See also:councils held within the
See also:bounds of
See also:London . Though the precise locality is occasionally uncertain, the majority of the
See also:medieval synods assembled in the
See also:house of old St Paul's, or the former
See also:chapel of St Catherine within the precincts of
See also:Westminster Abbey or at
See also:Lambeth . The councils were of various types, each with a constitutional
See also:history of its own . Before the reign of
See also:Edward I., when convocation assumed substantially its present
See also:form (see CONVOCATION), there were convened in London various diocesan, provincial,
See also:national and legatine synods; during the past six centuries, however, the chief ecclesiastical assemblies held there have been convocations of the province of Canterbury . The first really notable council at St Paul's was that of 1075 under the
See also:presidency of
See also:Lanfranc; it renewed
See also:ancient regulations, forbade
See also:simony and permitted three bishops to remove from
See also:country places to
See also:Chichester and Chester respectively . In 1102 a national synod at Westminster under Anselm adopted canons against simony, clerical marriages and
See also:slavery . The councils of 1126, 1127 and 1138 were legatine, that of 1175 provincial; their canons, chiefly re-enactments, throw
See also:light on the
See also:condition of the
See also:clergy at that
See also:time . The canons of 1200 are based in large measure on recommendations of the Lateran Council of 1179 . At St Paul's the legatine constitutions of
See also:Otto were published in a synod of 1237, those of Ottobon in 1268: these were the most important national councils held after the independence of
See also:York had been established . A synod at Lambeth in 1281 put forth canons none too welcome to Edward I.; they included a detailed
See also:scheme for the religious instruction of the faithful . During the next two centuries the councils devoted much
See also:attention to
See also:heresy: eight propositions concerning the
See also:body of Christ after his
See also:death were rejected at St Mary-le-
See also:Bow in 1286; the expulsion of the Jews from England was sanctioned by a legatine synod of Westminster in 1291; ten theses of Wiclif's were condemned at the Dominican friary in 1382, and eighteen articles
See also:drawn from his Trialogus met the same
See also:fate at St Paul's in 1396; and the
See also:doom of
See also:Oldcastle was sealed at the latter place in 1413 .
The 14th-century synods at St Paul's concerned them-selves largely with the
See also:financial and moral status' of the clergy, and made many
See also:quaint regulations regarding their
See also:dress and behaviour (1328, 1342, 1343; cf . 1463) . From the time of Edward VI. on, many of the most vital changes in ecclesiastical discipline were adopted in convocations at St Paul's and in the Abbey . To enumerate them would be to give a
See also:running commentary on the development of the
See also:Church of England; among the most important were those of 1547, 1552, 1554, 1562, 1571, 1604, 16o5, 164o and 1661 . In 1852 there was held the first of a series of synods of the newly organized
See also:Roman Catholic archdiocese of Westminster . For the "
See also:Anglican Synods " see LAMBETH CONFERENCES . London, 1853) ; A . P .
See also:Historical Memorials of Westminster Abbey (4th and revised ed., London, 1876), 411-413, 495-504; H . H .
See also:Annals of S . Paul's
See also:Cathedral (2nd ed., London, 1869) .
Full titles under CouxcILS . (W . W .
STATUTES OF WESTMINSTER
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