See also:middle-west of the
See also:part of the
See also:island of
See also:Great Britain, bounded E. by the
See also:English counties of
See also:Herefordshire and
See also:Monmouthshire; S. by the
See also:Bristol Channel; W. by St
See also:George's Channel; and N. by the Irish
See also:Sea . (For map see ENGLAND, V.) Its
See also:area is 7467 sq. m . Its greatest length from N. to S . (from the Point of Air in
See also:Flint to
See also:Barry Island on the Glamorgan
See also:coast) is 136 m., while its breadth varies from 92 M . (from St Davids
See also:Head to the English border beyond
See also:Crickhowell) to 37 M . (the distance between
See also:Aberystwyth and the Shropshire boundary at Clun
See also:Forest) . Its
See also:total circuit is about 540 m., of which 390 consist of coast-
See also:line . The
See also:principal headlands are Great Ormes Head' in Carnarvonshire; Braich-y-Pwll, the most
See also:westerly point of Carnarvonshire; St Davids Head, the most westerly point of South
See also:Worms Head, the western extremity of Gower; and Lavernock Point to the W. of
See also:Cardiff . The principal islands are
See also:Holy Island, off the W. coast of Anglesea;
See also:Bardsey (Ynys Enlli), near Braich-y-Pwll; and the islands of Ramsey, Grass-holm, Skomer, Skokholm and Caldy (Ynys Pyr) off the Pembroke-
See also:shire coast . The chief inlets are the mouth of the Dee, dividing Flint from Cheshire; the Menai Straits, separating Anglesea from the mainland; Carnarvon
See also:Bay; Cardigan Bay, stretching from Braich-y-Pwll to St Davids Head; St Brides Bay;
See also:Milford Haven;
See also:Carmarthen Bay; and
See also:Swansea Bay . In
See also:common parlance, as well as for judicial purposes of circuits, the Principality is divided into
See also:North Wales and South Wales, each of which consists of six counties . North Wales .
Acreage .Population (1901) . Anglesea (Ynys F8n) . 176,630 50,606 Carnarvon (
See also:Sir Arfon) . 361,156 126,883 Denbigh (Sir Dinbych) . 423,499 129,942 Flint (Sir Fflint) . 164,744 81,700
See also:Merioneth (Sir Feirionydd) . 427,810 49,149
See also:Montgomery (Sir Drefaldwyn) 510,111 54,901 South Wales . Acreage . Population (1901) .
See also:Brecon or Brecknock (Sir Fry- cheiniog) . 475,224 59,907 Cardigan (Sir Aberteifi) 440,630 60,240 Carmarthen (Sir Gaerfyrddin) 587,816 135,328 Glamorgan (Sir Forganwg) .
. 518,863 859,931 Pembroke (Sir Benfro) . 395,151 88,732
See also:Radnor (Sir Faesyfed) . 301, T64 23,281 Mountains.—Almost the whole
See also:surface of Wales is mountainous or undulating . The most important
See also:system is that of the North Wales mountains, covering the
See also:county of Carnarvon and parts of Merioneth and Denbigh, wherein the Snowdonian range reaches the height of 3571 ft. in Snowdon itself ; of 3484 ft. in Carnedd Llywelyn; and of 3426 ft. in Carnedd Dafydd . South of this system, and separated from it by the upper valley of the Dee, the Berwyn range extends from N.E. to S.E., and is itself adjacent to
See also:Aran-fawddy (2970 ft.), the highest point in the Cader Idris
See also:group . The system of
See also:Mid-Wales or Powys stretches from Cardigan Bay to the English border, and contains
See also:Plinlimmon (2462 ft.) in north Cardigan; Drygarn Fawr (2115 ft.) in north Brecon; and Radnor Forest (2163 ft.) in mid-Radnor . From Plinlimmon a range of hills runs in a south-westerly direction towards St Davids, terminating in the Preseily range of north Pembroke (176o ft.) and dividing the broad valleys of the Teifi and Towy . The three combined ranges of the Black Mountains, the Brecknock Beacons and the Black Forest sweep across south Brecon from W. to E., the chief elevations being the Carmarthen
See also:Van (2632 ft.), the Brecon Beacon (2862 ft.) and
See also:Pen-y-gader fawr (266o ft.) near the English border . Lakes and
See also:Rivers.—Small lakes, such as Llyn Ogwen, Llyn Safaddan (Llangorse Lake), Talyllyn, the Teifi Pools, &c., are fairly numerous in the mountainous districts, but the only natural lake of importance is
See also:Bala Lake, or Llyn Tegid, in Merionethshire, 4 M. long and about 1 m. wide . But the great
See also:reservoir known as Lake
See also:Vyrnwy, which supplies Liverpool with
See also:water, is equal in
See also:size to Bala; and the chain of four artificial lakes constructed by the
See also:Birmingham corporation in the valleys of the Elan and Claerwen covers a large area in west
See also:Radnorshire . The longest
See also:river in Wales is the Severn (18o m.), in Welsh Hafren, which rises in Plinlimmon, and takes a north-easterly direction through Montgomeryshire before reaching the English border . The Wye (130 m.) also rises in Plinlimmon, and forms for some 30 M. the boundary between the counties of Radnor and Brecon before encountering English
See also:soil near
See also:Hay .
TheUsk (56 m.) flows through
See also:Breconshire, and joins the Bristol Channel at
See also:Newport in Monmouthshire . The Dee (70 m.) traverses Bala Lake, and drains parts of the counties of Merioneth, Denbigh and Flint . The Towy (68 m.) flows through
See also:Carmarthenshire, entering Carmarthen Bay at Llanstephan; the Teifi (5o m.) rises near Tregaron and falls into Cardigan Bay below the
See also:town of Cardigan . The Taff (40 m.), rising amongst the Brecon Beacons, enters the Bristol Channel at Cardiff . Other rivers are the Dovey (30 m.), falling into Cardigan Bay at Aberdovey; the Taf (25 m.), entering Carmarthen Bay at Laugharne; and the broad navigable
See also:Conway (24 m.), dividing the counties of Carnarvon and Denbigh . Welsh Place-Names.—The place-names throughout the Principality may be said to group themselves roughly into fourdivisions: (i.) Pure and unaltered
See also:Celtic names; (ii.) Corrupted or abbreviated Celtic names; (iii.) English names; (iv.) Scandinavian and
See also:foreign names . To the first division belong the vast majority of place-names throughout the whole of Wales and Monmouthshire . Except in some districts of the
See also:Marches and in certain tracts lying along the South Wales coast, nearly all parishes, villages, hamlets, farms, houses, woods,
See also:fields, streams and valleys possess native appellations, which in most cases are descriptive of natural situation, e.g . Nantyffin, the boundary
See also:brook; Aberporth, mouth of the
See also:harbour; Talybont, end of the
See also:bridge; Troedyrhiw,
See also:foot of the hill; Dyffryn, a valley, &c . Other place-names imply a
See also:personal connexion in addition to natural features, e.g . Nantygof, the blacksmith's brook; Trefecca, the
See also:house of Rebecca; Llwyn Madoc, Madoc's
See also:grove; Pantsaeson, the
See also:Saxons' glen, &c . An
See also:historical origin is frequently commemorated, notably in the many
See also:foundations of the Celtic missionaries of the 5th, 6th and 7th centuries, wherein the word Ilan (
See also:church) precedes a proper name; thus every Llanddewi recalls the early labours of Dewi Sant (St
See also:David); every Llandeilo, those of St Teilo; and such names as
See also:Llandudno, Llanafan, Llanbadarn and the like commemorate SS .
Tudno, Afan, Padarn, &c . To the second division—those place-names which have been corrupted by English usage—belong most of the older historic towns, in striking contrast with the rural villages and parishes, which in nearly all cases have retained unaltered their
See also:original Celtic names . Anglicized in spelling and even to some extent changed in sound are Carmarthen (Caerfyrddin); Pembroke (Penfro);
See also:Kidwelly (Cydweli); Cardiff (Caerdydd);
See also:Llandovery (Llanymddyfri); while
See also:Lampeter, in Welsh Llanbedrpont-
See also:Stephan, affords an example of a Celtic place-name both Anglicized and abbreviated . In not a few instances
See also:modern English nomenclature has supplanted the old Welsh place-names in popular usage, although the town's original appellation is retained in Welsh literature and conversation, e.g .
See also:Holyhead is Caergybi (fort of Cybi, a Celtic missionary of the 6th century);
See also:Presteign is Llanandras (church of St Andrew, or Andras); St
See also:Asaph is Llanelwy; the English name commemorating the reputed founder of the see, and the Welsh name recalling the church's original foundation on the
See also:banks of the Elwy . Cardigan, in Welsh' Aberteifi, from its situation near the mouth of the Teifi, and Brecon, in Welsh Aberhonddu, from its site near the confluence of the Usk and Honddu, are examples of corrupted Welsh names in common use—Ceredigion, Brychan—which possess in addition pure Celtic forms . In the third division, English place-names are tolerably frequent everywhere and pre-dominate in the Marches and on the South Wales coast . Even in so thoroughly Welsh a county as Cardiganshire, English place-names are often to be encountered, e.g . New Quay, High Mead, Oakford, &c.; but many of such names are of modern invention, dating chiefly from the 18th and rgth centuries . Of the many English names occurring in south Pembroke and south Glamorgan, some are exact or fanciful
See also:translations of the original Welsh, e.g .
See also:Cowbridge (Pontyfon) and Ludchurch (Eglwys
See also:Llwyd), others are of
See also:external origin, as Bishopstone, Flemingstone,
See also:Butter Hill, Briton
See also:Ferry, Manselfield, &c . Names derived straight from an Anglo-Norman source are rare; Beaupre,
See also:Beaufort, Fleur-de-Lis,
See also:Roche, may be cited as examples of such .
Scandinavianinfluence can easily be traced at various points of the coast-line, but particularly in south
See also:Pembrokeshire, wherein occur such place-names as Caldy,
See also:Tenby, Goodwick, Dale, Skokholm, Hakin and Milford Haven . Specimens of Latinized names in connexion with ecclesiastical foundations are preserved in Strata
See also:Florida and
See also:Valle Crucis Abbeys . Hybrid place-names are occasionally to be met with in the colonized portions of Wales, as in Gelliswick (a combination of the Celtic gelli, a
See also:hazel grove, and the Norse
See also:wick, a haven), and in Fletherhill, where the English suffix hill is practically a
See also:translation of the Celtic prefix . A striking peculiarity of the Principality is the prevalence of Scriptural place-names; a circumstance due undoubtedly to the popular religious movements of the 19th century . Not only are such names as
See also:Zion, Penuel, Siloh, &c., bestowed on
See also:Nonconformist chapels, used of the
See also:guest-house of an abbey—Yspytty Ystwyth, Tafarn Spite . Ystrad, a meadow or
See also:rich lowland—Ystrad Mynach, Llanfihangel Ystrad . Population.—The total population of the twelve counties of the Principality was: 1,360,513 (1881), 1,519,035 (1891), 1,720,600 (1901) . These figures prove a steady upward tendency, but the increase itself is confined entirely to the
See also:industrial districts of the Principality, and in a
See also:special degree to Glamorgan-shire; while the agricultural counties, such as Pembroke, Merioneth, Cardigan or Montgomery,
See also:present a continuous though slight decrease owing to
See also:local emigration to the centres of
See also:industry . The whole population of Wales in Tudor,
See also:Stuart and early Georgian times can scarcely have exceeded 500,000 souls, and was probably less . But with the systematic development of the vast
See also:mineral resources of the South Wales coalfield, the population of
See also:Glamorganshire has increased at a more rapid
See also:rate than that of any other county of the
See also:Kingdom, so that at present this county contains about
See also:half the population of all Wales . It will be noted, therefore, that the vast mass of the inhabitants of Wales are settled in the industrial area which covers the
See also:northern districts of Glamorganshire and the south-eastern corner of Carmarthenshire; whilst central Wales, comprising the four counties of Cardigan, Radnor, Merioneth and Montgomery, forms the least populous portion of the Principality . The following towns had each in 1901 a population exceeding 10,000: Cardiff, Ystradyfodwg, Swansea, Merthyr Tydfil, Aberdare,
See also:Llanelly, Ogmore and Garw, Pembroke,
See also:Caerphilly, Maesteg, Wrexham,
See also:Bangor, Holyhead, Carmarthen .
