See also:English chemist, was
See also:born at
See also:London, on the 1st of May 1824 . After working under
See also:Gmelin at
See also:Heidelberg, and Liebig at
See also:Giessen, he spent three years in
See also:Paris studying the higher
See also:mathematics under Comte . In 1849 he was appointed
See also:professor of
See also:practical chemistry at University
See also:College, London,and from 1855 until his retirement in 1887 he also held the professorship of chemistry . He had the
See also:credit of being the first to explain the
See also:process of etherification and to elucidate the formation of
See also:ether by the interaction of sulphuric acid and
See also:alcohol . Ether and alcohol he regarded as substances analogous to and built up on the same type as
See also:water, and he further introduced the water-type as a widely applicable basis for the
See also:classification of chemical compounds . The method of stating the rational constitution of bodies by comparison with water he believed capable of wide extension, and that one type, he thought, would suffice for all inorganic compounds, as well as for the best-known organic ones, the
See also:formula of water being taken in certain cases as doubled or tripled . So far back as 185o he also suggested a view which, in a modified
See also:form., is of fundamental importance in the
See also:modern theory of ionic
See also:dissociation, for, in a paper on the theory of the formation of ether, he urged that in an aggregate of molecules of any compound there is an
See also:exchange constantly going on between the elements which are contained in it; for instance, in hydrochloric acid each atom of hydrogen does not remain quietly in juxtaposition with the atom of chlorine with which it first
See also:united, but changes places with other atoms of hydrogen . A somewhat similar hypothesis was put forward by R . J . E . Clausius about the same
See also:time . For his
See also:work on etherification
See also:Williamson in 1862 received a Royal medal from the Royal Society, of which he became a
See also:fellow in 1855, and which he served as
See also:foreign secretary from 1873 to 1889 .
He was twice
See also:president of the London Chemical Society, in 1863-1865, and again in 1869–1871 . His
See also:death occurred on the 6th of May 1904, at Hindhead, Surrey, England .
SIR JOSEPH WILLIAMSON (1633–1701)
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