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CHARLES DOOLITTLE WALCOTT (1850- )

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Originally appearing in Volume V28, Page 254 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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CHARLES DOOLITTLE WALCOTT (1850- ), American geologist, was born at the village of New York Mills, New York, on the 31st of -March 1850. He received a school education at Utica. In 1876 he was appointed assistant on the New York State Survey, and in 1879 assistant geologist on the United States Geological Survey; in 1888 he became one of the palaeontologists in charge of the invertebrata, in 1893 chief palaeontologist, and in 1894 director of the Geological Survey. In 1907 he was appointed Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. As president of the Geological Society of Washington he delivered in 1894 an important address on The United States Geological Survey. He added largely to contemporary know-ledge of the fauna of the Older Palaeozoic rocks of North America, especially with reference to the crustacea and brachiopoda; he dealt also with questions of ancient physical geography and with mountain structure. His more important works include " Palaeontology of the Eureka district " (Mon. U.S. Geol. Survey, 1884) ; " Cambrian faunas of North America " (Bull. U.S. Geol. Survey, 1884) ; Fauna of the Lower Cambrian or Olenellus Zone (189o, issued 1891), and Fossil Medusae (Mon. U.S. Geol. Survey, 1898). WALDECK-PYRMONT, a principality of Germany and a constituent state of the German empire, consisting of two separate portions lying about 3o M. apart, viz, the county of Waldeck, embedded in Prussian territory between the provinces of Westphalia and Hesse-Nassau, and the principality of Pyrmont, farther to the north, between Lippe, Brunswick, Westphalia and Hanover. Waldeck comprises an area of 407 sq. m., covered for the most part with hills, which culminate in the Hegekopf (2775 ft.). The centre is occupied by the plateau of Corbach. The chief rivers are the Eder and the Diemel, both of which eventually find their way into the Weser. Pyrmont, only 26 sq. m. in extent, is also mountainous. The Emmer, also belonging to the Weser system, is its chief stream. The united area is thus 433 sq. m., or about half the size of Cambridge-shire in England, and the united population in 1905 was 59,127, showing a density of 138 to the square mile. The population is almost wholly Protestant. In consequence of the comparatively high elevation of the country—the lowest part being 540 ft. above the sea-level—the climate is on the whole inclement. Agriculture and cattle-rearing are the main resources of the in-habitants in both parts of the principality, but the soil is nowhere very fertile. Only 57% of the area is occupied by arable land and pasture; forests, one-tenth of which are coniferous, occupy 38%. Oats is the principal crop, but rye, potatoes and flax are also grown in considerable quantities. Fruit is also cultivated in the principality. Iron mines, slate and stone quarries are worked at various points, and, with live stock, poultry, wool and timber form the chief exports. A few insignificant manufactures are carried an in some of the little towns, but both trade and manufactures are much retarded by the comparative isolation of the country from railways. Wildungen, in the extreme south of Waldeck, is the terminus of a branch line from Wabern, and a light railway runs from Warburg to Marburg; Pyrmont is intersected by the trunk line running from Cologne,via Paderborn, to Brunswick and Berlin. The capital and the residence of the prince is Arolsen (pop. 2811 in 1905) in Waldeck; twelve smaller townships and about one hundred villages are also situated in the county. The only town in Pyrmont is Bad Pyrmont, with about 1500 inhabitants, a highly fashionable watering-place with chalybeate and saline springs. The annual number of visitors is about 23,000. Wildungen is also a spa of repute. The inhabitants to the north of the Eder are of Saxon stock, to the south of Franconian, a difference which is distinctly marked in dialect, costumes and manners. Waldeck-Pyrmont has one vote in the federal council (Bundesrat) and one in the Reichstag. The constitution, dating from 1852, is a reactionary modification of one carried in 1849, which had been a considerable advance upon one granted in 1816. The Landtag of one chamber consists of fifteen members, three of whom represent Prymont, elected indirectly for three years. In the event of the male line of the present ruling family becoming extinct, the female line will succeed in Waldeck, but Pyrmont will fall to Prussia. In terms of a treaty concluded in 1867 for ten years, renewed in 1877 for a similar period, and continued in 1887 with the proviso that it should be terminable on two years' notice, the finances and the entire government of Waldeck-Pyrmont are managed by Prussia, the little country having found itself unable to support unassisted the military and other burdens involved by its share in the North German Confederation of 1867-1871 and subsequently as a constituent state of the German empire. The government is conducted in the name of the prince by a Prussian " Landesdirector," while the state officials take the oath of allegiance to the king of Prussia. The prince of Waldeck reserves his whole rights as head of the church, and also the right of granting pardons, and in certain circumstances may exercise a veto on proposals to alter or enact laws. Education