Only four towns in North Wales are included in these eighteen, and the combined populations of these four—Wrexham (14,966), Festiniog (11,435), Bangor (11,269) and Holyhead (10,079)—fall far below that of Merthyr Tydfil (69,228), the
See also:fourth largest town in Glamorgan- but these Biblical terms have likewise been applied to their surrounding houses, and in not a few instances to growing towns and villages . A notable example of this curious nomenclature occurs in Bethesda, Carnarvonshire, where the name of the Congregational
See also:chapel erected early in the 19th century has altogether supplanted the original Celtic place-name of Cilfoden . But although English and foreign place-names are fairly numerous throughout Wales, yet the vast majority remain Celtic either in a pure or in a corrupted
See also:form, so that some knowledge of the Celtic language is essential to interpret their meaning . A small glossary of some of the more common component words is appended below . Aber, the mouth or estuary of a river—Aberystwyth, Abergwili . Ach, water—Clydach, Clarach . Afon, a river—a word which retains its
See also:primitive meaning in Wales, whilst it has become a proper name in England—Glanafon; Manorafon . Bettws, a corrupt form of the English "
See also:bead-house," or possibly of the Latin "
See also:beatus "—Bettws-y-coed, Bettws Ifan . Blaen, the top—Blaendyffryn, Blaencwm . Bod, house or abode—Bodfuan, Hafod .
See also:Bran, the human
See also:breast, hence breast of hill—Brongest, Cilbronnau . Bryn, a hill—Brynmawr, Penbryn .
Bwlch, a gap—Bwlchbychan, Tanybwlch . Cae, a field—Caeglas, Tynycae . Caer, a fortress or fortified camp—Caerlleon, Caersws .Capel, a corrupt form of the Latin "
See also:capella " applied to chapels,
See also:ancient and recent—Capel Dewi, Capel-issaf, Parc-y-capel . Carn, a
See also:cairn or heap of stones—Moel-trigarn . Carnedd, a tumulus—Carnedd Llywelyn . Cefn, a ridge—Cefn-Mably, Cefn-y-bedd . Cil, a retreat, said to be akin to the Goidelic kil—Ciliau-Aeron, Cilcennin . Cnwc, a knoll or mound—Cnwcglas (Anglicized into Knucklas, in Radnorshire) . Coed, a wood—Coedmawr, Penycoed . Craig, a
See also:rock or crag—Pen-y-graig . Crag, a heap or barrow—Crag Mawr, Trichrflg .
Cwm, alow valley, Anglicized Into " coomb "—Cwm Gwendraeth, Blaencwm . Din, a fortified hill, hence Dines, a fortified town—Dinefawr, Pen Dinas . Dal, a meadow—Dolwilym, Dolau . Dwr, Dwfr, water—Glyndwrdu, the patrimony of the celebrated
See also:Glendower, of which his Anglicized name is a corruption . Eglwys, a corruption of the Latin ecclesia," a church—Eglwyswrw, Tanyreglwys . Gallt, in North Wales a steep slope; in South Wales a
See also:wood--Galltyfyrddin, Penyrallt . Gelli, a grove—Gellideg,
See also:Pengelly Forest . Glen, a bank—Glanym8r, Glandofan . Glyn, a glen or narrow valley—Glyncothi, Tyglyn . Llan, a sacred enclosure, hence a church—a most interesting and important Celtic prefix—Llandeilo, Llansaint . Llech, a stone—Llechryd, Trellech . Llwyn, a grove—Penllwyn, Llwynybran .
See also:court or palace—Henllys, Llysowen .
See also:Maes, open
See also:land, or battlefield—Maesyfed (the Welsh name for Radnorshire), Maesllwch . Moel, bald, hence a
See also:bare hill-top—Moelfre . Mor, the sea—Brynm8r, Glanym8r . Mynydd, mountain—Llanfynydd, Mynydd Dfi . Nant, a
See also:ravine, hence also a brook—Nantgwyllt, Nannau, Nantgaredig . Pant, a glen or hollow—Pantycelyn, Blaenpant . Parc, an enclosed field—Parc-y-Marw, Penparc . Pen, a summit—Penmaenmawr, Penmark . Pont, a bridge, a corruption of the Latin " pons"— Ponthirwen, Talybont . Porth, a
See also:gate or harbour—perhaps a corrupt form of the Latin " porta "—Aberporth,
See also:Pump Porth (" the Five
See also:Gates ") . Rhiw, ascent or slope—Troedyrhiw, Rhiwlas .
Rhos, a moor—Rhosllyn,
See also:Tyr'hos . Rhyd, a ford—Rhydyfuwch, Glanrhyd . Sarn, a
See also:causeway, generally descriptive of the old
See also:Roman paved roads—Talsarn, Sarnau, Sarn Badrig . Tal, an end, also head—Taliaris, Talyllyn . Tref, a
See also:homestead, hence cant ref, a hundred—Hendref, Cantref-ygwaelod . Troed, a
See also:base —Troed-y-bryn . Ty, a house, a cottage—Tynewydd, Mynachty . Wy, or gwy, an obsolete Celtic word for water, preserved in the names of many Welsh rivers—Elwy, Gwili, Wye or Gwy . Ynys, an island, or hill in the midst of a bog—Ynys Enlli (the Welsh name for Bardsey Islands), Ynyshir, Clynrynys . Yspytty, spite, a corrupt form of the Latin "
See also:hospitium," oftenshire .
See also:Industries.—The chief mineral product of the Principality is
See also:coal, of which the output amounts to over 23,000,000 tons annually . The great South Wales coalfield, one of the largest in the kingdom, covers the greater part of Monmouthshire and Glamorganshire, the south-eastern corner of Carmarthenshire, and a small portion of south Pembrokeshire, and the quality of its coal is especially suitable for smelting purposes and for use in steamships .
See also:limestone and ironstone in Glamorganshire is said to be practically unlimited . About 400,000 tons of
See also:pig iron are produced yearly, and some of the largest iron-
See also:works in the
See also:world are situated at Merthyr Tydfil and Dowlais . Copper, tin and lead works are everywhere numerous in the busy valleys of north Glamorgan and in the neighbourhoods of Swansea, Neath, Cardiff and Llanelly . In North Wales, Wrexham,
See also:Ruabon and Chirk are centres of coal-
See also:mining industry . There are valuable copper mines in Anglesea, and lead mines in Flint and in north Cardiganshire, which also yield a certain deposit of
See also:silver ore . Gold has been discovered and worked, though only to a small extent, in Merionethshire and Carmarthenshire .
See also:Slate quarries are very numerous throughout the Principality, the finest quality of slate being obtained in the neighbourhood of Bangor and Carnarvon, where the
See also:Penrhyn and Bethesda quarries give employment to many thousands of workmen . By far the larger portion of Wales is purely agricultural in character, and much of the valley land is particularly fertile, notably the Vale of Glamorgan, the Vale of Clwyd and the valleys of the Towy, the Teifi, the Usk and the Wye, which have long been celebrated for their rich pastures . The holdings throughout Wales are for the most part smaller in extent than the
See also:average farms of England . Stock-raising is generally preferred to the growing of cereals, and in western Wales the
See also:oat crops exceed in size those of wheat and
See also:barley . The extensive tracts of unenclosed and often unimprovable land, which still cover a large area in the Principality, especially in the five counties of Cardigan, Radnor, Brecon, Montgomery and Merioneth, support numerous flocks of the small
See also:sheep, the flesh of which supplies the highly prized Welsh mutton . The wool of the sheep is manufactured into
See also:flannel at numberless factories in the various
See also:country towns, and the supply meets an important local demand .
The upland tracts also afford
See also:good pasturage for a number of cobs and ponies, which obtain high prices at the local fairs, and Pembrokeshire and Cardiganshire have long been famous for their breed of horses and ponies . The
See also:cattle of Wales present all varieties of
See also:race, the
See also:Hereford breed prevailing in the eastern counties, and Shorthorns and the black Castlemartins in the south-western parts . The great herds of goats, which in
See also:medieval times subsisted on the Welsh hills, have entirely disappeared since the general adoption of the sheep-farming industry . The deep-sea
See also:fisheries on the south-western coasts are of some importance; the Mumbles, Tenby .and Milford Haven being the chief centres of this industry . Lobsters and crabs are caught in Cardigan Bay, and oysters are found at various points of the Pembrokeshire coast . The large rivers produce salmon, which are usually sent to the great towns for sale . The Wye, the Usk, the Dee, the Dovey, the Teifi, the Towy and most of the Welsh rivers and lakes are frequented by anglers for salmon and
See also:trout . Communications.—The two principal
See also:railways serving the Principality are the
See also:London & North-Western, which passes along the North Wales coast-line by way of Conway and Bangor, crosses the Menai Strait and has its
See also:terminus at Holyhead; and the Great Western, which traverses South Wales by way of Cardiff, Landore, Llanelly and Carmarthen, and has its principal terminal station at
See also:Fishguard Harbour . The lines of the
See also:Cambrian railway serve North and Mid-Wales, and branches of the London & North-Western and the Midland penetrate into South Wales as far as Swansea . A
See also:work of lines connects the great industrial districts of Glamorganshire with the
See also:main line of the Great Western railway . There are steam-
See also:ship services between Holyhead and
See also:Dublin in connexion with the trains of the London & North-Western railway; and an important
See also:traffic for
See also:dairy produce, live-stock and passengers between
See also:Fish-guard and Rosslare on the Irish coast was opened in 1906 in connexion with the Great Western railway . There is also a
See also:boat service between Holyhead and
See also:Greenore on the Ulster coast .
Steamboats likewise ply between Milford, Tenby, Swansea and Cardiff and Bristol; also between Swansea and Cardiff and Dublin; and there is a
See also:regular service between Swansea and
See also:Ilfracombe . The principal canals are the Swansea, the Neath, the Aberdare & Glamorgan, and the Brecon &
See also:Abergavenny, all worked in connexion with the industrial districts of north Glamorganshire .
See also:Government.—In all acts of parliament Wales is invariably included under the
See also:term of " England and Wales," and whenever an
See also:act, or any section of an act, is intended to apply to the Principality alone, then Wales is always coupled with
See also:Monmouth-shire . The extinction of the Welsh Court of Great Sessions in 1830 served to remove the last relic of
See also:separate jurisdiction in Wales itself, but in 1881 special legislation was once more inaugurated by the Welsh
See also:Sunday Closing Act (46
See also:Victoria), forbidding the sale of spirituous liquors by all
See also:inn-keepers on Sundays to any but bona fide travellers throughout Wales and Monmouthshire . A separate act on behalf of Welsh
See also:education was likewise passed in 1889, when the Welsh Intermediate Education Act made special
See also:provision for intermediate and technical education throughout the Principality and Monmouthshire . Except for the administration of these two special acts, the system of government in Wales is identical in every respect with that of England (see ENGLAND and UNITED KINGDOM) . Royal commissions dealing with questions
See also:peculiar to Wales have been issued from
See also:time to time, notably of
See also:recent years, in the Welsh Land Tenure Commission of 1893, and the Welsh Church Commission of 1906 (see
See also:History) . Religion.—Ecclesiastically, the whole of Wales lies within the province of Canterbury . The four Welsh
See also:sees, however, extend beyond the
See also:borders of the twelve counties, for they include the whole of Monmouthshire and some portions of the English border shires; on the other
See also:hand, the sees of Hereford ancf Chester encroach upon the existing Welsh counties . The
See also:diocese of St Davids (Tyddewi), the largest,
See also:oldest and poorest of the four Cambrian sees, consists of the counties of Pembroke, Carmarthen and Cardigan, almost the whole of Brecon, the greater part of Radnor, and west Glamorgan with Swansea and Gower . The
See also:cathedral church of St Davids is situated near the remote headland of St Davids in Pembrokeshire, but the episcopal residence has been fixed ever since the Reformation at Abergwili near Carmarthen, the most central spot in this vast diocese . The see of
See also:Llandaff comprises Monmouthshire, all Glamorganshire as far west as the Tawe, and some parishes in Brecon and Hereford .
