VIENNE , thechief
See also:town of an arrondissement of the department of the Isere, France . Historically the first, it is by population (24,619 in 1901) the second city of the department of the Isere, after
See also:Grenoble; and the third, after
See also:Valence, of the
See also:Dauphine . It is situated on the
See also:bank of the Rhone just below the junction of the Gere with the Rhone, and about zo m. by
See also:rail S. of
See also:Lyons . On the N., E. and S. the town is sheltered by low hills, the Rhone flowing along its western side . Its site is an immense mass of
See also:ancient debris, which is constantly yielding interesting antiquities . On the bank of the Gere are traces of the ramparts of the old
See also:Roman city, and on the Mont Pipet (E. of the town) are the remains of an amphitheatre, while the ruined
See also:castle there was built in the 13th century on Roman substructures . Several of the ancient aqueducts (one only is now actually in use) are still to be seen, while in the neighbourhood of the city some bits of the old Roman roads may still be found . The streets of the town are narrow and tortuous, but it possesses two Roman monuments of the first class . One is the
See also:temple of
See also:Augusta and Livia, a rectangular
See also:building of the Corinthian
See also:order, erected by the emperor
See also:Claudius, and inferior only to the Maison Carree at Nimes . From tine 5th century to 1793 it was a
See also:church (Notre
See also:Dame de
See also:Vie), and the " festival of reason " was celebrated in it at the
See also:time of the Revolution . The other, in the more
See also:part of the town, is the Plan de l'
See also:Aiguille, a truncated quadrangular
See also:pyramid about 52 ft. in height and resting on a portico with four
See also:arches . Many theories have been advanced as to what this singular structure really was (some imagine that it was the
See also:tomb of Pontius Pilatus, who, according to the:
See also:legend, died at Vienne), but it is now generally believed to have been part of the spina of a large
See also:circus, the outlines of which have been traced .
The church of St
See also:Peter belonged to an ancient
See also:Benedictine abbey and was rebuilt in the 9th century . It is in the earliest Romanesque
See also:style, and forms a
See also:basilica, with tall square piers, reminding one of Lucca, while the two ranges of windows in the aisles, with their coupled marble columns, recall Ravenna from within and the Basse CEuvre of
See also:Beauvais from without . The
See also:porch is in the earliest Romanesque style . This church has of
See also:late years been completely restored, and since 1895 shelters the magnificent Musee Lapidaire (formerly housed in the temple of Augusta and Livia) . The former
See also:cathedral church (primatial as well as metropolitan) of St
See also:Maurice contains some of the best forms of the true N .
See also:Gothic, and was constructed at various periods between 1052 and 1533 . It is a basilica, with three aisles, but no apse or transepts . It is 315 ft. in length, 118 ft. wide and 89 in height . The most striking portion is the W. front (1533), which rises majestically from a terrace overhanging the Rhone . But the statuary was much injured by the Protestants in 1562 . The church of St
See also:Andre le Bas was the church of a second Benedictine monastery, and later the
See also:chapel of the earlier
See also:kings of
See also:Provence . It was rebuilt in 1152, in the later Romanesque style .
The town library and
See also:art museum are now in the corn
See also:hall, which has beenreconstructed for that purpose . A suspension
See also:bridge leads from the city to the right bank of the Rhone, where the
See also:industrial quarter of Ste Colombe now occupies part of the ancient city . Here is a tower, built in 1349 by
See also:Philip of Valois to defend the French bank of the Rhone, as distinguished from the left bank, which, as part of the
See also:kingdom of Provence, was dependent on the
See also:Holy Roman
See also:Empire . This state of things is also recalled by the name of the
See also:village, St Romain en Gal, to the N.W. of Ste Colombe . The Gere supplies the
See also:motive power to numerous factories . The most important are those which produce
See also:cloth (about 3o factories, turning out daily about 15,000 yds. of cloth) . There are numerous other industrial establishments (paper mills, iron foundries,
See also:works, refining furnaces, &c.) . Vienne was originally the capital of the Allobroges, and became a Roman colony about 47 B.C. under Caesar, who embellished and fortified it . A little later these colonists were expelled by the Allobroges; the exiles then founded the colony of Lyons (Lugdunum) . It was not till the days of
See also:Augustus and Tiberius that Vienne regained all its former privileges as a Roman colony . Later it became the capital of the Provincia Viennersis . In 257 Postumus was proclaimed emperor here, and for a few years from that
See also:day onwards Vienne was the capital of a
See also:short-lived provincial empire .
