Online Encyclopedia

THE WARTBURG

Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V28, Page 336 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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THE WARTBURG, a castle near Eisenach in the grand-duchy of Saxe-Weimar. It is magnificently situated on the top of a precipitous hill, and is remarkable not only for its historical associations but as containing one of the few well-preserved Romanesque palaces in existence. The original castle, of which some parts—including a portion of the above-mentioned palace (Landgrafenhaus)—still exist, was built by the landgrave Louis " the Springer " (d. 1123), and from his time until 1440 it remained the seat of the Thuringian landgraves. Under the landgrave Hermann I., the Wartburg was the home of a boisterous court to which minstrels and " wandering folk " of all descriptions streamed;l and it was here that in 1207 took place the minstrels' contest (Sdngerkrieg) immortalized in Wagner's Tannhauser. Some years later it became the home of the saintly Elizabeth of Hungary (q.v.) on her marriage to Louis the Saint (d. 1227), to whom she was betrothed in 1211 at the age of four? It was to the Wartburg, too, that on the 4th of May 1521, Luther was brought for safety at the instance of Frederick the Wise, elector of Saxony, and it was during his ten months' residence here (under the incognito of Junker Jorg) that he completed his translation of the New Testament. From this time the castle was allowed gradually to decay. It was restored in the 18th century in the questionable taste of r Walther von der Vogelweide (ed. F. Pfeiffer r88o, No. 99) and Wolfram von Eschenbach (Parzival vi. 526 and Willehalm 417, 26) both refer to the noise and constant crush of crowds passing in and out at the Wartburg " night and day." 2 Wagner, with a poet's licence, has placed the Sdngerkrieg during Elizabeth's residence at the Wartburg.drainage basin is 17,400 sq. m. WART-HOG, the designation of certain hideous African wild swine (see SWINE), characterized by the presence of large warty protuberances on the face, the large size of the tusks in both sexes, especially the upper pair, which are larger and stouter than the lower ones and are not worn at their summits, and the complexity and great size of the last pair of molar teeth in each jaw. The adults have frequently no teeth except those just mentioned, and nearly bare skins; and the young are uniformly coloured. Two nearly allied species are recognized, namely, the southern Phacochoerus aethiopicus, which formerly ranged as far south as the Cape, and the northern P. africanus, which extends to the mountains of Abyssinia, where it has been found at a high elevation. In South and East Africa wart-hogs frequent more or less open country, near water, and dwell in holes, generally those of the aard-vark. In Abyssinia, on the other hand, they spend the day among bushes, or in ravines, feeding at night.
End of Article: THE WARTBURG
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