See also:head of hair, worn as a
See also:personal adornment, disguise or
See also:symbol of
See also:office . The
See also:custom of wearing wigs is of
See also:great antiquity . If, as seems probable, the curious head-covering of a prehistoric ivory
See also:carving of a
See also:female head found by M . Piette in the cave of Brassempouy in the
See also:Landes represents a
See also:wig (see Ray Lankester, Science from an Easy
See also:Chair, fig . 7) the fashion is certainly some roo,00c years old . In historic times, wigs were worn among the Egyptians as a royal and official head-
See also:dress, and specimens of these have been recovered from mummies . In
See also:Greece they were used by both men and
See also:women, the most
See also:common name being artvixo or cl)evaxri, some-times 7rpox6µwv or x6aai lrpboOeroc . A reference in
See also:Xenophon (Cyr . I . 3 . 2) to the false hair worn by Cyrus's grandfather " as is customary among the
See also:Medea," and also a
See also:story in Aristotle (Oecon . 4 .
14), would suggest that wigs were introduced from
See also:Persia, and were in use in
See also:Asia Minor . Another origin is suggested by
See also:Athenaeus (xii . 523), who says that the Iapygian immigrants into Italy from Crete were the first to
See also:wear apoxbpca 7reptesed, and the elaborately frizzled hair worn by some of the figures in the frescoes found at
See also:Cnossus makes it probable that the wearing of artificial hair was known to the Cretans . Lucian, in the 2nd century, mentions wigs of both men and women as a
See also:matter of course (Alex . 59,
See also:Dial. mer . 11) . The theatrical wig was also in use in Greece, the various comic and tragic masks having hair suited to the character represented . A . E . Haigh (
See also:Attic Theatre, pp . 221, 239) refers to the black hair and
See also:beard of the
See also:tyrant, the
See also:fair curls of the youthful hero, and the red hair characteristic of the dishonest slave of
See also:comedy . These conventions appear to have been handed on to the
See also:Roman theatre .
AtRome wigs came into use certainly in the early days of the
See also:empire . They were also known to the Carthaginians;
See also:Polybius (iii . 78) says that Hannibal used wigs as a means of disguise . The fashionable ladies of Rome were much addicted to false hair, and we learn from Ovid, Amores, 14 . 45) and
See also:Martial (v . 68) that the
See also:golden hair imported from Germany was most favoured . Juvenal (vi . 120) shows us Messalina assuming a yellow wig for her visits to places of
See also:ill-fame, and the scholiast on the passage says that the yellow wig was characteristic of courtesans . The chief names for wigs were galerus, gaicriculunt, corymbium, apillamentum, caliendrum, or even comae emptae, &c . Galerus meant in the first place a
See also:skull-cap, or coif, fastening under the
See also:chin, and made of hide or fur, worn by peasants, athletes and 'famines . The first men's wigs then would have been tight furcaps simulating hair, which would naturally suggest wigs of false hair .
See also:Otho wore a wig (Suetonius, Otho § 12), which could not be distinguished from real hair, while
See also:Nero (Dio
See also:Cass. lxi .
9) wore a wig as a disguise, and
See also:Heliogabalus also wore one at times (ibid. lxxix . 13) . Women continued to have wigs of different
See also:colours as
See also:part of their ordinary
See also:wardrobe, and
See also:Faustina, wife of
See also:Marcus Aurelius, is said to have had several
See also:hundred . An amusing development of this is occasionally found in portrait busts, e.g. that of Plautilla in the Louvre, in which the hair is made movable, so that by changing the wig of the statue from
See also:time to time it should never be out of fashion . The Fathers of the
See also:Church violently attacked the custom of wearing wigs,
See also:Tertullian (De cultu fem . C . 7) being particularly eloquent against them, but that they did not succeed in stamping out the custom was proved by the finding of an auburn wig in the
See also:grave of a Christian woman in the cemetery of St Cyriacus . In 672 a synod of Constantinople forbade the wearing of artificial hair . Artificial hair has presumably always been worn by women when the fashion required abundant locks . Thus, with the development of elaborate coiffures in the 16th century, the wearing of false hair became prevalent among ladies in
See also:Elizabeth had eighty attires of false hair, and Mary queen of Scots was also in the
See also:habit of varying the attires of hair she wore . The periwig of the 16th century, however, merely simulated real hair, either as an adornment or to supply the defects of nature . It was not till the 17th century that the
See also:peruke was worn as a distinctive feature of
See also:costume .