The diocese of Bangor consists of the counties of Anglesea, Carnarvon and large portions of Merioneth and Montgomery . The diocese of St Asaph (Llanelwy) consists of the county of Denbigh, nearly the whole of Flint, with portions of Montgomery, Merioneth and Shropshire . Since the beginning of the 19th century dissent has been strongly represented in the Principality, the combinednumbers of the various Nonconformist bodies far outstripping the adherents of the Church . Universally accepted
See also:statistics as to the various religious bodies it has been found impossible toobtain, but the
See also:Report (1910) of the Welsh Church Commission stated that, exclusive of Roman Catholics, there were 743,361 communicants or fully admitted members of some denomination, of whom 193,081 were Churchmen and 55o,28o Nonconformists . The gentry and landowners are all, broadly speaking, members of the established Church, but it is impossible to name any other class of society as belonging definitely either to " Church " or " Chapel." According to the above Report, the three most powerful dissenting bodies in Wales are the Congregationalists or
See also:Independents, whose members number 175,147 throughout Wales and Monmouthshire; the Calvinistic Methodists—a direct offshoot of the Church since the
See also:schism of 1811—with a membership of 170,617; and the
See also:Baptists, 143,835 . Wesleyan and Presbyterian chapels are likewise numerous, and the Unitarian or Socinian
See also:body has long been powerful in the valley of the Teifi . Nearly every existing
See also:sect is represented in Wales, including Swedenborgians and Moravians . The Roman Catholic Church has many followers amongst the labouring population of Irish descent in the industrial districts . The diocese of Newport (known till 1896 as Newport and Menevia) consists of the counties of Monmouth, Glamorgan and Hereford; whilst the remaining eleven counties were in 1895 formed into the Vicariate of Wales, which in 1898 was erected into a diocese under a
See also:bishop with the title of Menevia . Since the expulsion of the religious orders from France in 1903 several communities of French monks and nuns have taken up their abode in the Principality . History.—At the time of the Roman invasion of Britain, 55 B.C., four distinct dominant tribes, or families, are enumerated west of the Severn, viz. the Decangi, owning the island of Anglesea (Ynys F6n) and the Snowdonian
See also:district; the Ordovices, inhabiting the modern counties of Denbigh, Flint and Montgomery; the Dimetae, in the counties of Cardigan, Carmarthen and Pembroke; and the
See also:Silures, occupying the counties of Glamorgan, Brecknock, Radnor and Monmouth . It is interesting to note that the existing four Welsh sees of Bangor, St Asaph, St Davids and Llandaff correspond in the main with the limits of these four tribal divisions .
On the advance of Ostorius into western Britain, he met with considerable resistance from
See also:Caractacus (Caradog),
See also:king of the Silures, but after some encounters this
See also:prince was eventually captured and sent in chains to Rome . The partial
See also:conquest by Ostorius was completed under
See also:Julius Frontinus by the
See also:year 78, after which the Romans set to work in
See also:order to pacify and develop their newly annexed territory . At this
See also:period the copper mines of
See also:Mona or Anglesea, the silver mines near Plinlimmon and the gold mines in the valley of the Cothi in Carmarthenshire were exploited and worked with some success by the conquerors . In spite of the mountainous and boggy character of the country, roads were now constructed in all directions . Of these the most important are the military road leading S. from Deva (Chester) by way of Uriconium (Wroxeter) and Gobannium (Abergavenny) to Isca Silurum (
See also:Caerleon-on-TJsk) and Venta Silurum (Caerwent); another from Deva to Conovium (Conway), whence a road, the Sarn
See also:Helen, extended due S. to Carmarthen (Maridunum), by way of Loventium (Pont Llanio), which was also connected with Gobannium; from Maridunum a road led E. through the modern county of Glamorgan by way of Leucarum (Loughor) and Nidum (Neath) to Venta Silurum . With the accession of
See also:Christianity was introduced' by the Romans into the parts of Wales already colonized, and the efforts of the Roman priests were later supplemented during the 5th, 6th and 7th centuries by the devoted labours of Celtic missionaries, of whom nearly five
See also:hundred names still remain on record . Foremost in the work of preaching and educating were SS . David, Teilo, Illtyd and Cadoc in Dyfed, Morganwg, Gwent and Brycheiniog, comprising South Wales; Cynllo, Afan and Padarn in Ceredigion and Maesyfed, or Mid-Wales; and Deiniol, Dunawd, Beuno,
See also:Kentigern and Asaph in North Wales . To this period succeeding the fall of the Roman power is also ascribed the foundation of the many great Celtic monasteries, of which Bangor-Iscoed on the Dee, Bardsey Island, Llancarvan and Llantwit Major in the Vale of Glamorgan, Caerleon-on-Usk and St Davids are amongst the most celebrated in early Welsh ecclesiastical
See also:annals . With the withdrawal of the Roman legions, the recognized
See also:powers of the
See also:Dux Britanniarum, the Roman official who governed the upper province of Britain, were in the 5th century assumed by the Celtic prince Cunedda under the title of Gwledig (the Supreme), who fixed his court and residence at Deganwy, near the modern Llandudno . During the 6th century the
See also:battle of Deorham gained by the West Saxons in 577 cut off communication with
See also:Cornwall, and in 613 the great battle of Chester, won by King Ethelfrith, pre-vented the descendants of Cunedda from ever again asserting their
See also:sovereignty over
See also:Strathclyde; the joint effect, therefore, of these two important Saxon victories was to isolate Wales and at the same time to put an end to all pretensions of its rulers as the inheritors of the ancient
See also:political claims of the Roman
See also:governors of the northern province of Britain . The 8th century saw a further curtailment of the Welsh territories under Off a, king of
See also:Mercia, who annexed
See also:Shrewsbury (Amwythig) and Hereford (Henfordd) with their surrounding districts, and constructed the artificial boundary known as Off a's Dyke
See also:running due N. and S. from the mouth of the Dee to that of the Wye .
It was during these disastrous Mercian
See also:wars that there first appeared on the Welsh coasts the Norse and Danish pirates, who harried and burnt the small towns and flourishing monasteries on the shores of Cardigan Bay and the Bristol Channel . In the 9th century, however, the Welsh, attacked by land and sea, by Saxons and by Danes, at length obtained a prince capable of bringing the turbulent chieftains of his country into obedience, and of opposing the two sets of invaders of his
See also:realm . This was Rhodri Mawr, or
See also:Roderick the Great, a name always cherished in Cymric annals . Like
See also:Alfred of Wessex, Rhodri also built a
See also:fleet in order to protect Anglesea, " the
See also:mother of Wales," so called on account of its extensive corn-fields which supplied barren Gwynedd with provisions . In 877 Rhodri, after many vicissitudes, was slain in battle, and his dominions of Gwynedd (North Wales), Deheubarth (South Wales) and Powys (Mid Wales) were divided amongst his three sons, Anarawd, Cadell and Mervyn . Consolidation of Cambro-
See also:British territory was found impossible; there was no settled capital; and the three princes fixed their courts respectively at Aberffraw in Anglesea, at Dynevor (Dinefawr) near
See also:Llandilo in Deheubarth, and at Mathrafal is Powys . Howel, son of Cadell, commonly known as Howel Dda the Good, is ever celebrated in Welsh history as the framer, or rather the codifier, of the ancient
See also:laws of his country, which were promulgated to the
See also:people at his
See also:lodge, Ty
See also:Gwyn ar Taf, near the modern Whitland . In Howel's
See also:code the prince of Gwynedd with his court at Aberffraw is recognized as the leading monarch in Wales; next to him ranks the prince of Deheubarth, and third in estimation is the prince of Powys . The laws of Howel Dda throw a
See also:flood of interesting
See also:light upon the ancient customs and ideas of early medieval Wales, but as their standard of
See also:justice is founded on a tribal aad not a territorial system of society, it is easy to understand the antipathy with which the
See also:Normans subsequently came to regard this famous code . The dissensions of the turbulent princes of Gwynedd, Powys and Deheubarth, and of their no less quarrelsome chieftains, now
See also:rent the country, which was continually also a
See also:prey to Saxon incursions by land and to Scandinavian attacks by sea . Some degree of peace was, however, given to the distracted country during the reign of
See also:Llewelyn ap Seissyllt, the
See also:husband of Angharad, heiress of Gwynedd, who at length secured the over-lordship or sovereignty of all Wales, and reigned till 1022 . His son, Griffith ap Llewelyn, who, after having been driven into
See also:exile, recovered his
See also:father's realm in the battle of Pencader, Carmarthenshire, in 1041, for many years waged a war of varying success against Harold,
See also:earl of Wessex, but in 1062 he was treacherously slain, and Harold placed Wales under the old king's half-
See also:brothers, Bleddyn and Rhiwallon .
With theadvent of the Normans,
See also:William the Conqueror, with the
See also:object of placing a
See also:firm feudal barrier between Wales and the earldom of Mercia, erected three palatine counties along the Cymric frontier . Thus Hugh the
See also:Wolf was placed in Chester (Caer), Roger de Montgomery at Shrewsbury and William Fitz-Osbern at Hereford . In ro8r William himself visited the Principality, and even penetrated as far west as St Davids . But the most important result of this first Norman invasion was to be found in the marvellous and rapid success of Robert Fitz-
See also:Hamon, earl of
See also:Gloucester, who, accompanied by a number of knightly adventurers, quickly overran South Wales, and erected a chain of castles stretching from the Wye to Milford Haven . The rich low-lying lands of Morganwg and Gwent were thus firmly occupied, nor were they ever permanently recovered by the Welsh princes; and such natives as remained were kept in subjection by the almost impregnable fortresses of
See also:stone erected at Caerphilly, Cardiff, Cowbridge, Neath, Kidwelly and other places . The important castles of Carmarthen and Pembroke were likewise built at this period . At the accession of William Rufus the domain of Gwynedd had been reduced to Anglesea and the Snowdonian district, and that of South Wales, or Deheubarth, to the lands contained in the basins of the rivers Towy and Teifi, known as Ystrad Tywi and Ceredigion . Griffith ap Cynan, of the royal house of Gwynedd, who had been first an exile in
See also:Ireland, and later a prisoner at Chester, once more returned to his native land, and defied the Norman barons with success, whilst
See also:Henry I. vainly endeavoured to make his liege and follower, Owen of Powys, ruling prince in Wales . Meanwhile the house of Dynevor once more
See also:rose to some degree of power under Griffith ap Rhys, whose father, Rhys ap Tudor, had been slain in 1093 . The confused reign of
See also:Stephen was naturally favourable to the development of Cymric liberty, and with such strong princes as Owen, son of Griffith ap Cynan,
See also:heir to the
See also:throne of Gwynedd, and with Griffith ap Rhys ruling at Dynevor, the prospects of the Cymry
See also:grew brighter . In 1136 the army of Griffith ap Rhys met with a large English force near Cardigan, composed of the denizens of the South Wales castles and of the hated Flemish colonists, who had been lately planted by Henry I. in Dyfed . A fierce engagement took place wherein the Norman and Flemish troops were utterly routed, and the victorious Cymry slew thousands of their fugitives at the fords of the Teifi close to the town of Cardigan .
