See also:express ideas . Many of the
See also:lower animals have
See also:voice, but none has the power of speech in the sense in which man possesses that
See also:faculty . There may be speech without voice, as in whispering, whilst in singing a scale of musical tones we have voice without speech . (See
See also:SONG; and for speech see
See also:PHONETICS; also the articles on the various letters of the
See also:alphabet.) x . Physiological Anatomy.—The
See also:organ of voice, the larynx,is situated in man in the upper and fore
See also:part of the
See also:neck, where it forms a well-known prominence in the
See also:line (see details under
See also:SYSTEM) . It opens below into the trachea or
See also:windpipe, and above into the cavity of the pharynx, and it consists of a framework of cartilages, connected by elastic membranes or ligaments, two of which constitute the true vocal cords . These cartilages are movable on each other by the
See also:action of various muscles, which thus regulate the position and the tension of the vocal cords . The trachea conveys the blast of air from the lungs during expiration, and the whole apparatus may be compared to an acoustical contrivance in which the lungs represent the
See also:wind chest and the trachea the
See also:tube passing from the wind chest to the sounding
See also:body contained in the larynx . Suppose two tight bands of any elastic membrane, such as thin
See also:sheet india-
See also:rubber, stretched over the end of a wide
See also:glass tube so that the margins of the bands touched each other, and that a powerful blast of air is driven through the tube by a bellows . The pressure would so distend the margins of the membrane as to open the aperture and allow the air to
See also:escape; this would cause a fall of pressure, and the edges of the membrane would
See also:spring back by their
See also:elasticity to their former position; again the pressure would increase, and gain the edges of the membrane would be distended, and those actions would be so quickly repeated as to cause the edges of the membrane to vibrate with sufficient rapidity to produce a musical
See also:tone, the pitch of which would depend on the number of vibrations executed in a second of
See also:time . In other words, there would be a rapid succession of puffs of air .
The condensation and rarefaction of the air thus produced are thechief cause of the tone, as H. von Helmholtz has pointed out, and in this way the larynx resembles the
See also:siren in its mode of producing tone . It is evident also that the intensity or loudness of the tone would be determined by the
See also:amplitude of the vibrations of the margins of the membrane, and that its pitch would be affected by any arrangements effecting an increase or decrease of the tension of the margins of the membrane . The pitch might also be raised by the strength of the current of air, because, the
See also:great amplitude of the vibrations would increase the mean tension of the elastic membrane . With tones of
See also:medium pitch, the pressure of the air in the trachea is equal to that of a
See also:column of mercury of 16o mm.; with high pitch, . 920 mm.; and with notes of very high pitch, 945 mm.; whilst in whispering it may fall as low vocal cords the epithelium is squamous . Patches of squamous epithelium are also found in the ciliated
See also:tract above the glottis, on the under
See also:surface of the epiglottis, on the inner surface of the
See also:arytenoid cartilages, and on the
See also:free border of the upper or false cords . Numerous mucous glands exist in the lining membrane of the larynx, more especially in the epiglottis . In each laryngeal pouch there are sixty to seventy such glands, surrounded by
See also:fat . We are now in a position to understand the action of the muscles of the larynx by which the vocal cords, forming the rima glottidis, can be tightened or relaxed, and by which they can be approximated or a separated . Besides certain extrinsic muscles— sterno-hyoid, omohyoid, sterno-
See also:thyroid and thyro-hyoid—which move the larynx as a whole, there are
See also:intrinsic muscles which move the cartilages on each other . Some of 1 these are seen in fig . 5 .
These muscles are (a) the crico-thyroid, (b) the pos- to.. terior crico-arytenoid, (c) the lateral crico-arytenoid, (d) the thyro-arytenoid, td (e) the arytenoid, and (f) the arytenoepiglottidean . Their actions will be 13–readily understood with the aid of the tE, diagrams in fig . 6 . (I) The crico-thyroid is a
See also:short thick triangular muscle, its *I.' -
See also:fibres passing from the cricoid
See also:cartilage obliquely upwards and outwards to be inserted into the lower border of the thyroid cartilage and to the
See also:outer border of its lower
See also:horn . When the FIG . 5.—Muscles of the
See also:left side of the larynx, seen from within;
See also:abt. two-thirds nat.
