See also:leader and
See also:governor of Massachusetts, was
See also:born in Edwardston,
See also:Suffolk, on the 12th of
See also:January (O.S.) 1588, the son of
See also:Winthrop of Groton
See also:Manor, and Anne (
See also:Browne) Winthrop . In
See also:December 1602 he matriculated at Trinity
See also:College, Cambridge, but he did not graduate . The years after his brief course at the university were devoted to the practice of
See also:law, in which he achieved considerable success, being appointed, about 1623, an
See also:attorney in the
See also:Court of Wards and Liveries, and also being engaged in the drafting of
See also:parliamentary bills . Though his residence was at Groton Manor, much of his
See also:time was spent in
See also:London . Mean-while he passed through the deep spiritual experiences characteristic of
See also:Puritanism, and made wide acquaintance among the leaders of the Puritan party . On the 26th of
See also:August 1629 he joined in the " Cambridge Agreement," by which he, and his associates, pledged themselves to remove to New England, provided the
See also:government and patent of the Massachusetts colony should be removed thither . On the 2oth of
See also:October following he was chosen governor of the " Governor and
See also:Company of the Massachusetts
See also:Bay in New England," and sailed in the " Arbella " in
See also:March 163o, reaching
See also:Salem (Mass.) on the 12th of
See also:June (O,S.), accompanied by a large party of Puritan immigrants . After a brief sojourn in
See also:Charlestown, Winthrop and many of his immediate associates settled in Boston in the autumn of 1630 . He shared in the formation of a
See also:church at Charlestown (afterwards the First Church in Boston) on the 3oth of
See also:July 163o, of which he was thenceforth a member . At Boston he erected a large
See also:house, and there he lived till his
See also:death on the 26th of March (O.S.) 1649 . Winthrop's
See also:history in New England was very largely that of the Massachusetts colony, of which he was twelve times chosen governor by
See also:annual election, serving in 1629-1634, 1637-1640, in 1642-1644, and in 1646-1649, and dying in
See also:office . To the service of the colony he gave not merely unwearied devotion; but in its interests consumed strength and
See also:fortune .
See also:temper of mind was conservative and somewhat aristocratic, but he guided
See also:political development, often under circumstances of
See also:great difficulty, with singular fairness and conspicuous magnanimity . In 1634-1635 he was a leader in putting the colony in a state of defence against possible coercion by the
See also:English government . He opposed the majority of his
See also:fellow-townsmen in the so-called " Antinomian controversy " of 1636-1637, taking a strongly conservative attitude towards the questions in dispute . He was the first
See also:president of the Commissioners of the
See also:United Colonies of New England, organized in 1643 . He defended Massachusetts against threatened parliamentary interference once more in 1645-1646 . That the colony success-fully weathered its early perils was due more to Winthrop's skill and wisdom than to the services of any other of its citizens . Winthrop was four times married . His first wife, to whom he was united on the 16th of
See also:April 16o5, was Mary Forth, daughter of
See also:John Forth, of Great Stambridge,
See also:Essex . She
See also:bore him six
See also:children, of whom the eldest was John Winthrop, Jr . (q.v.) . She was buried in Groton on the 26th of June 1615 . On the 6th of December 1615 he married Thomasine Clopton, daughter of
See also:William Clopton of Castleins, near Groton .
She died in childbirth about a
See also:year later . He married, on the 29th of April 1618,
See also:Margaret Tyndal, daughter of
See also:Sir John Ty tadal,of Great Maplested, Essex . She followed him to New England in 1631, bore him eight children, and died on the 14th of June 1647 .
See also:Late in 1647 or early in 1648 he married Mrs Martha Coytmore, widow of
See also:Thomas Coytmore, who survived him, and by whom he had one son . Winthrop's Journal, an invaluable record of early Massachusetts history, was printed in
See also:part in
See also:Hartford in 1790; the whole in Boston, edited by
See also:James Savage, as The History of New England from 163o to 1649, in 1825-1826, and again in 1853; and in New
See also:York, edited by James K .
See also:Hosmer, in 1908 . His biography has been written by Robert C . Winthrop,
See also:Life and Letters of John Winthrop (2 vols., Boston, 1864, 1867; new ed . 1869) ; and by
See also:Joseph I-f . Twichell, John Winthrop (New York, 1891) . See also Mrs Alice M . Earle, Margaret Winthrop (New York, 1895) .
JOHN WINTHROP (1606-1676)
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