside the papal insignia at Terracina, he retired to his beloved monastery . As vicar of the
See also:Holy See he convened a synod at Capua on the 7th of
See also:March Io87, resumed the papal insigniaon the 21st of March, and received tardy consecration at Rome on the 9th of May . Owing to the presence of the antipope,
See also:Clement III . (
See also:Guibert of Ravenna), who had powerful partisans, his stay at Rome was brief .
He sent anarmy to
See also:Tunis, which defeated the
See also:Saracens and compelled the sultan to pay tribute to the papal see . In
See also:August ro87 he held a synod at Benevento, which renewed the excommunication of Guibert; banned Archbishop Hugo of
See also:Lyons and Abbot
See also:Richard of
See also:Marseilles as schismatics; and confirmed the prohibition of
See also:investiture . Falling
See also:ill at the synod, Vicar returned to Monte Cassino, where he died on the 16th of September ro87 . He was buried at the monastery and is accounted a
See also:saint by the
See also:order . His successor was Urban II . Victor III., while abbot of Monte Cassino contributed personally to the literary activity of the monastery . He wrote Dialogi de miraculis S . Benedicli, which, along with his Epistolae, are in J . P .
See also:Migne, Patrol .
See also:Lat. vol . 149, and an account of the miracles of
See also:Leo IX .
(in Acta Sanctorum, 19th of
See also:April) . The chief
See also:sources for his
See also:life are the " Chronica monasterii Casinensis," in the Mon . Germ. hist . Script. vii., and the Vitae in J . P . Migne, Patrol . Lat. vol . 149, and in J . M . Watterich, Pontif .
See also:Roman . Vitae .
See J .
See also:Langen, Geschichte deriromischen Kirche von Gregor VII. bis Innocenz III . (
See also:Bonn, 1893) ; F .
See also:Gregorovius, Rome in the
See also:Middle Ages, vol . 4, trans. by Mrs G . W .
See also:Hamilton (
See also:London, 1900—2) ; K . J. von
See also:Hefele, Conciliengeschichte (2nd ed., 1873—90), vol . Hirsch, " Desiderius von Monte Cassino als Papst Victor III.," in Forschungen zur deutschen Geschichte, vol . 7 (
See also:Gottingen, 1867) ; H . H .
See also:History of Latin
See also:Christianity, vol .
3 (repub . London, 1899) .
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