The following year (1137) saw the deaths of the two powerful princes, Griffith ap Cynan, " the
See also:sovereign and
See also:protector and peacemaker of all Wales," and Griffith ap Rhys, " the light and the strength and the gentleness of the men of the south." With the accession of Henry II. peace was made with Owen of Gwynedd, the successor of Griffith ap Cynan, and with Rhys ap Griffith of South Wales . In 1169 Owen Gwynedd died and was buried in Bangor cathedral after a reign of 33 years, wherein he had successfully defended his own realm and had done much to bring about that union of all Wales which his
See also:grandson was destined to
See also:complete . On the other hand, " The
See also:Lord Rhys," as he is usually termed, did homage to Henry II. at Pembroke in 1171, and was appointed the royal justiciar of all South Wales . At the
See also:castle of Cardigan in 1576, Prince Rhys held a historic bardic entertainment, or
See also:eisteddfod, wherein the poets and harpists of Gwynedd and Deheubarth contended in amicable rivalry . This enlightened prince died in 1196, and as at his
See also:death the house of Dynevor ceased to be of any further political importance, the overlordship of all Wales became vested indisputably in the house of Gwynedd, which from this point onwards may be considered as representing in itself alone the
See also:independent principality of Wales . The prince of Gwynedd henceforth considered himself as a sovereign, independent, but owing a personal
See also:allegiance to the king of England, and it was to obtain a recognition of his rights as such that Llewelyn ap lorwerth, " the Great," consistently strove under three English
See also:kings, and th ough his resources were small, it seemed for a time as though he might be able by uniting his countrymen to place the recognized autonomy of Gwynedd on a firm and enduring basis . By first connecting himself with
See also:John through his
See also:marriage with the English king's daughter
See also:Joan, by straining every nerve to repress dissensions and enforce obedience amongst the Welsh chieftains, and later by allying himself with the English barons against his suzerain, this prince during a reign of 44 years was enabled to give a considerable amount of peace and prosperity to his country, which he persistently sought to
See also:rule as an independent sovereign, although acknowledging a personal vassalage to the king of England . The close of the 12th century saw the final and complete subjection of the ancient Cambro-British Church to the supremacy of Canterbury . As part of the Roman Upper Province of Britain, Wales would naturally have fallen under the primacy of
See also:York, but the Welsh sees had continued practically independent of outside
See also:control during Saxon times . The bishops or' St Davids had from time to time claimed metropolitan rights over the remaining sees, but in 1115 St Anselme's
See also:appointment of the
See also:Bernard (d . 1147) to St Davids, in spite of the opposition of the native
See also:clergy, definitely marked the end of former Welsh ecclesiastical independence . In 1188 Archbishop Baldwin with a distinguished
See also:train, whilst preaching the Third Crusade, made an itinerary of the Welsh sees and visited the four cathedral churches, thereby formally asserting the supremacy of Canterbury throughout all Wales .
But in 1199 the celebrated Gerald de Barri (Giraldus Cambrensis),archdeacon of Brecon and a member of the famous Norman baronial house of de Barri, and also through his grandmother Nesta a great-grandson of Prince Rhys ap Tudor of Deheubarth, was elected bishop by the
See also:chapter of St Davids . This enthusiastic
See also:priest at once began to re-assert the ancient metropolitan claims of the historic Welsh see, and between the years 1199–1203 paid three visits to Rome in order to obtain the support of
See also:Pope Innocent III. against John and Archbishop Hubert, who firmly refused to recognize Gerald's
See also:late election . Innocent was inclined to temporize, whilst the Welsh chieftains, and especially Gwenwynwyn of Powys, loudly applauded Gerald's
See also:action, but Liewelyn ap Iorwerth himself prudently held aloof from the controversy . Finally, in 1203, Gerald was compelled to make complete submission to the king and archbishop at
See also:Westminster, and henceforth Canterbury remained in undisputed possession of the Welsh sees, a circumstance that undoubtedly tended towards the later union of the two countries . In 1238 Liewelyn, growing aged and infirm, summoned all his vassals to a
See also:conference at the famous Cistercian abbey of Strata Florida, whereat David, his son by the Princess Joan of England, was acknowledged his heir by all present . Two years later Llewelyn, the ablest and most successful of all the Welsh princes, expired and was buried in the monastery of his own foundation at Aberconway . He was succeeded by David II., at whose death without
See also:children in 1246 the sovereignty of Gwynedd, and consequently of Wales, reverted to his three nephews, sons of his half-
See also:brother Griffith, who had perished in 1244 whilst trying to
See also:escape from the Tower of London, where Henry III. was holding him as
See also:hostage for the good behaviour of Prince David . Of Griffith's three sons, Owen, Llewelyn and David, the most popular and influential was undoubtedly Llewelyn, whose deeds and qualities were celebrated in extravagant terms by the bards of his own
See also:day, and whose evil
See also:fate has ever been a favourite theme of Welsh poets . Though to this, the last prince of Wales, political sagacity and a firm
See also:desire for peace have often been ascribed, it must be admitted that he showed himself both turbulent and rash at a time when the most cautious
See also:diplomacy on his part was essential for his country's existence . For
See also:Edward, Henry III.'s son and heir, who had been created earl of Chester by his father and put in possession of all the royal claims in Wales, was generally credited with a strong determination to crush for ever Welsh independence, should a fitting opportunity to do so present itself . Nevertheless, the hostile policy of Llewelyn, who had closely associated himself with the cause of
See also:Simon de Montfort and the barons, was at first successful . For after the battle of
See also:Evesham a treaty was concluded between the English king and the Welsh prince at Montgomery, whereby the latter was confirmed in his principality of Gwynedd and was permitted to receive the homage of all the Welsh barons, save that of the head of the house of Dynevor, which the king reserved to himself; whilst the four fertile cantrefs of Perfeddwlad, lying between Gwynedd and the earldom of Chester, were granted tothe prince .
Llewelyn was, however, foolish enough to lose the results of this very favourable treaty by intriguing with the de Montfort
See also:family, and in 1273 he became betrothed to Eleanor de Montfort, the old Earl's only daughter, a piece of political folly which may possibly in some degree account for Edward's harsh treatment of the Welsh prince . In 1274 Liewelyn refused to attend at Edward's
See also:coronation, although the Scottish king was present . In 1276 Edward entered Wales from Chester, and after a
See also:campaign brought his obstinate vassal to submit to the ignominious treaty of Conway, whereby Liewelyn lost almost all the benefits conferred on him by the compact of Montgomery ten years before . Liewelyn, utterly humbled, now behaved with such prudence that Edward at last sanctioned his marriage with Eleanor de Montfort (although such an
See also:alliance must originally have been highly distasteful to the English king), and the ceremony was performed with much pomp in
See also:Worcester Cathedral in 1278 . In 1281 discontent with the king and his system of justice had again become rife in Wales, and at this point the treacherous Prince David, who had hitherto supported the king against his own brother, was the first to proclaim a
See also:national revolt . On Palm Sunday 1282, in a time of peace, David suddenly attacked and burnt Hawarden Castle, whereupon all Wales was up in arms . Edward, greatly angered and now bent on putting an end for ever to the independence of the Principality, hastened into Wales; but whilst the king was campaigning in Gwynedd, Prince Llewelyn himself was slain in an obscure skirmish on the lrth of
See also:December 1282 at Cefn-ybedd, near
See also:Builth on the Wye, whither he had gone to rouse the people of Brycheiniog . Llewelyn's head was brought to Edward at Conway Castle, who ordered it to be exhibited in the capital, surrounded by a wreath of ivy, in mocking allusion to an ancient Cymric prophecy concerning a Welsh prince being crowned in London . His body is said, on doubtful authority, to have been buried honourably by the monks of Abbey - Cwm Hir, near
See also:Rhayader . Llewelyn's brother, now David III., designated by the English " the last survivor of that race of traitors," for a few months defied the English forces amongst the fastnesses of Snowdon, but ere long he was captured, tried as a disloyal English baron by a parliament at Shrewsbury, and finally executed under circumstances of great barbarity on the 3rd of
See also:October 1283 . With David's capture practically all serious Welsh resistance to the English arms ceased,. if we except the unsuccessful attempt made to rouse the crushed nation in 1293 by Llewelyn's natural son, Madoc, who ended his days as a prisoner in the Tower of London . Having suppressed the independence of Wales, Edward now took steps to keep Gwynedd itself in permanent subjection by
See also:building the castles of Conway, Carnarvon,
See also:Criccieth and Harlech within the ancient patrimony of the princes of North Wales, whose legitimate race was now
See also:extinct save for Llewelyn's daughter G wenllian, who had entered the convent of Sempringham .
See also:April 1284
See also:Queen Eleanor, who had meanwhile joined her husband in Wales, gave
See also:birth to a son in the newly built castle of Carnarvon, and this
See also:infant the victorious king, half in
See also:earnest and half in jest, presented to the Welsh people for a prince who could speak no word of English . On the 7th of
See also:February 1301, Edward of Carnarvon was formally created " prince of Wales " by his father, and henceforward the title and honours of Prince of Wales became associated with the recognized heir of the English
See also:crown . By the
See also:Statute, or rather Ordinance of Rhuddlan, promulgated in 1284, many important changes were effected in the
See also:civil administration of Wales . Glamorgan and the county palatine of Pembroke had hitherto been the only portions of the country subject to English shire
See also:law, but now Edward parcelled out the ancient territory of the princes of Gwynedd and of Deheubarth into six new counties, with sheriffs, coroners and bailiffs . Thus Anglesea, Carnarvon, Merioneth and Flint were erected in North Wales; whilst out of the districts of Ystrad Tywi and Ceredigion in South Wales, the old dominions of the house of Dynevor, the counties of Carmarthen and Cardigan were formed . The old Welsh land tenure by
See also:gavelkind was, however, still permitted to remain in force amongst the natives of all Wales, whilst it was henceforth arranged to administer justice in the eight counties by special royal
See also:judges, and in the Marches by the
See also:officers appointed by the various lords-marchers according to the terms of their tenure . Another distinguishing mark of Edward's policy towards Wales is to be found in the commercial and administrative powers given to the fortified towns, inhabited solely by people of English birth and by Welshmen who acquiesced in English rule . Municipal charters and market privileges were no W granted to such towns as Cardiff, Carrnarthen, Builth, Cardigan, Montgomery, Aberystwith, Newborough, &c., and this wise policy was continued under Edward II. and Edward III . Many of the turbulent Welsh warriors having now become mercenaries on the continent or else enlisted under the English king, and the whole of the land west of Severn at last enjoying
See also:internal peace, the commercial resources of Wales were
See also:developed in a manner that had hitherto not been possible . Coal, copper,
See also:timber, iron, and especially wool, were exported from the Principality, and by the Statute
See also:Staple of 1353 Carmarthen was declared the
See also:sole staple for the whole Welsh wool
See also:trade, every bale of wool having first to be sealed or " cocketed " at this important town, which during the 14th century may almost be accounted as the English capital of the Principality, so greatly was it favoured by the
See also:Plantagenet monarchs . A natural result of this partial treatment of the towns by the king and his vassals was that the English
See also:tongue and also English customs became prevalent if not universal in all the towns of Wales, whilst the rural districts remained strongly Cymric in character, language and sympathy . After more than a century of enforced repose in the land and of prosperity in the towns, all Wales was suddenly convulsed by a wide-spread revolt against the English crown, which reads more like a
See also:tale of
See also:romance than a piece of sane history .
The deposition of
See also:Richard II. and the usurpation of Henry IV., combined with the
See also:jealousy of the rural inhabitants of Wales against the privileged dwellers of the towns, seem to have rendered the country ripe for
See also:rebellion . Upon this troubled scene now appeared Owen Glendower (Owain Glyndwfrdwy: died ? 1415), a descendant of the former princes of Powys and a favourite courtier of the late King Richard, smarting under the effect of personal wrongs received from Henry of
See also:Lancaster . With a success and
See also:speed that contemporary writers deemed miraculous, Owen stirred up his countrymen against the king, and by their aid succeeded in destroying castle after castle, and burning town after town throughout the whole length and breadth of the land between the years 1401 and 1406 . In 1402 he routed the forces of the Mortimers at Bryn Glas near Knighton in Maesyfed, where he captured Sir Edmund
See also:Mortimer, the
See also:uncle and
See also:guardian of the legitimate heir to the English throne, the
See also:young earl of
See also:March . The aims of Owen were described by himself in a
See also:letter addressed to
See also:Charles VI., king of France, who had hastened to acknowledge the upstart as Prince of Wales and had sent 12,000 troops on his behalf to Milford Haven . In this letter Owen, who was holding his court in Llanbadarn near Aberystwith, demands his own
See also:acknowledgment as sovereign of Wales; the calling of a
See also:free Welsh parliament on the English
See also:model; the independence of the Welsh Church from the control of Canterbury; and the founding of national colleges in Wales itself . An
See also:assembly of Welsh nobles was actually summoned to meet in 1406 at Machynlleth in an ancient building still
See also:standing and known to this day as " Owen Glendower's Parliament House." In vain did Henry and his lords-marchers endeavour to suppress the rebellion, and to capture, by
See also:fair means or foul, the
See also:person of Glendower himself; the princely adventurer seemed to bear a charmed existence, and for a few years Owen was practically
See also:master of all Wales . Nevertheless, his rule and power gradually declined, and by the year 1408 Owen himself had disappeared as suddenly and mysteriously as he had arisen, and the land once more fell into undisputed possession of the king and his chosen vassals . For Owen's brilliant but brief career and ruthless treatment of English settlers and Anglophil Welshmen, his countrymen had not unnaturally to pay a heavy
See also:penalty in the severe statutes which the affrighted parliaments of Henry IV. framed for the poor monoglot Welshmen and appears an especially harsh and
See also:protection of the English dwellers in Wales and the border counties, and which were not repealed until the days of the Tudors . Of the part played by the Cymry during the wars of the
See also:Roses it is needless to speak, since the period forms a part of English rather than of Welsh history . The Yorkist
See also:faction seems to have been strongest in the eastern portion of the Principality, where the Mortimers were all-powerful, but later the close connexion of the house of Lancaster with Owen Tudor, a
See also:gentleman of Anglesea (beheaded in 1461) who had married Catherine of France, widow of Henry V., did much to invite Welsh sympathy on behalf of the claims of Henry Tudor his grandson, who claimed the English throne by right of his
See also:grand-mother .
