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Originally appearing in Volume V28, Page 252 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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JOHANN GEORG WALCH (1693-1775), German theologian, was born on the 17th of June 1693 at Meiningen, where his father, Georg Watch, was general superintendent. He studied at Leipzig and Jena, amongst his teachers being J. F. Buddeus (1667-1729), whose only daughter he married. He published in . 1716 a work, Historia critica Latinae linguae, which soon came into wide use. Two years later he became professor extraordinarius of philosophy at Jena. In 1719 he was appointed professor ordinarius of rhetoric, in 1721 of poetry, and in 1724 professor extraordinarius of theology. In 1728 he became professor ordinarius of theology, and in 1750 professor prilnarius. His theological position was that of a very moderate orthodoxy, which had been influenced greatly by the philosophy and controversies of the Deistic period. His university lectures and published works ranged over the wide fields of church history in its various branches, particularly the literature and the controversies of the church, dogmatics, ethics and pastoral theology. He died on the 13th of January 1775. Of his works the most valuable were Bibliotheca theologica (1757–'765) ; Bibliotheca patristica (1970, new ed. 1834) ; his edition of Luther's works in 24 vols. (1740–1752); Historische and theologische Einleitung in die religiosen Streitigkeiten, welche sonderlich ausser der ev.-lutherischen Kirche entstanden (5 vols., 1733 ff.); the companion work to this, Einleitung in die Religionsstreitigkeiten der evangel. luth. Kirche (1730-1739), and Philosophisches Lexikon (1726, 4th ed. 1775). His life, with a complete list of his writings, which amounted to 287, Leben and Charakter des Kirchenraths J. G. Watch, was published anonymously by his son C. W. F. Walch (Jena, 1777). Cf. Wilhelm Gass, Protestantische Dogmatik, p. 205 sq. His son, JOHANN ERNST IMMANUEL (1725–1778), studied Semitic languages at Jena, and also natural science and mathematics. In 1749 he published Einleitung in die Harmonic der Walafrid also edited Thetmar's Life of Louis the Pious, prefixing a preface and making a few additions, and divided Einhard's Vita Caroli into chapters, adding an introduction. Evangelisten, and in 1750 was appointed professor extraordinarius of theology. Five years later he became professor ordinarius of logic and metaphysics; in 1759 he exchanged this for a professorship of rhetoric and poetry. Amongst other theological works he published Dissertationes in Acta Apostolorum (1756-1761); Antiquitates symbolicae (1772); and after his death appeared Observationes in Matthaeum ex Graecis inscriptionibus (1779). He also published a periodical Der Naturforscher (1774-1778), and during the years 1749-1756 took an active part in editing. the Zeitungen von gelehrten Sachem. See article in Allgemeine deutsche Biographie; also Lebensgeschichte J. E. I. Watch (Jena, 188o), and J. G. Meusel's Lexikon der verstorbenen teutschen Schriftsteller, vol. xiv. Another son, CHRISTIAN WILHELM FRANZ (1726-1784), was educated at Jena under his father's direction, and as early as 1745—1747 lectured in the university in branches of exegesis, philosophy and history. He then travelled with his brother, J. E. I. Walch, for a year in Holland, France, Switzerland and Italy. On his return he was in 1750 made professor extraordinarius of philosophy in Jena, but in 1753 he accepted an invitation to become professor ordinarius at Gottingen. Here in 1754 he became professor extraordinarius of theology, and three years later received an ordinary professorship. He lectured on dogmatics, church history, ethics, polemics, natural theology, symbolics, the epistles of Paul, Christian antiquities, historical theological literature, ecclesiastical law and the fathers, and took an active interest in the work of the Gottinger Societat der Wissenschaften. In 1766 he was appointed professor primarius. His permanent place amongst learned theologians rests on his works on church history. Semler was much his superior in originality and boldness, and Mosheim in clearness, method and elegance. But to his wide, deep and accurate learning, to his conscientious and impartial examination of the facts and the authorities at first hand, and to " his exact quotation of the sources and works illustrating them, and careful discussion of the most minute details," all succeeding historians are indebted. His method is critical and pragmatic, " pursuing everywhere the exact facts and the supposed causes of the outward changes of history," leaving wholly out of sight the deeper moving principles and ideas which influence its course. He died on the loth of March 17His principal work was his Entwurf einer vollstdndigen Historie der Ketzereien, Spaltungen, and Religionsstreitigkeiten, bis auf die Zeit der Reformation (II vols., Leipzig, 1762-1785). Of his other valuable works may be mentioned Geschichte der evangelisch-lutherischen Religion, als ein Beweis, Bass sic die wahre sei (1753), Entwurf einer vollstandigen Historie der romischen Papste (1756, 2nd e 1758; Eng. trans. 1759), Entwurf einer vollstdndigen Historie der Kirchenversammiungen (1759), Grundsdtze der Kirchengeschichte des Neuen Testaments (1761, 2nd ed. 1773, 3rd ed. 1792), Bibliotheca symbolica vetus (1770), Kritische Untersuchung vom Gebrauch der heiligen Schrijt unter den alien Christen (1779), occasioned by the controversy between G. E. Lessing and J. M. Goeze, and to which Lessing began an elaborate reply just before his death. On C. W. F. Watch as historian see F. Baur, Epochen der kirchlichen Geschichtsschreibung (1852), p. 145 sq., and Dogmengeschichte, p. 38 sq. (1867, 3rd ed.); W. Gass, Geschichte der protestantischen Dogmatik, p. 267 sq.; J. G. Meusel, Lexicon verstorbener teutschen Schriftsteller, vol. xiv. For his life, see the article in the Allgemeine deutsche Biographic. A third son, KARL FRIEDRICH (1734-1799), devoted himself to the study of law, and became professor of law at Jena in 1759. His most important works were Introductio in controversias juris civilis recentioris (Jena, 1771) and Geschichte der in Deutschland geltenden Rechte (Jena, 178o). He died on the loth of July 1799.
End of Article: JOHANN GEORG WALCH (1693-1775)
WALAFRID 1 STRABO (or Strabus, i.e. " squint-eyed "...

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