See also:size . 1, hyoepiglottic ligament, seen in
See also:profile; 2, epiglottis; 3, aryteno - epiglottic muscle; 4, Santorini's cartilage ; 5, oblique arytenoid muscle; 6, trans-
See also:verse arytenoid muscle, seen in profile; 7, posterior crico - arytenoid ; 8, lateral crico-arytenoid; 9, lower
See also:cornu of thyroid cartilage cut through ; to, insertion of posterior portion of crico-thyroid muscle; II, left lamina of thyroid cartilage cut through ; 12, long thyroepiglottic muscle (a variety) ; 13, inferior thyroarytenoid ; 14, thyroepiglottic; 15,
See also:superior thyro - arytenoid ; 16, median thyro-hyoid ligament . (From Krause.) as that represented by 30 mm. of
See also:water . Such is a general conception of the mechanism of voice . The cartilages
See also:form the framework of the larynx . They consist of three single pieces (the thyroid, the cricoid and the cartilage of the epiglottis) and of three pairs (two arytenoids, two cornicula laryngis or cartilages of Santorini, and two cuneiform cartilages or cartilages of Wrisberg), see
See also:figs. i and 2 . The epiglottis, the cornicula laryngis, the cuneiform cartilages and the apices of the arytenoids are composed of yellow or elastic fibro-cartilage, whilst the cartilage of all the others is of the hyaline yaline variety, resembling that of the costal or
See also:rib io :.__ cartilages .
These cartilages arebound 9• • ~, together by ligaments, some of which are seen in figs . I and 2, whilst the
See also:remainder are represented in fig . 3 . The ligaments specially concerned in the production of voice are the inferior thyroarytenoid ligaments, or true vocal cords . These are composed of
See also:fine elastic fibres attached behind to the anterior
See also:projection of the
See also:base of the arytenoid cartilages, processus vocalis, 3 in fig . 3, and in front to the middle of the
See also:angle between the wings or laminae of the thyroid cartilage . They are practically continuous with the lateral crico-thyroid ligaments, 6 in fig . 3 . The cavity of the larynx is divided into an upper and lower portion by the narrow aperture of the glottis or chink between the edges of the true vocal cords, the rima glottidis . Immediately above the true vocal cords, between these and the false vocal cords, there is on each side a recess or pouch termed the ventricle of Morgagni, and opening from each ventricle there is a still smaller recess, the laryngeal pouch, which passes for the space of
See also:half an inch between the superior vocal cords in- side and the thyroid cartilage outside, reaching as high as the upper border of that cartilage at the side of the epi- glottis . The ventricles no doubt permit a free vibration of the true vocal cords . The upper aperture of the glottis is triangular, wide in front and narrow behind; and, when seen from above by means of the laryngoscope, it presents the view represented in fig .
4 . The aperture is bounded in front by the epiglottis, e, behind by the summits of the arytenoid carti- lages, ar, and on the sides by two folds of mucous membrane, the aryteno-epiglottic folds, ae . The rounded elevations corresponding to the cornicula laryngis and cuneiform cartilages, c, and also the
See also:cushion of the epiglottis, e, are readily seen in the laryngoscopic picture . The glottis, o, is seen in the form of a long narrow fissure, bounded by the true vocal cords, ti, whilst above them we have the false vocal cords, ts, and between the true and false cords the opening of the ventricle, v . The rima glottidis, between the true vocal cords, in the adult male
See also:measures about 23 mm., or nearly an inch from before backwards, and from 6 to 12 mm. across its widest part, according to the degree of dilatation . In
See also:females and in
See also:males before puberty the antero-posterior diameter is about 17 mm. and its transverse diameter about 4 mm . The vocal cords of the adult male are in length about 15 mm., and of the adult
See also:female about 11 mm . The larynx is lined with a layer of epithelium, which is closely adherent to underlying structures, more especially over the true vocal cords . The cells of the epithelium, in the greater portion of the larynx, are of the columnar ciliated variety, and by the vibratory action of the cilia mucus is driven upwards, but over the truemuscle contracts, the cricoid and thyroid cartilages are approximated . In this action, however, it is not the thyroid that is depressed on the cricoid, as is generally stated, but, the thyroid being fixed in position by the action of the extrinsic muscles, the anterior border of the cricoid is
See also:drawn upwards, whilst its posterior border, in consequence of a revolution around the
See also:axis uniting the articulations between the lower cornua of the cricoid and the thyroid, is depressed, carrying the arytenoid cartilages along with it . Thus the vocal cords are stretched . (2) The thyro-arytenoid has been divided by anatomists into two parts—one, the
See also:internal, lying close to the true vocal
See also:cord, and the other,
See also:external, immediately within the
See also:ala of the thyroid cartilage .