It is said to have been converted to
See also:Christianity by Crescens, the
See also:disciple of St Paul . Certainly there were Christians here in 177, as in the Greek
See also:letter (preserved to us by
See also:Eusebius) addressed at that date by the churches of Vienne and Lyons to those of
See also:Asia and
See also:Phrygia mention is made of " the " deacon of Vienne . The first
See also:bishop certainly known is Verus, who was
See also:present at the Council of Arles in 314 . About 450 Vienne became an archbishopric and continued one till 1790, when the see was suppressed . The archbishops disputed with those of Lyons the title of " Primate of All the Gauls." Vienne was conquered by the Burgundians in 438, and in 534 was taken by the Franks . Sacked in 558' by the
See also:Lombards and in 737 by the
See also:Saracens, the
See also:government of the
See also:district was given by
See also:Charles the Bald in 869 to a certain Count Boso, who in 879 was
See also:king of Provence, and was buried on his
See also:death in 887 in the cathedral church of St Maurice . Vienne then continued to
See also:form part of the kingdom of Provence or Arles till in 1032 it reverted to the Holy Roman Empire . The sovereigns of that kingdom, as well as the emperors in the 12th century (in particular
See also:Barbarossa in 1153), recognized the rights of the archbishops as the rulers (in the name of the emperor) of Vienne . But the growing power of the
See also:counts of Albon, later Dauphins of the neighbouring
See also:county of the Viennois, was the cause of many disputes between them and the arch-bishops . In 1349 the reigning Dauphin sold his Dauphine to France, but the town of Vienne was not included in this sale, and the archbishops did not give up their rights over it to France till 1449, when it first became French . In 7311—12 the fifteenth General Council was held at Vienne, when
See also:Clement V. abolished the order of the Knights Templar . Vienne was sacked in 1562 by the Protestants under the baron
See also:des Adrets, and was held for the Ligue 1590-95, when it was taken in the name of
See also:Henri IV. by Montmorency .
The fortifications were demolished between 1589 and 1636 . In 1790 the archbishopric was abolished, the title " Primate of All the Gauls " being attributed to the archbishops of Lyons . Among famous natives of Vienne may be mentioned StJulian (3rd century) and
See also:Nicholas Chorier (1612—1692), the historian of the Dauphine, while Gui de Bourgogne, who was archbishop 1090-1119, became
See also:pope in 1119 as Calixtus II . (d . 1124) . See A . Allmer et A. de Terrebasse, Inscriptions antiques et du moyen age de Vienne en Dauphine (6 vols., Vienne, 1875—76); Cl . Charvet, Pastes de la ville de Vienne (Vienne, 1869) ; U . Chevalier, Collection des Cartulaires Dauphinoss, in vol. i . (Vienne, 1869), is that of St Andre le Bas, and in vol. ii . (1891) a description of that of St Maurice; N . Chorier, Recherches sur
See also:les antiquates de la
See also:vine de Vienne (Vienne, 1658) ; E .
A .Freeman, Article in the Saturday Review for Feb . 6, 1875; F .
See also:Raymond, Le
See also:Guide Viennois (
See also:Troyes, 1897) . (W . A . B .
CONGRESS OF VIENNA (1814-1815)
COUNCIL OF VIENNE
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