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JOSEPH VINOY (1803-1880)

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Originally appearing in Volume V28, Page 100 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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JOSEPH VINOY (1803-1880), French soldier, was originally intended for the Church, but, after some years at a seminary, he decided upon a military career, and entered the army in 1823. When he was a sergeant in the 14th line infantry, he took part in the Algerian expedition of 1830. He won his commission at the capture of Algiers, and during the subsequent campaigns he rose by good service to the rank of colonel. He returned to France in 1850, and in the Crimean War served under Canrobert as general of brigade. For his brilliant con-duct at the Malakoff he was promoted general of division, and he led a division of Niel's corps in the campaign of Solferino. Retired on account of age in 1865, he was recalled to active service on the outbreak of the war of 1870, and after the early reverses was put at the head of the XIII. army corps, which, fortunately for France, did not arrive at the front in time to be involved in the catastrophe of Sedan. By a skilful retreat he brought his corps intact to Paris on September 7th. Vinoy during the siege commanded the III. army operating on the south side of the capital and took part in all the actions in that quarter. On Trochu's resignation he was appointed to the supreme command, in which capacity he had to negotiate the surrender. During the commune he held important commands in the army of Versailles, and occupied the burning Tuileries and the Louvre on May 23rd. He was in the same year made grand chancellor of the Legion of Honour. Vinoy wrote several memoirs on the war of 187o-71: Operations de ramie pendant le siege de Paris (1872), L'Armistice et la commune (1872), L'Armee francaise (1873).
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