See also:born at Zsibo, and was educated at his
See also:castle by Motes Pataky in the most liberal and patriotic direction . In 1823 he permanently entered public
See also:life and made the acquaintance of Count
See also:Szechenyi whose
See also:companion he was on a long educative
See also:foreign tour, on his return from which he became one of the leaders of the liberal
See also:movement in the Upper
See also:House . In 1833 appeared his Baliteletek (Prejudices), which was for long a prohibited
See also:book . He was the foremost
See also:leader of the Opposition at the
See also:diet of 1834, and his freely expressed opinions on
See also:land-redemption, together with his efforts to give greater publicity to the debates of the diet by printing them, involved him in two expensive
See also:crown prosecutions . He was imprisoned at Grafenberg, whither he had gone to be cured of an
See also:eye trouble, and two years later became quite
See also:blind . Subsequently he did much for
See also:children's homes and the introduction and extension of the
See also:industry in Hungary . The events of 1848 brought him home from a long residence abroad, but he was no longer the man he had been, and soon withdrew again to Grafenberg . He died on the 21st of
See also:April 185o, on his way back to Hungary . See Ferencz Szilagyi, Life and Career of Baron
See also:Nicholas Wesselenyi the Younger (Hung .
See also:Budapest, 1876) . (R . N .
B.) WESSEX, one of the kingdoms of Anglo-SaxonBritain . The
See also:story of its origin is given in the Saxon
See also:Chronicle . According to this the
See also:kingdom was founded by two princes,
See also:Cerdic, and Cynric his son, who landed in 494 or 495 and were followed by other settlers in 5o1 and 514 . After several successful battles against the Welsh they became
See also:kings in 519 . Very few of the localities connected with the story of these princes have been identified with certainty, but such identifications as there are point to the
See also:part of Hampshire . In 530 Cerdic and Cynric are said to have conquered the Isle of
See also:Wight, which they gave to two of their relatives, Stuf and Wihtgar . Cerdic died in 534 . Cynric defeated the Britons at
See also:Salisbury in 552 and again in conjunction with his son
See also:Ceawlin at Beranburh, probably Barbury
See also:Hill, in 556 . At his
See also:death in 56o he was succeeded by Ceawlin, who is mentioned by Bedews the second of the
See also:English kings to hold an imperium in Britain . With him we enter upon a
See also:period not perhaps of
See also:history, but at least of more or less reliable tradition . How far the earlier part of the story deserves
See also:credence has been and still is much debated . At all events no value can be attached to the
See also:dates given in the Chronicle .
Thepreface to this
See also:work places Cerdic's
See also:assumption of the
See also:sovereignty six years after his landing, that is, in the
See also:year 5o0, and assigns him a reign of sixteen years, which makes his death fall eighteen years before 534, the date recorded in the
See also:annals . Again, while the annals record Ceawlin's accession in 56o and his expulsion in 592, the preface with other early authorities assigns him a reign of only seventeen years . Further a number of genealogies, both in the Chronicle and elsewhere, represent Cynric as
See also:grandson of Cerdic and son of a certain Creoda . Suspicion likewise attaches to the name Cerdic, which seems to be Welsh, while we learn from Bede that the Isle of Wight, together with part at least of the Hampshire
See also:coast, was colonized by
See also:Jutes, who apparently had a kingdom distinct from that of Wessex . For these reasons the story of the foundation of Wessex, though it appears to possess considerable antiquity, must be regarded as open to
See also:grave suspicion . It is worthy of note that the
See also:dynasty claimed to be of the same origin as the royal house of
See also:Bernicia and that two of Cerdic's ancestors, Freawine and
See also:Wig, figure in the story of
See also:king of
See also:Angel . Whatever may be the truth about the origin of the kingdom, and it is by no means impossible that the invasion really proceeded from a different quarter, we need not doubt that its dimensions were largely increased under Ceawlin . In his reign the Chronicle mentions two
See also:great victories over the Welsh, one at a place called Bedcanford in 571, by which
See also:Aylesbury and the upper part of the
See also:Thames valley fell into the hands of the West
See also:Saxons, and another at Deorham in 577, which led to the capture of Cirencester, Bath and
See also:Gloucester . Ceawlin is also said to have defeated IEthelberht at a place called Wibbandun (possibly
See also:Wimbledon) in 568 . In 592 he was expelled and died in the following year . Of his successors Ceol and Ceolwulf we know little though the latter is said to have been engaged in
See also:constant warfare . Ceolwulf was succeeded in 611 by
See also:Cynegils, whose son Cwichelm provoked a Northumbrian invasion by the attempted
See also:murder of Edwin in 626 .
