See also:born at Toulouse on the 14th of
See also:April 1773 and educated for the
See also:navy . He joined the " Bayonnaise " at
See also:Brest in
See also:July 1788 and served in the West and East Indies . Arrested in the Isle of Bourbon under the Terror, he was set
See also:free by the revolution of Thermidor (July 1794) . He acquired some
See also:property in the
See also:island, and married in 1799 the daughter of a
See also:great proprietor, M . Desbassyns de Richemont, whose estates he had managed . His apprenticeship to politics was served in the Colonial
See also:Assembly of Bourbon, where he fought successfully to preserve the colony from the consequences of perpetual interference from the authorities in
See also:Paris, and on the other
See also:hand to prevent
See also:local discontent from appealing to the
See also:English for
See also:protection . The arrival of General Decaen, sent out by
See also:Bonaparte in 1802, restored security to the island, and,five years later Villele, who had now realized a large
See also:fortune, returned to France . He was mayor of his commune, and a member of the council of the Haute-
See also:Garonne under the
See also:Empire . At the restoration of 1814 he at once declared for royalist principles . He was mayor of Toulouse in 1814–15 and
See also:deputy for the Haute-Garonne in the " Chambre Introuvable " of 1815 . Villele, who before the promulgation of the
See also:charter had written some Observations sur le projet de constitution opposing it, as too democratic in character, naturally took his place, on the extreme right with the ultra-royalists . In the new Chamber of 1816 Villele found his party in a minority, but his
See also:personal authority nevertheless increased .
He was looked on by the ministerialists as the least unreasonable of his party, and by the " ultras " as the safest of their leaders . Under the electoral
See also:law of 1817 the
See also:Gregoire, who was popularly supposed to have voted for the
See also:death of
See also:Louis XVI. in the
See also:Convention, was admitted to the Chamber of Deputies . The Conservative party gained strength from the alarm raised by this incident and still more from the
See also:shock caused by the assassination of the duc de Berri . The duc de
See also:Richelieu was compelled to admit to the
See also:cabinet two of the chiefs of the
See also:Left, Villele and Corbiere . Villele resigned within a
See also:year, but on the fall of Richelieu at the end of 1821 he became the real chief of the new cabinet, in which he was
See also:minister of
See also:finance . Although not himself a courtier, he was backed at
See also:court by Sosthenes de la Rochefoucauld and Madame du Cayla, and in 1822 Louis XVIII. gave him the title of count and made him formally
See also:prime minister . He immediately proceeded to muzzle opposition by stringent
See also:laws, and the
See also:discovery of minor liberal conspiracies afforded an excuse for further repression . Forced against his will into interference in Spain by Mathieu de Montmorency and Chateaubriand, he contrived to reap some
See also:credit for the
See also:monarchy from the successful
See also:campaign of 1823 . Meanwhile he had consolidated the royal power by persuading Louis XVIII. to swamp the liberal majority in the upper
See also:house by the nomination of twenty-seven new peers; he availed himself of the temporary popularity of the monarchy after the
See also:Spanish campaign to summon a new Chamber of Deputies . This new and obedient legislature, to which only nineteen liberals were returned, made itself into a septennial parliament, thus providing
See also:time, it was thought, to restore some
See also:part of the ancien regime . Villele's plans were assisted by the death of Louis XVIII. and the accession of his bigoted
See also:brother . Prudent
See also:financial administration since 1815 had made possible the conversion of the state bonds from 5 to 4% .
It was proposed to utilize the
See also:money set free by this operation to indemnify by a milliard francs the emigres for the loss of their lands at the Revolution; it was also proposed to restore their former privileges to the religious congregations . Both these propositions were, with some restrictions, secured .
See also:Sacrilege was made a
See also:crime punishable by death, and the
See also:ministry were preparing a law to alter the law of equal
See also:inheritance, and thus create anew the great estates . These
See also:measures roused violent opposition in the
See also:country, which a new and stringent press law, nicknamed the " law of
See also:justice and love," failed to put down . The peers rejected the law of inheritance and the press law; it was found necessary to disband the
See also:National Guard; and in
See also:November 1827 seventy-six new peers were created, and recourse was had to a general election . The new Chamber proved hostile to Villele, who resigned to make way for the
See also:short-lived moderate ministry of Martignac . The new ministry made Villele's removal to the upper house a
See also:condition of taking
See also:office, and he took no further part in public affairs . At the time of his death, on the 13th of
See also:March 18J4, he had advanced as far as 1816 with his
See also:memoirs, which were completed from his
See also:correspondence by his
See also:family as Memoires et correspondance du comte de Villele (Paris, 5 vols., 1887-90) . See also C. de Mazade, L'Opposition royalists (Paris, 1894) ; J . G . Hyde de Neuville .
See also:Notice sur le comte de Villele (Paris, 1899); and M .
Chotard, " L'CEuvre financiere de M. de Villele," in Annales
See also:des sciences politiques (vol. v., 1890) .
GEOFFROY DE VILLEHARDOUIN (c. 116o-c. 1213)
ABEL FRANCOIS VILLEMAIN (179o-1867)
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