and similar matters are thus all conducted on the Prussian model; a previous convention had already handed over military affairs to Prussia. The budget for 1910 showed a revenue of £57,000 and a like expenditure. The public debt was £79,710, paying interest at 31%. The prince is supported by the income derived from crown lands. As regards the administration of justice, Waldeck and Pyrmont belong to the districts of Cassel and Hanover respectively. The princes of Waldeck-Pyrmont are descendants of the counts of Schwalenberg, the earliest of whom known to history was one Widukind (d. 1137). His son Volkwin (d. 1178) acquired by marriage the county of Waldeck, and his line was divided into two branches, Waldeck and Landau, in 1397. In 1438 the land-grave of Hesse obtained rights of suzerainty over Waldeck, and the claims arising from this action were not finally disposed of until 1847, when it was decided that the rights of Hesse over Waldeck had ceased with the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire. The Landau branch of the family became extinct in 1495, and in 1631 Waldeck inherited the county of Pyrmont, which had originally belonged to a branch of the Schwalenberg family. For a few years Waldeck was divided into Wildungen and Eisenberg, but in 1692, when the Wildungen branch died out with George Frederick, the imperial field-marshal, the whole principality was united under the rule of Christian Louis of Eisenberg. From 1692 the land has been undivided with the exception of a brief period from 1805 to 1812, when Waldeck and Pyrmont were ruled by two brothers. Frederick Anthony Ulrich (d. 1728), who succeeded his father, Christian Louis, in 1706, was made a prince of the empire in 1712. In 1807 Waldeck joined the confederation of the Rhine, and in 1815 entered the German confederation. Its first constitution was granted in 1816 by Prince George II. (d. 1845). Prince Frederick (b. 186,5) succeeded his father, George Victor (1831-1893), as ruler on the 12th of May 1893. The most important fact in the recent history of the principality is its connexion with Prussia, to which reference has already been made. See Curtze, Geschichte and Beschreibung des Furstentums Waldeck (Arolsen, 185o) ; Lowe, Heimatskunde von Waldeck (Arolsen, 1887) ; J. C. C. Hoff meister, Historisch-genealogisches Handbuch fiber alle Grafen and Flies/en von Waldeck soft 1228 (Cassel, I883); BOttcher, Das Staatsrecht des Furstentums Waldeck (Freiburg, 1884) ; A. Wagner, Die Geschichte Waldecks and Pyrmonts (Wildungen, 1888), and the Geschicktsbl¢tter fur Waldeck and Pyrmont (Mengeringhausen, 1901, fol.). WALDECK-ROUSSEAU, PIERRE MARIE RENA ERNEST (1846-1904), French statesman, was born at Nantes on the and of December 1846. His father, Rene Valdec-Rousseau (18o9-1882), a barrister at Nantes and a leader of the local republican party, figured in the revolution of 1848 as one of the deputies returned to the Constituent Assembly for Loire Inferieure. With Jules Simon, Louis Blanc and others he sat on the commission appointed to inquire into the labour question, making many important proposals, one of which, for the establishment of national banks, was partially realized in 185o. After the election of Louis Napoleon to the presidency he returned to his practice at the bar, and for some time after the coup d'etat was in hiding to escape arrest. He came back to political life in the crisis of 187o, when he became mayor of Nantes in August and proclaimed the third republic there on the 4th of September. He shortly afterwards resigned municipal office in consequence of differences with his colleagues on the education question. The son was a delicate child whose defective eyesight forbade him the use of books, and his early education was therefore entirely oral. He studied law at Poitiers and in Paris, where he took his licentiate in January 1869. His father's record ensured his reception in high republican circles. Jules Grevy stood sponsor for him at the Parisian bar, and he was a regular visitor at the houses of Stanislas Dufaure and of Jules Simon. Aftersix months of waiting for briefs in Paris, he decided to return home and to join the bar of St Nazaire, where he inscribed his name early in 187o. In September he became, in spite of his youth, secretary to the municipal commission temporarily appointed to carry on the town business. He organized the National Defence at St Nazaire, and himself marched out with the contingent, though no part of the force saw active service owing to lack of ammunition, their private store having been commandeered by the state. In 1873 he removed to the bar of Rennes, and six years later was returned to the Chamber of Deputies. In his electoral programme he had stated that he was prepared to respect all liberties except those of conspiracy against the institutions of the country and of educating the young in hatred of the modern social order. In the Chamber he sup-ported the policy of Gambetta. The Waldeck-Rousseau family was strictly Catholic in spite of its republican principles; nevertheless Waldeck-Rousseau supported the anti-clerical education law submitted by Jules Ferry as minister of education in the Waddington cabinet. He further voted for the abrogation of the law of 1814 forbidding work on Sundays and fete days, for compulsory service of one year for seminarists and for the re-establishment of divorce. He made his reputation in the Chamber by a report which he drew up in 188o on behalf of the committee appointed to inquire into the French judicial system. But then