Online Encyclopedia


Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V28, Page 170 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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VODKA, VoDKI or WoDKY, the Russian national spirituous beverage. Originally vodka was made almost entirely from rye, barley malt to the extent of 15 to 20% being used to effect saccharification (see SPIRITS), but at the present day potatoes and maize are the staple raw materials from .whichthis spirit is manufactured, and, as ad rule, green rye malt is now used instead of barley. The distillation is conducted by means of live steam in a double still of the " patent " type. Vodka as manufactured contains from 90 to 96% of alcohol, but it is diluted, previous to retailing, to a strength of 6o to 4o%. It is illegal to sell it with less than 40% of alcohol. VOETIUS (VoET), GYSBERTUS (1588-1676), Dutch theo- logian, was born at Heusden, Holland. He studied at Leiden, and in 1611 became pastor of Blymen, whence in 1617 he returned to Heusden. In 1619 he played an influential part in the Synod of Dort, and in 1634 was made professor of theology and Oriental science at Utrecht. Three years later he 'became pastor of the Utrecht congregation. He was an advocate of the extremest form of Calvinism against the Arminians; but his personal influence was good, and the city of Utrecht perpetuated his memory by giving his name to the street in which he had lived.
End of Article: VODKA
EDUARD VOGEL (1829-1856)

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