Many of the fibres of the anterior portion pass from the thyroid cartilage with a slight
See also:curve (concavity inwards) to the processus vocalis at the base of the arytenoid cartilage . They are thus parallel with the true vocal cord, and when they contract the arytenoids are drawn forwards, carrying with them the posterior part of the cricoid and relaxing the vocal cords . Thus the thyro-arytenoids are the antagonists of the cricothyroids . K . F . W . Ludwig has pointed out that certain fibres (portioary-vocalis) arise from the side of the cord itself and pass obliquely back to the processus vocalis . These will tighten the parts of the cord in front and relax the parts behind their points of
See also:attachment . Some of the fibres of the outer portion run obliquely upwards from the side of the crico-thyroid membrane, pass through the antero-posterior fibres of the inner portion of the muscle, and finally end in the tissue of the false cord . These fibres have been supposed to render the edge of the cord more prominent . Other fibres inserted into the processus vocalis will rotate slightly the arytenoid outwards, whilst a few passing up into the aryteno-epiglottidean folds may assist in depressing the epiglottis (
See also:Quain) . (3) The posterior and lateral crico-arytenoid muscles have antagonistic actions, and may be considered together .
The posterior arise from the posterior surface of the cricoid cartilage, and passing upwards and outwards are attached to the outer angle of the base of the arytenoid . On the other
See also:hand, the lateral arise from the upper border of the cricoid as far back as the articular surface for the arytenoid, pass backwards and upwards, and are also inserted into the outer angle of the base of the arytenoid before the attachment of the posterior crico-arytenoid . Imagine the pyramidal form of the arytenoid cartilages . To the inner angle of the triangular base are attached, as already described, the true vocal cords; and to the outer angle the two muscles in. question . The posterior crico-arytenoids draw the outer angles backwards and inwards, thus rotating the inner angles, or processus vocalis, out-wards, and, when the two muscles
See also:act, widening the rime glottidis . This action is opposed by the lateral crico-thyroids, which draw the outer angle forwards and outwards. rotate the inner angles inwards, 1 2, arytenoid cartilage; 3, processus vocalis of arytenoid; 4, cricoid cartilage; 5, capsular thyro-hyoid ligament; 6, lateral crico-thyroid ligament; 7, posterior crico-thyroid ligament; 8, inferior thyro-arytenoid ligament, or true vocal cord; 9, thyroid cartilage; to, superior thyro-arytenoid ligament, or false vocal cord; 11, thyro-ary- epiglottideus muscle; 12, middle thyro-hyoid ligament; 13, hyo-epi- glottic ligament; 14, body of hyoid
See also:bone; 15, smaller cornu of hyoid bone . (From Krause.) and thus approximate the cords . (4) The arytenoids pass from the one arytenoid cartilage to the other, and in action these cartilages will be approximated and slightly depressed . (5) The aryteno-epiglottidean muscles arise near the outer angles of the arytenoid; their fibres pass obliquely upwards, decussate and are inserted partly into Flo . 6.-Diagrams explaining the action of the muscles of the larynx . The dotted lines show the positions taken by the cartilages and the true vocal cords by the action of the muscle, and the arrows show the general direction in which the
See also:muscular fibres act . A, Action of crico-thyroid: i, cricoid cartilage; 2, arytenoid cartilage; 3, thyroid cartilage; 4, true vocal cord; 5, thyroid cartilage, new position; 6, true vocal cord, new position .