as later he was chiefly occupied with the relations between capital and labour. He had a large share in 1884 in securing the recognition of trade unions. In 1881 he became minister of the interior in Gambetta's grand ministere, and he held the same portfolio in the Jules Ferry cabinet of 1883-1885, when he gave proof of great administrative powers. He sought to put down the system by which civil posts were obtained through the local deputy, and he made it clear that the central authority could not be defied by local officials. He had begun to practise at the Paris bar in 1886, and in 1889 he did not seek re-election to the Chamber, but devoted himself to his legal work. The most famous of the many noteworthy cases in which his cold and penetrating intellect and his power of clear exposition were retained was the defence of M. de Lesseps in 1893. In 1894 he returned to political life as senator for the department of the Loire, and next year stood for the presidency of the republic against Felix Faure and Henri Brisson, being supported by the Conservatives, who were soon to be his bitter enemies. He received 184 votes, but retired before the second ballot to allow Faure to receive an absolute majority. During the political anarchy of the next few years he was recognized by the moderate republicans as the successor of Jules Ferry and Gambetta, and at the crisis of 1899 on the fall of the Dupuy cabinet he was asked by President Loubet to form a government. After an initial failure he succeeded in forming a coalition cabinet which included such widely different politicians as M. Millerand and General de Galliffet. He himself returned to his former post at the ministry of the interior, and set to work to quell the discontent with which the country was seething, to put an end to the various agitations which under specious pretences were directed against republican institutions, and to restore independence to the judicial authority. His appeal to all republicans to sink their differences before the common peril met with some degree of success, and enabled the government to leave the second court-martial of Captain Dreyfus at Rennes an absolutely free hand, and then to compromise the affair by granting a pardon to Dreyfus. Waldeck-Rousseau won a great personal success in October by his successful intervention in the strikes at Le Creusot. With the condemnation in January 1900 of Paul Deroulede and his monarchist and nationalist followers by the High Court the worst of the danger was past, and Waldeck-Rousseau kept order in Paris without having recourse to irritating displays of force. The Senate was staunch in support of M. Waldeck-Rousseau, and in the Chamber he displayed remarkable astuteness in winning support from various groups. The Amnesty Bill, passed on r9th December, chiefly through his unwearied advocacy, went far to smooth down the acerbity of the preceding years. With the object of aiding the industry of wine-producing, and of discouraging the consumption of spirits and other deleterious liquors, the government passed a bill suppressing the oclroi duties on the three " hygienic " drinks—wine, cider and beer. The act came into force at the beginning of 1901. But the most important measure of his later administration was the Associations Bill of 1901. Like many of his predecessors, he was convinced that the stability of the republic demanded some restraint on the intrigues of the wealthy religious bodies. All previous attempts in this direction had failed. In his speech in the Chamber M. Waldeck-Rousseau recalled the fact that he had endeavoured to pass an Associations Bill in 1882, and again in 1883. He declared that the religious associations were now being subjected for the first time to the regulations common to all others, and that the object of the bill was to ensure the supremacy of the civil power. The royalist bias given to the pupils in the religious seminaries was undoubtedly a principal cause of the passing of this bill; and the government further took strong measures to secure the presence of officers of undoubted fidelity to the republic in the higher positions on the staff. His speeches on the religious question were published in Igor under the title of Associations et congr€gations, following a volume of speeches on Questions sociales (1900). As the general election of 1902 approached all sections of the Opposition united their efforts, and M. Waldeck-Rousseau's name served as a battle-cry for one side, and on the other as a target for the foulest abuse. The result was a decisive victory for republican stability. With the defeat of the machinations against the republic M. Waldeck-Rousseau considered his task ended, and on the 3rd of June 1902 he resigned office, having proved himself the " strongest personality in French politics since the death of Gambetta. " He emerged from his retirement to protest in the Senate against the construction put on his Associations Bill by M. Combes, who refused in mass the applications of the teaching and preaching congregations for official recognition. His health had long been failing when he died on the loth of August 1904. His speeches were published as Discours parlementaires (1889) ; Pour la ripublique, 7883-7903 (1904), edited by H. Leyret; L'Etat et la liberti (1906); and his Plaidoyers (1906, &c.) were edited by H. Barboux. See also H. Leyret, Waldeck-Rousseau et la troisieme ripublique (1908), and the article FRANCE: History.
End of Article: CHARLES DOOLITTLE WALCOTT (1850- )
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