Through the instrumentality of the celebrated Sir Rhys ap
See also:Thomas (1451-1527), the wealthiest and the most powerful personage in South Wales, Henry Tudor, earl of
See also:Richmond, on his landing at Milford Haven in 1485 found the Welsh ready to rise in his behalf against the usurper Richard III . With an army largely composed of Sir Rhys's adherents, Henry was enabled to
See also:face Richard III. at
See also:Bosworth, and consequently to obtain the crown of England . Thus did a Welshman revenge the ignominious deaths of Prince Llewelyn and Prince David by becoming two centuries later king of England and prince of Wales . With the Tudor
See also:dynasty firmly seated on the throne, a number of constitutional changes intended to place Welsh subjects on a complete social and political equality with Englishmen have to be recorded . The all-important Act of Union 1536 (27 Henry VIII.), converted the whole of the Marches of Wales into shire ground, and created five new counties: Denbigh, Montgomery, Radnor, Brecknock, or Brecon and Monmouth . At the same time the remaining lordships were added to the English border counties of Gloucester, Shropshire and Hereford, and also to the existing Welsh shires of Cardigan, Carmarthen, Glamorgan and Pembroke, all of which found their boundaries considerably enlarged under this statute . Clause 26 of the same act likewise enacted that the 12 Welsh counties should return 24 members to the English parliament: one for each county, one for the boroughs in each county (except Merioneth), and one for the town and county of
See also:Haverfordwest . It is probable that Welsh members attended the parliaments of 1536 and 1539, and certain it is that they were present at the parliament of 1541 and every parliament subsequently held . This act of union was followed in 1542 by an " Act for certain Ordinances in the King's
See also:Majesty's Dominion and Principality of Wales " (34 & 35 Henry VIII.), which placed the court of the
See also:president and council of Wales and the Marches on a legal footing . This court, with a jurisdiction some-what similar to that of the
See also:Star Chamber, had originally been called into being under Edward IV. with the object of suppressing private feuds and other illegalities amongst the lords-marchers and their retainers . This council of Wales, the headquarters of which had been fixed at Ludlow, undoubtedly did good service on behalf of law and order under such capable presidents as Bishop
See also:Lee and William
See also:Herbert, earl of Pembroke; but it had long ceased to be of any
See also:practical use, and had in fact become an engine of oppression by the time of the Common-
See also:wealth, although it was not definitely abolished till the revolution of 1688 . The act of 1542 also enacted that courts of justice under the name of " The King's Great Sessions in Wales " should sit twice a year in every one of the counties of Wales, except Mon-mouth, which was thus formally declared an English shire .
For this purpose four circuits, two for North and two for South Wales, each circuit containing a convenient group of three counties, were created; whilst justices of the peace and custodes rotulorum for each shire were likewise appointed . At the same time all ancient Welsh laws and customs, which were at variance with the recognized law of England, were now declared illegal, and Cymric land tenure by gavelkind, which had been respected by Edward I., was expressly abolished and its place taken by theordinary practice of
See also:primogeniture . It was also particularly stated that all legal procedure must henceforth be conducted in the English tongue, an arrangement which fell very heavily on ungracious enactment when coming from a sovereign who was himself a genuine Welshman by birth . Under the system of the Great Sessions justice was administered throughout the twelve counties of Wales for nearly three hundred years, and it was not until 1330 that this system of jurisdiction was abolished (not without some protest from Welsh members at Westminster), and the existing North and South Wales circuits were brought into being . With the peaceful absorption of the Principality into the realm of the Tudor sovereigns, the subsequent course of Welsh history assumes mainly a religious and educational character . The influence of the
See also:Renaissance seems to have been tardy in penetrating into Wales itself, nor did the numerous ecclesiastical changes during the period of the Reformation cause any marked signs either of resentment or approval amongst the mass of the Welsh people, although some of the ancient Catholic customs lingered on obstinately . As early as the reign of Henry VIII. there were, however, to be found at court and in the
See also:universities a number of ardent and talented young Welshmen, adherents mostly of the reforming party in Church and State, who were destined to bring about a brilliant
See also:literary revival in their native land during the reigns of
See also:Elizabeth and
See also:James I . Of this distinguished
See also:band the most memorable names are those of Bishop Richard
See also:Davies (c . 1501—1581) and of William Salesbury, the
See also:scholar of Llanrwst (c . 1520-c . 1600) in Denbighshire, who is commonly credited with the
See also:honour of having produced the first printed
See also:book in the Welsh language, a small
See also:volume of
See also:pro-verbs published in London about the year 1545 . With the accession of Elizabeth a novel and vigorous ecclesiastical policy on truly national lines was now inaugurated in Wales itself, chiefly through the instrumentality of Richard Davies, nominated bishop of St Asaph in 1559 and translated thence to St Davids in 1561, who was mainly responsible for the act of parliament of 1563, commanding the bishops of St Davids, Llandaff, Bangor, St Asaph and Hereford to prepare with all speed for public use Welsh translations of the Scriptures and the Book of Common Prayer .
Of the five prelates thus named, Davies alone was competent to undertake the task, and for assistance in the work of translation he called upon his old friend and formerneighbour, William Salesbury, who like the bishop was an excellent Greek and
See also:Hebrew scholar . The pair laboured with such
See also:diligence that before the close of the year 1567 the required translations of the
See also:Liturgy and the New Testament were published in London; the former being the exclusive work of the bishop, whilst the latter was principally the product of Salesbury's pen, although some portions of it were contributed by Bishop Davies and by Thomas
See also:Huet, or
See also:Hewett, precentor of St Davids (d . 1591) . Having accomplished so much in so small a space of time, the two friends were next engaged upon a translation of the Old Testament, but owing to a
See also:quarrel, the cause of which remains obscure, this interesting literary
See also:partnership was brought to an abrupt ending about 1590 . The honour of presenting his countrymen with a complete Welsh version of the Bible was reserved for William
See also:Morgan (c . 1547-1604),
See also:vicar of Llanrhayader, in Denbighshire, and afterwards bishop successively of Llandaff and of St Asaph . For eight years Morgan was busied with his self-imposed task, being greatly encouraged thereto by Archbishop
See also:Whitgift, by Bishop William
See also:Hughes (d . 1600) of St Asaph, and by other leading dignitaries of the Church both in England and in Wales . In December 1588 the first complete Welsh Bible, commonly known as " Bishop Morgan's Bible," was issued from the royal
See also:press at Westminster under the
See also:patron-age of queen and primate, about 800 copies being supplied for distribution amongst the
See also:parish churches of Wales . This famous editio princeps of the Welsh Bible, first and foremost of Welsh
See also:classics, was further supplemented under James I. by the Authorized Version, produced by Richard
See also:Parry (1560-1623), bishop of St Asaph, with the help of Dr John Davies of Mallwyd (1570-.1644), the first great Welsh lexicographer . At the ter-
See also:centenary of "Bishop Morgan's Bible" in 1888 a national
See also:movement of appreciation was set on foot amongst Welshmen of all denominations both at home and abroad, with the result thata memorial
See also:cross was erected in the cathedral close of St Asaph in order to perpetuate the names and national services of the eight leading Welsh translators of the Scriptures:—Bishops Davies, Morgan and Parry; William Salesbury; Thomas Huet; Dr Davies of Mallwyd; Archdeacon Edmund Prys (1541-1624), author of a popular Welsh metrical version of the Psalter; and
See also:Goodman, dean of Westminster (1528-1601), a native of Ruthin, who greatly assisted Bishop Morgan in'his task . Two circumstances attending the production of these Welsh translations should be noted: (1) That the leaders of this remarkable religious, literary and educational revival within the Principality were chiefly natives of North Wales, where for many years St Asaph was regarded as the chief centre of Cambro-British intellectual
See also:life; and (2) that all these important works in the Welsh tongue were published of
See also:necessity in London, owing to the
See also:absence of an acknowledged capital, or any central city of importance in Wales itself .
It would be well-nigh impossible to exaggerate the services rendered to the ancient British tongue, and consequently to the national spirit of Wales, by these Elizabethan and Jacobean translations, issued in 1567, 1588 and 1620, which were able definitely to
See also:fix the standard of classical Welsh, and to embody the contending dialects of Gwynedd, Dyfed and Gwent for all time in one literary storehouse . But for this sudden revival of Cymric literature under the patronage of Elizabeth (for the obtaining of which Wales must ever owe a deep
See also:debt of gratitude to Bishop Richard Davies, " her second St David "), there is every reason to believe that the ancient language of the Principality must either have drifted into a number of corrupt dialects, as it then showed symptoms of doing, or else have tended to ultimate extinction, much as the Cornish tongue perished in the 17th century . The growth of
See also:Puritanism in Wales was neither strong nor speedy, although the year 1588, which witnessed the appearance of Bishop Morgan's Bible, also gave birth to two fierce appeals to the parliament, urging a drastic Puritanical policy in Wales, from the pen of the celebrated John
See also:Penry, a native of Brecknockshire (1559-1593)• Far more influential than Penry amongst the Welsh were Rhys
See also:Prichard ( ? 1579-1644), the famous vicar of Llandovery,' Carmarthenshire, and William Wroth (d . 1642), rector of Llanfaches, Monmouthshire . Of these two Puritan divines, Vicar Prichard, who was essentially orthodox in his behaviour, forms an interesting connecting
See also:link between the learned Elizabethan translators of the Bible and the great revivalists of the 18th century, and his moral rhymes in the vernacular, collected and printed after his death under the title of The Welshman's Candle (Canwyll y Cymry), still retain some degree of popularity amongst his countrymen . Although a strong opponent of Laud's and Charles's ecclesiastical policy, Prichard lived unmolested, and even rose to be chancellor of St Davids; but the indiscreet Wroth, " the founder and father of
See also:nonconformity in Wales," being suspended in 1638 by Bishop
See also:Murray of Llandaff, founded a small community of Independents at Llanfaches, which is thus commonly ac-counted the first Nonconformist chapel in Wales . During the years
See also:prior to the Great Rebellion, however, in spite of the preaching and writings of Vicar Prichard, Wroth and others, the vast mass of Welshmen of all classes remained friendly to the High Church policy of Laud and staunch supporters of the king's
See also:prerogative . Nor were the effects of the great literary revival in Elizabeth's reign by any means exhausted, for at this time Wales undoubtedly possessed a large number of native divines that were at once active parish priests and excellent scholars, many of whom had been educated at Jesus
See also:Oxford, the Welsh college endowed by Dr Hugh Price (d . 1574) and founded under Elizabeth's patronage in 1573 . So striking was the devotion shown throughout the Principality to the king, who fought his last disastrous campaign in the friendly counties of Wales and the Marches, that on the final victory of the parliament there was passed within a
See also:month of Charles's execution 1 Sometimes known as vicar of Llandingat, his church being in that parish . in 1649 (perhaps as a special measure of punishment) an " Act for the better
See also:Propagation and Preaching of the
See also:Gospel in Wales," by the terms of which a packed body of seventy commissioners was presented with powers that were practically unlimited to
See also:deal with all matters ecclesiastical in Wales .