B, Action of arytenoid: i,section of thyroid; 2, arytenoid; 3, posterior border of epiglottis; 4, true vocal cord; 5, direction of muscular fibres; 6, arytenoid, new position; 7, true vocal cord, new position . C, Action of lateral erico-arytenoid; same description as for A and B; 8, posterior border of epiglottis, new position; 9, arytenoid in new position . D, Action of posterior crico-arytenoid; same description . (From Beaunis and Bouchard.) the outer and upper border of the opposite cartilage, partly into the aryteno-epiglottic
See also:fold, and partly join the fibres of the thyroarytenoids . In action they assist in bringing the arytenoids together, whilst they also draw down the epiglottis, and constrict the upper aperture o( the larynx . The vocal cords will be also relaxed by the elasticity of the parts . 2 . Physiology of Voice Production.—The vocal cords are tightened by the action of the crico-thyroid, or, as it might Muscular be more appropriately termed, the thyro-cricoid mechan- muscle . It stretches the thyro-arytenoid ligaments, isms. the free edges of which, covered by mucous membrane, form the vocal cords . The adductors of the cords are the lateral crico-arytenoids, while the posterior crico-arytenoids are the abductors . The arytenoid muscle brings the cords together . Many of the fibres of the thyro-arytenoid are inserted obliquely into the sides of the cord, and in contraction they tighten the cord by pulling on the edge and making it curved instead of straight .
Some such action is indicated by the elliptical shape of the rima glottidis in passing from the chest
See also:register to the middle register . Other fibres, however,
See also:running parallel with the cord may tend to relax it in certain circumstances . All the muscles except the thyro-cricoid (which is innervated by the superior laryngeal) receive nerve filaments from the inferior laryngeal branch of the vagus, the fibres being derived from the
See also:accessory roots . Both the abductor and adductor nerves come therefore from the inferior laryngeal . When an animal is deeply anaesthetized stimulation of the inferior laryngeal nerve causes abduction of the cord, but if the
See also:anaesthesia is slight, then we have adduction . The tonic contraction of the abductors is stronger than that of the adductors, so in a state of
See also:rest the glottis is slightly open . The centre of innervation is in the medulla oblongata, and this is dominated by a centre in the Rolandic region of the cerebral cortex . The intensity or loudness of voice depends on the amplitudeof the
See also:movement of the vocal cords . Pitch depends on the number of vibrations per second; and the length, size and degree of tension of the cords will determine the number of vibrations . The more tense the cords the higher the pitch, and the greater the length of the cords the lower will be the pitch . The range of the human voice is about three octaves—that is, from fai (87 vibrations per second) to
See also:solo (768 vibrations) . In men, by the development of the larynx, the cords become more elongated than in
See also:women, in the ratio of 3 to 2, so that the male voice is of lower pitch and owners, is usually stronger .
At theage of puberty the larynx physic) . grows rapidly, and the voice of a boy " breaks " logical in consequence of the lengthening of the cords,
See also:char- generally falling an octave in pitch . A similar ceders.
See also:change, but very much less in amount, occurs at the same
See also:period in the female . At puberty in the female there is an increase of about one-third in the size of the glottis, but it is nearly doubled in the male, and the adult male larynx is about one-third greater than that of the female . In advanced
See also:life the upper notes of the register are gradually weakened and ultimately disappear, whilst the character of the voice also changes, owing to loss of elasticity caused by ossification, which first begins about middle life in the thyroid cartilage, then appears in the cricoid, and much later in the arytenoid . Eunuchs retain the voices of childhood; and by careful training it is possible in normal persons to arrest the development of the larynx so that an adult male can still sing the
See also:soprano parts sometimes used in
See also:cathedral choirs . The ranges of the different varieties of voice are shown in the following
See also:diagram, where the dotted lines give the range of certain remarkable voices, and the figures represent vibrations per second, taking the middle C of the piano as 256 vibrations per second . A basso named Gaspard
See also:Forster passed from fa–, to lag; the younger of the sisters Sessi had a contralto voice from doe to fas; the voice of
See also:Catalani ranged three and a half octaves; a
See also:Farinelli, passed from la1 to res;
See also:Nilsson, in Il Flank Magico, could take fas; and Mozart states that he heard ir .