These kings are also said to have come into collision with the Mercian king
See also:Penda, and it is possible that the province of the
See also:Hwicce (q.v.) was lost in their
See also:time . After the accession of Oswald, who married Cynegils's daughter, to the
See also:throne of Northumbria, both Cynegils and Cwichelm were baptized . Cynegils was succeeded in 642 by his son Cenwalh, who married and subsequently divorced Penda's
See also:sister and was on that account expelled by that king . After his return he gained a victory over the Welsh near
See also:Pen-Selwood,by which a large part of
See also:Somerset came into his hands . In 661 he was again attacked by the Mercians under
See also:Wulfhere . At his death, probably in 573, the throne is said to have been held for a year by his widow Sexburh, who was succeeded by Aescwine, 674-676, and Centwine, 676-685 . According to Bede, however, the kingdom was in a state of disunion from the death of Cenwalh to the accession of Ceadwalla in 685, who greatly increased its
See also:prestige and conquered the Isle of Wight, the inhabitants of which he treated with great barbarity . After a brief reign Ceadwalla went to Rome, where he was baptized, and died shortly afterwards, leaving the kingdom to Inc . By the end of the 7th century a considerable part at least of Devonshire as well as the whole of Somerset and Dorset seems to have come into the hands of the West Saxons . On the resignation of
See also:Ine, in 726, the throne was obtained by IEthelheard, apparently his
See also:law, who had to submit to the Mercian king lEthelbald, by whom he seems to have been attacked in 733 . Cuthred, who succeeded in 740, at first acted in concert with ZEthelbald, but revolted in 752 . At his death in 756 Sigeberht succeeded .
The latter, however, on account of his misgovernment was deserted by most of the leading nobles, and with the exception of Hampshire the whole kingdom came into the hands cfCynewulf . Sigeberht, after putting to death the last of the princes who remained faithful to him, was driven into
See also:exile and subsequently murdered; but vengeance was afterwards taken on Cynewulf by his brother Cyneheard . Cynewulf was succeeded in 786 by Berhtric, who married Eadburg, daughter of the Mercian king Offa . Her violent and murderous conduct led to the king's death in 802; and, it is said, caused the title of
See also:queen to be denied to the wives of later kings . Berhtric was succeeded by Ecgberht (q.v.), the chief event of whose reign was the overthrow of the Mercian king Beornwulf in 825, which led to the
See also:establishment of West Saxon supremacy and to the annexation by Wessex of
See also:Sussex, Surrey, Kent and
See also:Essex . YEthelwulf (q.v.), son of Ecgberht, succeeded to the throne of Wessex at his father's death in 839, while the eastern provinces went to his son or brother IEthelstan . A similar division took place on lEthelwulf's death between his two sons IEthelbald and 2Ethelberht, but on the death of the former in 858 2Ethelberht
See also:united the whole in his own hands, his younger
See also:brothers ;
See also:Ethelred and
See also:Alfred renouncing their claims . 2Ethelberht was succeeded in 865 by i2Ethelred, and the latter by Alfred in 871 . This was the period of the great Danish invasion which culminated in the submission of
See also:Guthrum in 878 . Shortly afterwards the kingdom of the Mercians came to an end and their leading
See also:earl (Ethelred accepted Alfred's overlordship . By 886 Alfred's authority was admitted in all the provinces of England which were not under Danish
See also:rule . From this time onwards the history of Wessex is the history of England .
. 728 (726) Kings of Wessex . Cerdic . . 519 EEthelheard Cynric . . 534 Cuthred . . 741 (740) Ceawlin . . 560 (c . 571) Sigeberht . . 754 (756) Ceol . . 592 (c . 588) Cynewulf . 755 (757) Ceolwulf . . 597 (c .
594) Berhtric . . . 784 (786) Cynegils . 611Ecgbert 800 (802) Cenwalh . . 643 (c . 642) sEthelwulf . . 836 (839) Sexburh . . 672 (c . 673) I EEthelbald . . 855 (858) JEscwine . . 674 IEthelberht . 86o Centwine .
. 676 !Ethelred . . 866 Ceadwalla . 685 Alfred . . . 871 Ine . . . . 688 The dates are those of the annals in the Chronicle, with approximate corrections in brackets . See Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, edited byEarle and Plummer (
See also:Oxford, 1892—1899) ; Bede, Hist . Eccl. and Contin,uatio, edited by C . Plummer (Oxford, 1896) ; Annales Lindisfarnenses," in the Monumenta Germ. hist. xix . 502-508 (Hanover, 1866) ; Asser, Life of King Alfred, edited by W . H .
See also:Stevenson (Oxford, 1904); W. de G . Birch, Cartularium Saxonicum (
See also:London, 1885-1893) . (F . G . M .
JOHAN 1 WESSEL (c. 1420-1489)
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