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VIGAN

Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V28, Page 59 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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VIGAN, a town and the capital of the province of Ilocos Sur, Luzon, Philippine Islands, at the mouth of the Abra river, about 200 M. N. by W. of Manila. Pop. of the municipality (1903) 14,945; after the census of 1903 was taken there were united to Vigan the municipalities of Bantay (pop. 7020), San Vicente (pop. 5o6o), Santa Catalina (pop. 5625) and Coayan (pop. 62o1), making the total population of the municipality 38,851. Vigan is the residence of the bishop of Nueva Segovia and has a fine cathedral, a substantial court-house, other durable public buildings and a monument to Juan de Salcedo, its founder. It is engaged in farming, fishing, the manufacture of brick, tile, cotton fabrics and furniture, and the building of boats. The language is Ilocano. VIGEE-LEBRUN, MARIE-ANNE ELISABETH (1755-1842), French painter, was born in Paris, the daughter of a painter, from whom she received her first instruction, though shebenefited more by the advice of Doyen, Greuze, Joseph Vernet and other masters of the period. When only about twenty years of age she had already risen to fame with her portraits of Count Orloff and the duchess of Orleans, her personal charm making her at the same time a favourite in society. In 1776 she married the painter and art-critic J. B. P. Lebrun, and in 1783 her picture of " Peace bringing back Abundance " (now at the Louvre) gained her the membership of the Academy. When the Revolution broke out in 1789 she escaped first to Italy, where she worked at Rome and Naples. At Rome she painted the portraits of Princesses Adelaide and Victoria, and at Naples the " Lady ,Hamilton as a Bacchante " now in the collection of Mr Tankerville Chamberlayne; and then journeyed to Vienna, Berlin and St Petersburg. She returned to Paris in 1781, but went in the following year to London, where she painted the portraits of Lord Byron and the prince of Wales, and in 18o8 to Switzerland. Her numerous journeys, and the vogue she enjoyed wherever she went, account for the numerous portraits from her brush that are to be found in the great collections of many countries. Having returned to France from Switzerland, she lived first at her country house near Marly and then in Paris, where she died at the age of eighty-seven, in 1842, having been widowed for twenty-nine years. She published her own memoirs under the. title .of Souvenirs (Paris, 1835-37). Among her many sitters was Marie Antoinette, of whom she painted over twenty portraits between 1779 and 1789. A portrait of the artist is in the hall of the painters at the Uffizi, and another at the National Gallery. The Louvre owns two portraits of Mme Lebrun and her daughter, besides five other, portraits and an allegorical composition. A full account of her eventful life is given in the artist's Souvenirs, and in C. Pillet's Mme Vigee-Le Brun (Paris, 1890). The artist's autobiography has been translated by Lionel Strachey, Memoirs of Mme Vigee-Lebrun (New York, 1903), fully illustrated.
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