To assist these commissioners in their task of inquiry andejectment, a body of twenty-five " Approvers " was likewise constituted, with the object of selecting itinerant preachers to replace the dismissed incumbents; and amongst the Approvers are conspicuous the names of Walter
See also:Cradock (d . 1659), a suspended curate of St Mary's, Cardiff, and a follower of Wroth's; and of Vavasor
See also:Powell (1617-167o), an honest but injudicious zealot . Some 330 out of a possible total of 520 incumbents were now ejected in South Wales and Monmouthshire, and there is every reason to suppose that the beneficed clergy of North Wales suffered equally under the new system . The greed and tyranny of several of the commissioners, and the bigotry and mismanagement of well-meaning fanatics such as Cradock and Powell, soon wrought dire confusion throughout the whole Principality, so that a
See also:monster petition, signed alike by moderate Puritans and by High Churchmen, was prepared for presentation to parliament in 1652 by Colonel Edward Freeman,
See also:attorney-general for South Wales . Despite the fierce efforts of Vavasor Powell and his brother itinerant preachers to thwart the reception of this South Wales petition at Westminster, Colonel Freeman was able to urge the claims of the petitioners, or "
See also:Anti-Propagators " as they were termed, at the
See also:bar of the House of
See also:Commons, openly declaring that by the late policy of ejectment and destruction " the light of the Gospel was almost extinguished in Wales." A new commission was now appointed to inquire into alleged abuses in Wales, and the existing evidence clearly shows how harsh and unfair was the treatment meted out to the clergy under the act of 1649, and also how utterly subversive of all ancient
See also:custom and established order were the reforms suggested by the commissioners and approvers . At the Restoration all the ejected clergy who survived were reinstated in their old benefices under the Act of Uniformity of 1662, whilst certain Puritan incumbents were in their turn dismissed for refusing to comply with various requirements of that act . Amongst these Stephen Hughes of Carmarthen (1623-1688), a devoted follower of Vicar Prichard and an editor of his works, was ejected from the living of Mydrim in Carmarthenshire, whereby the valuable services of this eminent divine were lost to the Church and gained by the Nonconformists, who had increased considerably in numbers since the Civil Wars . The old ecclesiastical policy of Elizabeth, which had hitherto
See also:borne such good fruit in Wales, was now gradually relaxed under the later Stuarts and definitely abandoned under Anne, during whose reign only Englishmen were appointed to the vacant Welsh sees . From 1702 to 1870, a period of nearly 170 years, no Welsh-speaking native bishop was nominated (with the solitary exception of John Wynne, consecrated to St Asaph in 1715), and it is needless to point out that this selfish and unjust policy was largely responsible for the neglect and
See also:misrule which distinguished the latter half of the 18th and the early part of the 19th centuries . The Church, which had so long played a prominent and valuable part in the moral and literary education of the Welsh people, was now gradually forced out of
See also:touch with the nation through the action of
See also:alien and unsympathetic Whig prelates in Wales itself, which still remained mainly High Church and Jacobite in feeling . All writers agree in stating that the mass of the Welsh people at the close of the 17th century were illiterate, and many divines of Cymric
See also:charge their countrymen also with immorality and religious apathy . English was little spoken or understood amongst the
See also:peasant population, and there was a great dearth of Welsh educational works .
Some efforts to remedy this dark
See also:condition of things had already been made by Thomas
See also:Gouge, with the assistance of Stephen Hughes, and also by the newly founded " Society for the Promotion of Christian Know-ledge "; but it was Griffith
See also:Jones (1683-1761), rector of Llanddowror in south Carmarthenshire, who was destined to becomethe true
See also:pioneer of Welsh education, religious and secular . Early in the reign of George I. this excellent man, whose name and memory will ever be treasured so long as the Welsh tongue survives, began a system of catechizing in the vernacular amongst the children and adults of his own parish . With the cordial. help of Sir John Philipps (d . 1736) of
See also:Picton Castle, the head of an ancient family in Dyfed, and of Mrs Bridget Bevan of Laugharne (d . 1779), who is still affectionately remembered in Wales as the donor of " Madam Bevan's Charity," Griffith Jones was enabled to extend his
See also:scheme of educating the people throughout South Wales, where numerous " circulating charity
See also:schools," as they were called, were set up in many parishes with the approval of their incumbents . The results obtained by the growth of these schools were speedy and successful beyond the wildest hopes of their founder . This educational system, in-vented by Griffith Jones and supported by the
See also:purse of Mrs Bevan, in 176o numbered 215 schools, with a total number of 8687 contemporary scholars; and by the date of Jones's death in 1761 it has been proved that over 15o,oco Welsh persons of every age and of either sex, nearly a third of the whole population of Wales at that time, were taught to read the Scriptures in their own language by means of these schools . With this newly acquired ability to read the Bible in their own tongue, the many persons so taught were not slow to
See also:express a general demand for Cymric literature, which was met by a supply from local presses in the small country towns; the marvellous success of the Welsh circulating charity schools caused in fact the birth of the Welsh vernacular press . In spite, however, of the marked improvement in the conditions and behaviour of the Welsh people, owing to this strictly orthodox revival within the
See also:pale of the Church, Griffith Jones and his system of education were regarded with indifference by the English prelates in Wales, who offered no preferment and gave little encouragement to the founder of the circulating schools . Meanwhile the writings and personal example of the pious rector of Llanddowror were stirring other Welshmen in the work of revival, chief amongst them being
See also:Harris of Trevecca (1713-1773), a layman of brilliant abilities but erratic temperament; and Daniel Rowland (1713-179o), curate of Llangeitho in Mid-Cardiganshire, who became in time the most eloquent and popular preacher throughout all Wales . Two other clergymen, who figure prominently in the Methodist movement, and whose influence has proved lasting, were
See also:Williams of Carmarthen (1722-1796), the Welsh Bible commentator, and William Williams of Pantycelyn (1717-1791), the celebrated Welsh hymn-writer . Incidentally, it will be noticed that this important Methodist revival had its origin and found its chief supporters and exponents in a restricted corner of South Wales, of which Carmarthen was the centre, in curious contrast with the literary movement in Elizabeth's reign, which was largely confined to the district
See also:round St Asaph .
During the lifetime of Griffith Jones the course of Welsh
See also:Methodism had run in orthodox channels and had been generally supported by the Welsh clergy and gentry; but after his death the tendency to exceed the
See also:bounds of conventional Church discipline grew so marked as to excite the alarm of the English bishops in Wales . Nevertheless, the bulk of the Methodists continued to attend the services of the Church, and to receive the sacraments from regularly ordained parish priests, although a schism was becoming inevitable . Towards the close of the 18th century the Methodist revival spread to North Wales under the influence of the celebrated Thomas Charles, commonly called Charles of Bala (1755-1814), formerly curate of Llanymowddwy and the founder of Welsh Sunday schools . So strained had the relations between the English rulers of the Church and the Methodists themselves now grown, that in 1811 the long-expected schism took place, much to the regret of Charles of Bala himself, who had ever been a devoted
See also:disciple of Griffith Jones .. The great bulk of the farming and labouring members of the Church now definitely abandoned their " Ancient Mother," to whom, however, the Welsh gentry still adhered . The Great Schism of 1811 marks in fact the lowest point to which the fortunes of the once powerful and popular Church in Wales had sunk;—in 1811 there were only English-speaking prelates to be found, whilst the abuses of non-residence, pluralities and even nepotism were rampant everywhere . As instances of this clerical corruption then prevailing in Wales, mention may be made of the cases of Richard
See also:Watson (d . 1816), the non-
See also:resident bishop of Llandaff, who rarely visited his diocese during an episcopate of
See also:thirty years; and of another English divine who held the deanery, the chancellorship and nine livings in a North Welsh see, his curates-in-charge being paid out of Queen Anne's Bounty, a fund expressly intended for the benefit of impoverished livings . An honourable exception to the indolent and rapacious divines of this
See also:stamp was Thomas
See also:Burgess (bishop of St Davids), to whose exertions is mainly due the foundation of St David's College at Lampeter in 1822, an institution erected to provide a better and cheaper education for intending Welsh clergymen . The foundation of Lampeter College was one of the earliest signs of a new era of revived vigour and better government within the Church, although it was not till 187o that, by Mr Gladstone's appointment of Dr
See also:Joshua Hughes to the see of St Asaph, the special claims of the Welsh Church were officially recognized, and the old Elizabethan policy was one more reverted to after a lapse of nearly two hundred years . After 1870 Welsh ecclesiastical appointments were made in a more truly national spirit, and this official acknowledgment of the peculiar duties and claims of the Church in Wales largely helped to win back no small amount of the strength and popularity that had been lost during Georgian times . With the old national Church enthralled by English political prelates, and consequently hindered from ministering to the special needs of the people, the progress of dissent throughout the Principality was naturally rapid .
See also:primary education was largely supplied by the many Church schools in all parts of Wales, yet it was in the three most important denominations—the Congregationalists, the Baptists and the Calvinistic Methodists (that new-
See also:born sect of which the Church herself was the unwilling
See also:parent)—that almost all Welsh spiritual development was to be found during the first half of the 19th century . Thus between the year 1811 (the date of the Methodist
See also:secession) and 1832 (the year of the great Reform
See also:Bill), the number of dissenting chapels had risen from 945 to 1428: a truly marvellous increase even allowing for the speedy growth of population, since every chapel so built had of necessity to be well attended in order to render it self-supporting . From this religious guidance of the people by the well-organized forces of dissent, it was but a step to political ascendancy, and as the various constitutional changes from the Reform Bill onward began to
See also:lower the elective franchise, and thus to throw more and more power into the hands of the working classes, that spirit of radicalism, which is peculiarly associated with political dissent, began to assert itself powerfully throughout the country . As early as the reign of William IV, there appeared the weekly Times of Wales (Amserau Cymry), founded and edited by the able William
See also:Rees, who may be styled the father of the Welsh political press; and the success of Rees's venture was so marked that other
See also:journals, arranged to suit the special tenets of each sect, speedily sprang into existence . In the year 1870--a date that for many reasons marks the opening of an important era in modern Welsh history—the dissenting bodies of Wales were supporting two quarterly, sixteen monthly and ten weekly papers, all published in the vernacular and all read largely by peasants, colliers and artisans . With so powerful a press behind it, it is no wonder that Welsh political dissent was largely responsible for the changed attitude of the Imperial government in its treatment of the Principality—as evinced in the Sunday Closing Act of 1881, a measure which was very dear to the strong
See also:temperance party in Wales, and in the Welsh Intermediate Education Act, granted by Lord
See also:Salisbury's government in 1889 . It was certainly owing to the pressure of Welsh political dissent that Lord Rosebery's
See also:cabinet issued the Welsh Land Tenure Commission in 1893—an inquiry which did much to exonerate the Welsh squirearchy from a number of vaguecharges of extortion and sectarian oppression; and that Sir H .
See also:Campbell-Bannerman's cabinet appointed the Welsh Church Commission (21st
See also:June 1906) . This Commission was authorized to " inquire into the origin, nature, amount and application of the temporalities, endowments and other properties of the Church of England in Wales and Monmouthshire; and into the provision made and the work done by the Churches of all de-nominations in Wales and Monmouthshire for the spiritual welfare of the people, and the extent to which the people avail themselves of such provision." The Report and Memoranda of the Commission were published on the and of December 191o . Mention must be made of the Rebecca riots in 1843–1844 in South Wales, wherein many
See also:toll gates were destroyed by mobs of countrymen dressed in
See also:female garb, " as the daughters of Rebecca about to possess the gates of their enemies "; and the Anti-Tithe agitation of 1885–1886—largely traceable to the inflammatory language used concerning clerical tithe by certain
See also:organs of the vernacular press—which led to some disorderly scenes between distraining parties of
See also:police and crowds of excited peasants in the more remote rural districts . There have been occasional strikes accompanied by acts of lawlessness in the industrial and mining districts of Glamorganshire, and also amongst the workmen employed in the quarries of Gwynedd . The University College of Wales was founded at Aberystwyth in 1872; that of South Wales at Cardiff in 1883; and of North Wales at Bangor in 1884 .