See also:Parma in 177o a singer, Lucrezia Ajugari, range from solo to dos, which she gave purely, whilst she could execute trills on res . The latter is the most highly pitched voice referred to in musical literature, an octave and a half above the highest ordinary soprano . It will be observed that the lowest note of Gaspard Forster's voice is not much above the pitch at which 2048 . Upper note of Lucreeia Ajugari .
2365 . Upper note of Nilsson in I1 Flauta Magi co . 1152 . Ajugari trilled on this note . 1024 . 768 . SoeranolMemel-sopraiso . Contralto . Ajugari . Tenor . Baritone . . Sessi .
3i octaves . : Farinsl6, 3} octaves . 64 . re do– t 32 . Beginning of musical tone . duos s
See also:las soli fas mis res dos sie las 6014 fat mice 640. res 6104 512. sit soli 435• fat mu res dot 812 Iat sots fat mil re, dot 128 . sit lal soh fat 87. mil re, do, se--i la—i sot— t fa—t 42 . mi— 1 G as... and Forster, 3 octaves 341 . _ 288 . 256 .
See also:Mid CM 240 . _192 .
16o . xo6 . piano . B theperception of musical tone begins, and that from this note to the upper note of Lucrezia Ajugari there is a range of nearly six octaves, whilst the extreme range of ordinary voices, from the lowest
See also:bass to the highest soprano, is a little over three octaves . It is also interesting to observe that the range of the human ear for the perception of musical tone is from do_, to doio, or from about 32 to 32,768 vibrations per second—eleven octaves . 3 . The Voice Registers.—The voice has been divided by writers into three registers—the lower or chest, the middle and the small or
See also:head register . In singing, the voice changes in
See also:volume and in quality in passing from one register into another . There is remarkable diversity of opinion as to what happens in the larynx in passing through the various registers . There has also been much discussion as to the production of falsetto tones . Lehfeldt and Johannes
See also:Miller held that a weak blast of air caused only a portion of the cords, as regards length, to vibrate; M . J .
Ortel noticed that when a falsetto tone is produced nodal lines are formed in the cords parallel to their edges, an observation supporting the first contention; M .Garcia was of opinion that as the voice
See also:rose in pitch into falsetto only the ligamentous edges of the cords vibrated; and W . R . E .
See also:Hodgkinson showed, .by dusting finely powdered
See also:indigo into the larynx and observing the blue specks with the laryngoscope, that " in the deeper note of the lower register the vibrating margin extended from the thyroid cartilage in front to a point behind the junction of the ligamentous and cartilaginous portions of the cord." In singing falsetto tones these additional parts are not thrown into action . Some remarkable and instructive photographs obtained by French show that in proceeding from the lowest to the highest notes of the lower register the cords became lengthened by one-eighth of an inch in a contralto singer's larynx; the same singer, in passing into the middle register, showed a shortening of the cords by one-sixteenth of an inch, and another increase in length when the upper part of the middle register was reached . 4 .
See also:Condition of the Larynx in the Various Registers.—In singing, one can readily observe that the tone may appear to come chiefly from the chest, from the
See also:throat or from the head, or it may show the
See also:peculiar quality of tone termed falsetto . Authorities differ much in the nomenclature applied to these varieties of the voice . Thus the old
See also:music masters spoke of the voce di petto, voce di gola and voce di testa . Madame Seiler describes five conditions, viz. the first series of tones of the chest register, the second series of tones of the chest register, the first series of tones of the falsetto register, the second series of tones of the falsetto register, and the head register . French writers usually refer to two registers only, the chest and the head; whilst Behnke gives three registers for male voices (lower thick, upper thick and upper thin) and five for the voices of women and
See also:children (lower thick, upper thick, lower thin, upper thin and small) .