The fashion started inFrance . In 162o the
See also:abbe La
See also:Riviere appeared at the
See also:court of
See also:Louis XIII. in a periwig made to simulate long fair hair, and four years later the
See also:king himself, prematurely bald, also adopted one and thus set the fashion . Louis XIV., who was proud of his abundant hair, did not wear a wig till after 1670 . Meanwhile, his courtiers had continued to wear wigs in imitation of the royal hair, and from
See also:Versailles the fashion spread through Europe . In England it came in with the Restoration; for though the
See also:prince of
See also:Wales (
See also:Charles I.), while in
See also:Paris on his way to Spain, had " shadowed himself the most he could under a burly perruque, which none in former days but bald-headed
See also:people used," he had dropped the fashion on returning to England, and he and his Cavaliers were distinguished from the " Roundheads " only by wearing their own flowing locks . Under Charles II. the wearing of the peruke became general .
See also:Pepys records that he parted with his own hair and " paid £3 for a periwigg ";1 and on going to church in one he says " it did not prove so
See also:strange as I was afraid it would." It was under Queen Anne, however, that the wig attained its maximum development, covering the back and shoulders and floating down over the chest . So far, indeed, whatever the exaggeration of its proportions, the wig had been a " counterfeit hair " intended to produce the illusion of abundant natural locks . But, to quote the inimitable author of Plocacosmos, " as the perukes became more common, their shape and forms altered . Hence we hear of the clerical, the
See also:physical, and the huge tie peruke for the man of
See also:law, the brigadier or major for the army and
See also:navy; as also the tremendous
See also:fox ear, or cluster of
See also:temple curls, with a
See also:pig-tail behind . The
See also:merchant, the man of business and of letters, were distinguished by the grave full bottom, or more moderate tie, neatly curled; the tradesman by the long bob, or natty scratch; the
See also:gentleman by the natural fly and
See also:hunting peruke . All conditions of men were distinguished by the cut of the wig, and none more so than the coachman, who wore his, as there does some to this
See also:day, in imitation of the curled hair of a
See also:dog." 2 This was cheap .
The author of Plocacosmos says that " when they first were wore, theprice was usually one hundred guineas "; and the article in
See also:Diderot's Encyclopedie says that it sometimes cost as much as loon ecus . ' 2 Plocacosmos, p . 203 . The writer goes on to describe the fashions on the stage . " So
See also:late as King
See also:William's reign, in one of Rowe's pieces,
See also:Lady Jane
See also:Grey, the
See also:Dudley is dressed in all the
See also:modern fashion of laced coat, cravat, high peruke, &c., while the heroine is simply drest, her hair parted in the
See also:hanging carelessly on her shoulders .... Nearer our time, in the tragedy of
See also:Cato, Mr
See also:Booth is dressed a-la-mode, with the huge peruke .... Mr
See also:Quin This differentiation of wigs according to class and profession explains why, when early in the reign of
See also:George III. the general fashion of wearing wigs began to wane and die out, the practice held its own among professional men . It was by slow degrees that doctors, soldiers and clergymen gave up the custom . In the Church it survived longest among the bishops, the wig ultimately becoming a sort of ensign of the episcopal dignity . Wigs were first discarded by the bishops, by permission of the king, at the
See also:coronation banquet of William IV., the
See also:weather being hot; and Greville comments on the
See also:odd appearance of the prelates with their cropped polls . At the coronation of Queen
See also:Victoria the archbishop of Canterbury, alone of the prelates, still «vote a wig . Wigs are now worn as part of official costume only in the
See also:Kingdom and its dependencies, their use being confined, except in the case of the
See also:speaker of the
See also:house of
See also:commons and the clerks of parliament, to the lord chancellor, the
See also:judges and members of the
See also:bar (see ROBES) .
Wigs of course continue to be worn by many to make up for natural deficiencies; and on the stage the wig is, as in all times, an indispensableadjunct . Many of the modern stage wigs are made of jute, a fibre which lends itself to marvellously perfect imitations of human hair . See F . W . Fairholt, Costume in England, 2 vols., ed . Dillon (1885) ; C . F . Nicolai Uber den Gebrauch der falschen Haare and Perrrtcken (18o1); the articles "
See also:Coma " and " Galerus " in Darernberg and Saglio's Dictionnaire
See also:des antiquites . There is an admirable article on wigs and wig-making in Diderot's Encyclopedie (1765), t. xii., s.v . Perruque."
See also:Stewart's Plocacosmos, or the Whole
See also:Art of Hairdressing (Leaden, 1782) also contains
See also:rich material .
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