In 1889 the system of intermediate schools, arranged to form an educational link between the primary schools and the colleges, was inaugurated . In
See also:November 1893 the University of Wales was incorporated by royal
See also:charter, with Lord Aberdare (d . 1895) as its first chancellor . All the religious bodies, including the Church, have been extremely active in educational and pastoral work; whilst the peculiar religious movement known as a revival (Diwygiad) has occurred from time to time throughout the Principality, notably in the years 1859 and 1904 . But the most remarkable phenomenon in modern Wales has been the evident growth of a strong national sentiment, the
See also:evolution of a new Welsh Renaissance, which demanded special recognition of the Principality's claims by the Imperial parliament . This revived spirit of nationalism was by outsiders some-times associated, quite erroneously, with the aims and actions of the Welsh
See also:parliamentary party, the spokesmen of political dissent in Wales; yet in reality this sentiment was shared equally by the clergy of the Established Church, and by a large number of the laity within its
See also:fold . Nor is the question of the vernacular itself of necessity bound up with this new movement, for Wales is essentially a bi-lingual country, wherein every educated Cymro speaks and writes English with ease, and where also large towns and whole districts—such as Cardiff, south Monmouth, the Vale of GIamorgan, Gower, south Glamorgan, south Pembroke, east Flint, Radnorshire and Breconshire—remain practically monoglot English-speaking . Nor are the Welsh landowners and gentry devoid of this new spirit of nationalism, and although some generations ago they ceased as a body to speak the native tongue, they have shown a strong disposition to study once more the ancient language and literature of their country . It is true that a Young Wales party has arisen, which seeks to narrow this movement to the exclusion of English ideas and influences; and it is also true that there is a party which is abnormally suspicious of and hostile to this Welsh Renaissance; but in the main it is correct to say that the bulk of the Welsh nation remains content to assert its views and requirements in a reasonable manner . How wide-spread and enthusiastic is this true spirit of national-ism amongst all classes and sects of Welsh society to-day may be observed at the great meetings of the National Eisteddfod, which is held on alternate years in North and South Wales at some important centre, and at which the immense crowds collected and the
See also:interest displayed make a deep impression on the Anglo-Saxon or foreign visitors . The sincere, if somewhat narrow-minded religious feelings; the devotion manifested by all classes towards the land of their fathers; the extraordinary vitality of the Cambro-British tongue—these are the main characteristics of modern Wales, and they seem to verify the terms of Taliesin's ancient prophecy concerning the early dwellers of Gwalia: " Their Lord they shall praise; Their Tongue they shall keep; Their Land they shall lose Except
See also:Wild Wales." (H . M .
V.) Welsh Literature.—The Welsh language possesses an extensive literature, ranging from the 9th century to the present day . A detailed account of it will be found in thearticle CELT: Celtic Literature, § iv . Welsh Language.—Welsh, the Celtic language spoken by the ancient Britons (see CELT: Language), is the domestic tongue of the majority of the inhabitants of the Principality . With the final destruction of Welsh independence under Edward I. the Cambro-British language, in spite of the disappearance of a court, continued to be spoken by Welshmen of all classes residing west of Severn, and the 14th and 15th centuries are remarkable for producing some of the finest Welsh bards and historians . With the union of Wales with England by the Act of 27 Henry VIII . (1536) the subsequent administration of all law and justice in the English tongue throughout the Principality threatened for a time the ancient language of the people with practical extincttion . From such a fate it was largely preserved by the various translations of the Scriptures, undertaken at the command of Queen Elizabeth and performed by a number of native scholars and divines, amongst whom appear prominent the names of Bishops Davies, Morgan and Parry, and of William Salesbury of Llanrwst . Although the assertion of the celebrated Rhys Prichard of Llandovery that in his time (c . 163o) only 1% of the people of Wales could read the native language is probably an exaggeration, yet the number of persons who could read and write Welsh must have been extremely small outside the ranks of the clergy . During the earlier half of the 17th century the number of Welsh Bibles distributed throughout the Principality could hardly have exceeded 8000 in all, and except the Bible there was scarcely any Welsh work of importance in circulation . The system of the Welsh circulating charity schools, set up by Griffith Jones, rector of Llanddowror, in the 18th century, undoubtedly gave an immense impetus to the spread of popular education in Wales, for it has been stated on good authority that about one-third of the total population was taught to read and write Welsh by means of this system . As a result of Griffith Jones's efforts there quickly arose a vigorous demand for Welsh books of a pious and educational character, which was largely supplied by local Welsh printing-presses .
The enthusiastic course of the Methodist movement under Howell Harris, Daniel Rowland and William Williams; the
See also:establishment of Welsh Sunday Schools; the founding of the Bible Society under Thomas Charles of Bala; and the revival early in the 19th century of the Eisteddfodau (the ancient bardic contests of
See also:poetry and learning), have all contributed to extend the use of the Welsh language and to strengthen its hold as a popular
See also:medium of education throughout the Principality . In 1841 the Welsh-speaking population was computed at 67% of the total, and in 1893 Welsh was understood or spoken by over 6o% of the inhabitants in the twelve Welsh counties with the exception of the following districts, wherein English is the prevailing or the sole language employed:—viz. nearly the whole of Radnorshire; east Flint, including the neighbouring districts of Ruabon and Wrexham in Denbighshire; east Brecknock; east Montgomery; south Pembroke, with the adjoining district of Laugharne in Carmarthenshire; and the districts of Gower, Vale of Glamorgan and Cardiff in south Glamorgan . In Mon-mouth, the eastern portion of the county is purely English-speaking, and in the western districts English also prevails (J . E . Southall, Linguistic Map of Wales) . Before tracing the history of Welsh sounds, it will be convenient to give the values of the letters in the modern
See also:alphabet:—Tenues: p; t; c (=Eng. k) . Mediae: b; d; g (=Eng. hard g) . Voiceless spirants: ff or ph (=Eng. f); th (=Eng. th in thick) ; ch( = Scottish ch in loch) . Voiced spirants: f (=Eng. v); dd (=Eng. th in this); the guttural voiced spirant (y) disappeared early in Welsh . Voiceless nasals: nth; nh; ngh . Voiced nasals: m; n; ng . Voiceless liquids: ll (unilateral voiceless l); rh (voiceless r) .
Voiced liquids: l; r . Sibilant: s (Welsh has no z) . Aspirate: h . Semi-vowels: i (=Eng. y in yard); w (=Eng. w) . The sounds of t and d are more dental than in English, though they vary; the voiced spirants are very soft; the voiceless nasals are aspirated, thus nh is similar to Eng. nh in inhale; r is trilled as in
See also:Italian . Vowels: a, e, i, o have the same values as in Italian; w as a vowel=north Eng. oo in book or Italian u; y has two sounds—(1) the clear sound resembling the Eng. i in
See also:bit, but pronounced farther back; (2) the obscure sound=Eng. i in
See also:fir; u in Med . Welsh had the sound of French u, but now has the clear sound of y described above, which is similar to the ear, and has the same pitch . The Welsh language belongs to the Celtic branch of the
See also:Aryan or Indo-
See also:European family of
See also:languages . Primitive Celtic split up, as already shown, into two dialects, represented in modern times by two groups of languages—(i) the Goidelic group, comprising Irish, Scottish, Gaelic and
See also:Manx . (2) The Brythonic or Brittonic 1 group, comprising Welsh, Breton and Cornish . In the Goidelic group qu appears as c, thus Irish cethir, " four "; in the Brythonic group it is changed into p, as in Welsh pedwar, " four." Gaulish, which was supplanted in France by Latin, had p, as in petor-ritum, " four-wheeled
See also:car," and is thus allied to the Brythonic group; but it is believed that remains of a
See also:continental Celtic qu- dialect appear in such names as
See also:Sequani, and in some recently discovered inscriptions . The sounds of parent Aryan appeared in Primitive Celtic with the following modifications: p disappeared, thus Aryan * peter, which gave Latin
See also:pater, Eng. father, gave in Irish athir; corresponding to Eng.
See also:floor, we have Irish far, Welsh llawr .
The velar tenuis q, when labialized, became qu, without labialization became k; the velar
See also:media p became b or g . The aspirated mediae bh, dh, gh, ph were treated as unaspirated b, d, g, p; probably also the rare aspirated tenues fell together with the unaspirated . The other Aryan consonants seem generally to have remained . Aryan a, i, u remained . Aryan e became i, as in Irish fir, Welsh gwir, ' true, cognate with Latin ver-us . Aryan o became a, as in Irish far, cognate with Anglo-Saxon
See also:flor, Eng. floor . The short vowels remained, except that Aryan a became a, as in the other European branches . In Brythonic, primitive Celtic qu became p, as above noted . Probably also Celtic u was advancing or had advanced to a forward position, for it appears in Welsh as i, as in din, " stronghold," from Celtic *dun-on, cognate with Eng. town, while Latin u, borrowed in the Brythonic period, gives u with its Welsh sound above described, as in
See also:mar, "
See also:wall," from Latin mur-us . The Aryan system of inflexion was preserved in Celtic, as may be seen in Stokes 's restoration of Celtic declension (Trans . Philol .
See also:Soc., 1885-1886, pp .
97-201); and Brythonic was probably as highly inflected as Latin . The development of Brythonic into Welsh is analogous to that of Latin into French . Unfortunately, the extant remains of Brythonic are scanty; but in the Roman period it borrowed a large number of Latin words, which, as we know their original forms, and as they underwent the same modifications as other words in the language, enable us to trace the phonetic changes by which Brythonic became Welsh . These changes are briefly as follows: 1 . Loss of Syllables.--The last syllable of every word of more than one syllable was dropped; thus Latin termin-us gives in Welsh lerfyn; the name Sabrin-a 2 " Severn " became Hafren . The loss extends to the
See also:stem-ending of the first
See also:element of a compound, thus the personal name Maglo-cunos became Maelgwn; and generally to unaccented syllables, thus episcopus became *epscop, whence esgob; trinitat-em gives trindod . The
See also:accusative is often the case represented in Welsh; but we have also the nominative, and sometimes both, as in ciwed from civit-as, and ciwdod from civilat-em, now two words, not two cases of the same word . Aryan declension naturally disappeared with the loss of final syllables . 2 . Consonant Changes.—(I) Between two vowels, or a vowel and a liquid, the seven consonants p, t, c, b, d, g, m, became respectively b, d, g, f, dd, -, f, where "-" represents the lost voiced spirant y . Examples: Latin cupidus gave cybydd; Tacitus gave 1 The Bretons
See also:call their language Brezonek; the Welsh bards sometimes call Welsh Brythoneg: both forms imply an original *Brittonica . 2 The i was short: Sabrina would have given Hefrin in Welsh .
Tegyd; laborem gave llafur; sagitla gave saeth; remus gave rhwyf . This
See also:change is called the " soft mutation." (2) After nasals p, t, c, b, d, g became respectively mh, nh, ngh, m, n, ng; thus tmperator gave ymherawdr, and ambactos (evidently a Brythonic as well as a Gaulish word) gave amaeth (m, though etymologically
See also:double, is written single) . This change is called the " nasal mutation." (3) pp, tt, cc became respectively ph or ff, th, ch; thus peccatum gave pechawd, later pechod; and Brittones gave Brython . This change is called the " spirant mutation." The tenuis becomes a spirant also after r or 1, as in corff from corpus, and Elffin from Alpinus; but It gives lit or ll . The combinations act, ect, oct, uct gave aeth, aith, oeth, wyth, respectively; as in doeth, " wise," from
See also:Lat. doctus, ffrwyth from fructus . (4) Original s between vowels (but not Latin s) became it, and disappeared ; initially it generally appears as h, as in halen, "
See also:salt," sometimes as s, as in saith, " seven." Initial l and r became ll and rh, as seen in examples in (I) above; but between vowels they remained . Similarly initial v became gw, as in gwin, from Latin vnum, remaining between vowels, though now written w, as in ciwed from civitas . A consonant occurring medially is, generally speaking, invariable in the present language; thus the p and d of cupidus are b and dd in cybydd; but with the initial consonant the case is different . In one combination the initial may remain; thus *oinos cupidus gave un cybydd, " one
See also:miser "; in another combination it may have originally stood between vowels, and so is mutated, as in *duo cupido, which gave dau gybydd, " two misers." Thus arose the system of " initial mutation ": an initial consonant may retain its original form, or may undergo any of the changes to which it is.subject . The names given above to these changes are those by which they are known when they occur initially the unchanged form being called the "
See also:radical." The liquids 1 and r were brought into the system, the initial forms ll and rh being regarded as " radical." The initial mutations, then, are as follows: Radical . p t c b d g m ll rh 1 Soft . . b d g f dd — f 1 r Nasal mh nh ngh m n ng No change . Spirant ~ ph th ch No change .