These distinctions are of more importance practically than as implying any marked physiologicaldifferences in the mechanism of the larynx during the production of the tones in the different registers . By means of the laryngoscope it is possible to see the condition of the rima glottidis and the cords in passing through all the range of the voice . In 1807 Bozzini first showed that it was possible to see into the dark cavities of the body by illumining them with a
See also:mirror, and in 1829 W . Babington first saw the glottis in this way . In 1854 Garcia investigated his own larynx and that of other singers, and three years later Tiirck, and especially J . N . Czermak, perfected the construction of the laryngoscope . In 1883 Lennox
See also:Browne and Emil Behnke obtained photographs of the glottis in the living man . The laryngoscope is a small mirror, about the diameter of a
See also:shilling, fixed to the end of a long handle at an angle of 125° to 130° . This mirror is gently pushed towards the back of the throat, and if sufficient
See also:light be thrown into the mouth from a lamp, and if the
See also:eye of the observer be in the proper position, by
See also:angling the small mirror it is not difficult to get a view of the glottis . The light from the lamp is reflected by the mirror down on the glottis; from this it is reflected back to the mirror, and then by the mirror it is finally reflected to the eye of the observer . Usually the observer has in front of his eye a mirror by which a powerful
See also:beam of lightcan be thrown from a lamp into the mouth and throat .
In the centre of the mirror there is a small hole through which the eye of the observer
See also:sees the image in the small mirror at the back of the throat . By placing a second
See also:plane mirror in front of the
See also:face, an observer can easily study the mechanism of his own larynx . Suppose the picture of the larynx to be examined in the small mirror at the back of the throat, an image will be seen as in fig . 4 . During
See also:calm breathing, the glottis is
See also:lance-shaped, between the yellowish
See also:white cords . A deep inspiration causes the glottis to open widely, and in favourable circumstances one may look into the trachea . When a sound is to be made, the vocal cords are brought close together, either along their whole length, as in fig . 7, or only along the ligamentous portion, the space between the arytenoids being still open, as in fig . 8 . Then when the sound begins the glottis opens (fig . 4), the form of the opening influencing the kind of voice, whilst the degree of tension of the cords will determine the pitch . During inspiration the edges of the true vocal cords may occasionally be close together, as in sobbing, and during inspiration the false cords are easily separated, even when they
See also:touch, and during expiration, owing to dilatation of the ventricles, they come together, and may readily close .
Thus, from the plane of the cords, the true cords are most easily closed during inspiration and the false cords during expiration . J . Wyllie clearly showed in 1865 that the false vocal cords
See also:play the chief' part in
See also:closure of the glottis during expiration . Lauder
See also:Brunton and
See also:Cash have confirmed J . Wyllie's results, and have shown further that the
See also:function of the false cords is to close the glottis and thus
See also:fix the thorax for muscular effort . During the production of the chest voice, the space between the arytenoid cartilages is open, and between the vocal cords there is an ellipsoidal opening which gradually closes as the pitch of the sound rises (see figs . 9, to, II) . During head voice, the opening between the arytenoids is completely closed; the portion between the vocal cords is open, but in place of being almost a narrow straight slit as in chest voice, it is wide open so as to allow an escape of more air (see fig . 12) .
See also:Paralysis of the motor fibres causes aphonia, or loss of voice . If one cord is paralysed the voice may be lost or become falsetto in tone . Sometimes the cords may move in breathing or during coughing, but be motionless during an attempt at the production of voice .
Rarely, incomplete unilateral paralysis of the recurrent nerve, or the existence of a
See also:tumour on each cord, thus making them unequal in length, may cause a
See also:double tone, or diphthongia . Hoarseness is caused by roughness or swelling of the cords . 5 . The quality of the human voice depends on the same
See also:laws that determine the quality, clang-tint or timbre of the tones produced by any musical instrument . Musical tones are formed by the vibrations of the true vocal cords . These tones may be either pure or mixed, and in both cases they are strengthened by the resonance of the air in the air-passages and in the pharyngeal and oral cavities . If mixed—that is, if the tone is compounded of a number of partials—one or more of these will be strengthened by the cavities above the cords acting as a resonator; and so strongly may these partials be thus reinforced that the fundamental one may be obscured, and a certain quality or timbre will be communicated to the ear . Further, Helmholtz has shown that
See also:special forms of the oral cavity reinforce in particular certain partials, and thus give a character to vowel tones, indeed to such an extent that each vowel tone may be said to have a fixed pitch . This may be proved by putting the mouth in a certain form, keeping the lips open, and bringing various tuning forks sounding feebly in front of the opening . When a
See also:fork is found to which the resonant cavity of the mouth corresponds, then the tone of the fork is intensified, and by thus altering the form and capacity of the oral cavity its pitch in various conditions may be determined . Thus, according to Helmholtz, the pitch corresponding to the vowels may be expressed: Vowels . OU 0 A AI E I EU U Tone . fa2 sibs sibs sots sibs res doe
See also:sole or or or or or re4 fas fa2 fa3 fa2 No. of vibrations .