No change . The initial mutation of any word depends upon its position in the
See also:sentence, and is determined by a grammatical rule which can ordinarily be traced to a generalization of the original phonetic conditions . Thus the second element of a compound word, even though written and accented as a separate word, has a soft initial, because in Brythonic the first element of a compound generally ended in a vowel, as in the name Maglo-cunos . The more important rules for initial mutation are the following: the soft mutation occurs in a feminine singular noun after the article, thus y fam, " the mother " (radical mam); in an adjective following a feminine singular noun, as in mam dda, " a good mother " (da, " good ") ; in a noun following a
See also:positive adjective, as in
See also:hen dOn, " old man," because this order represents what was originally a compound; in a noun following dy, " thy," and ei, " his," thus dy
See also:ben, "thy head," ei ben, " his head " (pen, " head "); in the object after a verb; in a noun after a
See also:simple preposition; in a verb after the relative a . The nasal mutation occurs after fy, " my " and yn, " in "; thus fy mhen, " my head " (pen, " head , yn Nhalgarth, ' at
See also:Talgarth." The spirant mutation occurs after a, " and," " with," ei, " her "; thus a phen, " and a head," ei phen, " her head." 3 . Vowel Changes.—(i) Long a, whether from Aryan a or o or from Latin a, becomes aw in monosyllables, as in brawd, " brother " from *brater; in the penult it is o, as in broder, " brothers," in the ultima aw, later o, as in pechawd, now pechod, from peccatum . Long, i, whether from Aryan e or i, or from Latin i, remains as i, see examples above . Latin e was identified with a native diphthong ei, and becomes ivy, as in rhwyf from remus . Latin o and u appear as u; see examples above . A long vowel when unaccented
See also:counts short, thus peccatorem treated as *peccatorem, gave pechadur . (2) Short a, e, o remain; short i became y; and u became y (with its obscure sound) in the penult, remaining in the ultima, though now written w . But short vowels have been affected by vowels in succeeding syllables .
These " affections " of vowels are as follows: (a) I-affection, caused by i in a lost termination: a becomes ai or ei, and it, o, a became y, more rarely ai or ei . Thus *bardos gave bardd, but pl . *bardi gave beirdd; episcopt gave espyb, " bishops." This change is also caused by -o, as in lleidr, " thief," from
See also:laird . (p) A-affection, caused by a in a lost ending: i becomes e (instead of y); u becomes o . Thus civitas gave ciwed; coliitmna gave colofn . (y) Penultimate affection: i or y in the ultima causes several changes in the penult, as arch, " order," erchi, " to bid "; saer, "
See also:carpenter," pl. seiri; caer, " fort," pl. ceyrydd . (3) In the modern language other vowel changes occur by a change of position; thus ai, au, aw in the ultima become ei, eu, o respectively in the penult, as dail, " leaves," deilen, "
See also:leaf "; haul, "
See also:sun," heulog, " sunny "; brawd, " brother," pl. broder or brodyr . The last is an old interchange of sounds, and probably the others are older than their first appearance in writing ((15th century) suggests.269
See also:Accidence.—Welsh has a definite article yr, " the," which becomes 'r after a vowel, and y before a consonant unless already reduced to 'r . Thus yr oen, " the lamb," i'r ty, " into the house, ' yn y ty, " in the house." The noun has two numbers, and two genders, masculine and feminine . A plural noun is formed from the singular by i-affection: thus bardd, "
See also:bard," pl. beirdd; ffon, " stick," pl. ffyn; or by adding a termination as ffenestr, " window," pl. ffenestri, with any consequent vowel change, as brawd, " brother," pl. brodyr; gwlad, country," pl. gwledydd . The terminations chiefly used are -au, -
See also:ion, -on, -t, -ydd, -oedd . These are old stem endings
See also:left after the loss of the original -es; thus laird gives lleidr, latrones gives lladron; the forms having dd represent j stems, k becoming dd in certain positions .
In some cases the singular is formed from the plural by the addition of -yn or -en; thus set., " stars," seren, " star." Feminine names of living things are formed from the masculine by the addition of -es, as brenin, " king," brenhines, " queen "; flew, "lion," llewes, " lioness." It is difficult to
See also:lay down rules for the determination of the gender of names of inanimate
See also:objects . Adjectives are inflected for number and gender . Plural adjectives are formed from the singular by i-affection or by adding the termination -ion or -on; thus hardd, " beautiful," pl. heirdd; glas, " blue," pl. gleision . Adjectives having y or w are made feminine by a-affection, due to the lost feminine ending -a; thus gwyn, "
See also:white," fem. gwen; trwm, " heavy," fem. from . The adjective has four degrees ot comparison—positive, equative,
See also:comparative, superlative; as glen, " clean," glaned, " as clean (as)," glanach, " cleaner," glanaf, " cleanest." A few adjectives are compared irregularly . The personal pronouns are: simple sing . I. mi, 2. ti, 3. masc. ef, fem. hi; pl.'. ni, 2. chwi, 3. hwy, hwynt; reduplicated, myfi, tydi, &c.; conjunctive, minnau, tithau, &c . Prefixed genitive: sing. i. fy " my," 2. dy, 3. i, ei; pl . I. yn, ein, 2. ych, eich, 3. eu . Infixed genitive and accusative: sing. r . 'm, 2 . 'th, 3 .
'i; pl . I . 'n, 2 . 'ch, 3 . 'u . Affixed: sing . I. i, 2, di, 3. ef, &c., like the simple forms . The
See also:demonstrative pronouns are hwn, " this," hwnnw, " that,"
See also:fern. hon. honno, pl. hyn, hynny . The relative pronouns are nominative and accusative a, oblique cases ydd, yr, y . The expressions yr hwn, -y neb, " the one," are mistaken for relatives by the old grammarians; the true relative follows: yr hwn a=" the one who.' The interrogative pronouns are substantival pwy ? =" who ? " adjectival pa ?
Substantival " what ? " is expressed by pa beth ? " what thing ? " or shortly beth ? The verb has four tenses in the indicative, one in the subjunctive, and one in the imperative . The old passive
See also:voice has become an impersonal active, each tense having one form only . The regular verb caraf, " I love," is conjugated thus: Indicative—Pres . (and fut.) sing. i. caraf, 2. ceri, 3. car; pl . I. carwn, 2. cerwch, 3. carant; impers. cerir . Imperfect sing. i. carwn, 2. cant, 3.
See also:carat; pl . I. carem, 2. carech, 3. cerynt, carent; impers. cerid . Aorist sing .
I. cerais, 2. ceraisl, 3. carodd; pl . I. carasom, 2. carasoch, 3. carasant; impers. carwyd . Pluperfect sing . I. caraswn, 2. carasit, 3. carasai; pl . I. carasem, 2. carasech, 3. caresynt, -asent • impers. caresid . Subjunctive—Pres. sing. i. carwyf, 2. cerych, 3. taro; pl.'. carom, 2. caroch, 3. caront ; impers. carer . Imperative—Pres. sing . 2. car, 3. cared; pl . I. carwn, 2. cerwch, 3. carent ; impers. carer . Verbal noun, caru, " to love." Verbal adjectives, caredig, " loved," caradwy, " lovable." As in other languages the verb " to be " and its compounds are irregular; the number of other irregular verbs is comparatively small . Prepositions also are " conjugated " in Welsh, their objects, if pronominal, being expressed by endings . Thus ar, " on," arnaf, on me," arnat, " on thee,"arno, " on him," arni, " on her," arnom, " on us," arnoch, " on you," arnynt, " on them." The second conjugation has for endings -of, -ot, -ddo, -ddi; -om, -och, -ddynt; the third -yf, -yt, -ddo .
-ddi; -ym, -ych, -ddynt . The negative adverbs are ni, nid, conjunctive na, natl . Interrogative particles: a, ai . Affirmative particles: yr, fe . The commoner conjunctions are a, ac, " and "; ond, eithr, " but "; o, os, " if ";
See also:pan, " when "; tra, " while." Syntax.—A qualifying adjective follows its noun, and agrees with it in gender and generally in number . It may, however, precede its noun, and a compared adjective generally does so . In a simple sentence the usual order of words is the following:—verb, subject, object, adverb; as prynodd Dafydd lyfr yno, " David bought a book there." The verb may be preceded by an affirmative, a negative, or an interrogative particle . When a noun comes first, it is followed by a relative pronoun, thus, Dafydd a brynodd lyfr yno, which really means " (it is) David who bought a book there," and is never used in any other sense in the spoken language, though in literary Welsh it is used rhetorically for the simple statement which is properly expressed by patting the verb first . In negative and interrogative sentences this rhetorical use does not occur . In a simple interrogative sentence the
See also:introductory particle before the verb is a, and the positive answer consists in a repetition of the verb; a ddaw Dafydd ? Daw . " Will David come ?
Yes." If the verb is aorist the answer is do for all verbs . In negative answers na precedes the verb . In sentences in which a noun comes first, the interrogative particle is ai, and the answer is always, positive Ie, negative nape; as ai Dafydd a ddaw? ie . " Is it David who will come ? Yes." A relative pronoun immediately precedes its verb and can only be separated from it by an infixed pronoun, thus Dafydd a'i prynodd, " (it is) David who bought it," yno y'm gweli, " (it is) there thatthou wilt see me." If the relative is the object of a preposition, the latter is put at the end of the clause, and has a personal ending, thus y ty y
See also:burn yaddo, literally, " the house which I-was in-it." The verb does not agree with its subject unless the latter is a personal pronoun; when the subject is a noun the verb is put in the third person singular; thus carant, " they love," can take a pro-nominal subject—carant hwy, " they love "; but " the men love " is car y dynion (not carant y dynion, which can only mean " they love the men ") . In relative clauses the verb is sometimes made to agree; but in the oldest poetry we generally find the singular verb, as in the oft-repeated Gododin phrase Gwyr a aeth Gatraeth, " men who went (to) Catraeth " (not Gwyr a aethant) . AUTHORir[ES.—J . D . Rhys, Cambrobrytannicae Cymraecaeue linguae institetiones (1592); John Davies, Antiqae linguae Britannicae . . rvdimenta (1621)• Antiquae linguae Britannicae dictionariuna duplex (1632); Edward Lhuyd, Archaeologic Britannia( (1707); W . O . Pughe, Grammar and
See also:Dictionary' (1832), vitiated by absurd etymological theories; J .
C . Zeuss, Grammatica Celtica (2nd ed. by H .Ebel, 1871)—an
See also:index to the 0 Welsh glosses cited in this work was compiled by V .
See also:Tourneur in Archiv fur celt . Lexikographie, iii . 109-137; T . Rowland, Grammar of the Welsh Language 4 (1876), containing a large collection of facts about the modern language, badly arranged and wholly undigested; Rhys, Lectures on Welsh Philology2 (1879); J .
See also:Strachan, An Introduction to Early Welsh, with a Reader (Manchester, 1909); Stokes, " Urkeltischer Sprachschatz," in Fick's Vergleichendes Worterbuch der idg . Sprachen 4, ii . (1894) ; E . Anwyl, Welsh Grammar for Schools, i . (1898), ii .
(1899) ; J .
See also:Morris Jones, Historical Welsh Grammar, i . (1911); W . Spurrek, Welsh-English and English-Welsh Dictionary (Carmarthen 5, 1904) ; D . Silvan
See also:Evans, Welsh Dictionary, A-E (1888–1906) . The last-named received a
See also:subsidy from the British government . Some corrections and additions to the early volumes, by J . Loth, will be found in Arch. f. celt . Lex. vol. i . See also H . Sweet, " Spoken N . Welsh," in Trans. of the London Phil .
Soc., 1882–1884; T .
See also:Darlington, " Some Dialectal Boundaries in Mid-Wales," in Trans. of the Hon . Soc. of Cymmrodorion, 1900–1901; and M . Nettlau, Beitrdge zur cymrischen Grammatik (
See also:Leipzig, 1887), also in Rev. celt. vol. ix . (J . M .
WALERAN DE BEAUMONT (1104–1166)
COIITE ALEXANDRE FLORIAN JOSEPH COLONNA WALEWSKI (1...
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