170 470 940 1536 1920 2304 1024 1536 or or or or or 576 341 170 341 170 R . Koenig has fixed the pitch of the vowels differently, thus: Vowels . OU 0 A E I Tone . sib2 sibs si64 sibs si's - No. of vibrations . 235 470 940 188o 376o F . C . Donders has given a third result, differing from each of the above; and there is little doubt that much will depend on the quality of tone peculiar to different nationalities . By means of Koenig's manometric flames with revolving mirror the varying quality of tone may be illustrated: with a pure tone, theteeth in the flame-picture are equal, like the serrations of a saw, whilst usually the tone is mixed with partials which show themselves by the unequal serrations . Thus quality of voice depends, not merely on the size, degree of elasticity and general mobility of the vocal cords, but also on the form of the resonating cavities above, and very slight differences in these may produce striking results . 6 . Vowel Tones.—A vowel is a musical tone produced by the vibrations of the vocal cords . The tone produced by the vocal cords is a mixed one, composed of a fundamental and partials, and certain of the partials are strengthened by the resonance of the air in the air-passages and in the pharyngeal and oral cavities . In this respect the quality of the human voice depends on the same laws as those determining the quality or timbre of the tones produced by any musical instrument .
The pitch of the note of a musical instrument, however, depends on the pitch of the first or fundamental tone, while the partials are added with greater or less intensity so as togive a special character to the sound; and in thecase of a vowel tone the pitch does not appear to depend on that of the fundamental tone but on the pitch of the resonance cavity, as adjusted for the sounding of any particular vowel . When we wish to pronounce or sing a vowel the oral cavity must be adjusted to a certain form, and it is only when it has that form that the vowel can be sounded . The nature of vowel tones has been investigated by means of the phonograph by Fleeming Jenkin and Ewing, L . Hermann, Pipping, Boeke, Lloyd, McKendrick and others . E . W . Scripture has worked with the
See also:gramophone . These observers may be ranged in two divisions—those who uphold the theory of relative as opposed to those who contend for the theory of fixed pitch . Assuming that a vowel is always a compound tone, composed of a fundamental and partials, those who uphold the relative pitch theory state that if the pitch of the fundamental is changed the pitch of the partials must undergo a relative change, while their opponents contend that whatever may be the pitch of the tone produced by the larynx, the pitch of the partials that gives quality or character to a vowel is always the same, or, in other words, vowel tones have a fixed pitch . Helmholtz held that all the partials in a vowel tone were
See also:harmonic to the fundamental tone, that is that their periods were
See also:simple multiples of the period of the fundamental tone . Hermann, however, has conclusively shown that many of the partials are inharmonic to the fundamental . This practically upsets the theory of Helmholtz .
The methods by which this problem can be investigated are mainly two . The pitch of the oral cavity for a given vowel may be experimentally determined, or ananalysis may be made of the curve-forms of vowels on the
See also:wax cylinder of the phonograph or the disk of the gramophone . By such an analysis, according to
See also:Fourier's theorem, the curve may be resolved into the partials that take part in its formation, and the intensity of those partials may be thus determined . The observations of Donders, Helmholtz,
See also:Konig and others as to the pitch of the resonating cavities gave different results . Greater success has followed the attempts made by Hermann, Boeke, McKendrick, Lloyd and Marichelle to analyse the curves imprinted on the phonograph . (Examples of such phonograms are given by McKendrick in the article on " Vocal Sounds " in Schafer's Physiology, ii .
COMTE DE EUGENE MELCHIOR VOGUE (1848- )
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