WITTENBERG , a
See also:town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Saxony, situated on the Elbe, 59 M. by
See also:rail S.W. of Berlin, on the
See also:line to
See also:Halle and at the junction of
See also:railways to Falkenberg,
See also:Torgau and
See also:Rosslau . Pop . (1905) 20,332 . The three suburbs which adjoin the town are not older than 1817 .
See also:berg is interesting chiefly on account of its close connexion with
See also:Luther and the dawh of the Reformation; and several of its buildings are associated with the events of that
See also:time .
See also:Part of the Augustinian monastery in which Luther dwelt, at first as a
See also:monk and in later
See also:life as owner with his wife and
See also:family, is still preserved, and has been fitted up as a Luther museum . It contains numerous
See also:relics of Luther and portraits and other paintings by the Cranachs . The Augusteum, built in 1564—1583 on the site of the monastery, is now a theological seminary . The Schlosskirche, to the doors of which Luther nailed his famous ninety-five theses in 1517,
See also:dates from 1439—1499; it was, however, seriously damaged by
See also:fire during the
See also:bombardment of 176o, was practically rebuilt, and has since (1885—1892) been restored . The old wooden doors, burnt in 176o, were replaced in 1858 by
See also:bronze doors, bearing the Latin text of the theses . In the interior of the
See also:church are the tombs of Luther and
See also:Melanchthon, and of the electors
See also:Frederick the Wise, by
See also:Peter Vischer the elder (1527), and
See also:John the
See also:Constant, by Hans Vischer; also portraits of the reformers by Lucas
See also:Cranach the younger . The
See also:parish church, in which Luther often preached, was built in the 14th century, but has been much altered since Luther's time .
It contains a magnificent
See also:painting by Lucas Cranach the elder, representing the
See also:Lord's Supper,
See also:Baptism and Confession, also a font by Hermann Vischer (1457)• The
See also:infantry barracks were at one time occupied by the university of Witten-berg, .founded in 1502, but merged in the university of Halle in 1815 . Luther was appointed
See also:professor of philosophy here in 1508; and the new university rapidly acquired a considerable reputation from its connexion with the early Reformers . In opposition to the strict Lutheran orthodoxy of
See also:Jean it represented the more moderate doctrines of Melanchthon . In the 'Wittenberg Concord (1536) the reformers agreed to a settlement of the eucharistic controversy .
See also:Shakespeare makes
See also:Hamlet and Horatio study at Wittenberg . The
See also:ancient electoral palace is another of the buildings that suffered severely in 176o; it now contains archives . Melanchthon's
See also:house and the house of Lucas Cranach. the elder (1472—1553), who was burgomaster of Wittenberg, are also pointed out . Statues of Luther (by
See also:Schadow), Melanchthon and
See also:Bugenhagen embellish the town . The spot, outside the
See also:Gate, where Luther publicly burned the papal bull in 1520, is marked by an
See also:tree . Floriculture, iron-founding, distilling and
See also:brewing are carried on .. The formerly considerable manufacture of the heavier kinds of
See also:cloth has died out . Wittenberg is mentioned as early as 1180 .
It was thecapital of the little duchy of Saxe-Wittenberg, the rulers of which after-wards became electors of Saxony; and it continued to be a Saxon residence under the Ernestine electors . The Capitulation of Wittenberg (1547) is the name given to the treaty by which John Frederick the Magnanimous was compelled to resign the electoral dignity and most of his territory to the Albertine branch of the Saxon family . In 176o the town was bombarded by the Austrians . It was occupied by the French in 18o6, and refortified in 1813 by command of
See also:Napoleon; but in 1814 it was stormed by the Prussians under Tauentzien, who received the title of " von Wittenberg " as a
See also:reward . Wittenberg continued to be a fortress of the third class until the reorganization of the German defences after the foundation of the new
See also:empire led to its being dismantled in 1873 . See Meynert, Geschichte der Stadi Wittenberg (
See also:Dessau, 1845);
See also:Stier, Die Schlosskirche zu Wittenberg (Wittenberg, 186o); Zitzlaff, Die Begrabnissstatten Witten bergs and ihre Denkmdler (Wittenberg, 1897); and Gurlitt, " Die Lutherstadt Wittenberg," in Muther's Die Kunst (Berlin, 1902) .
There are no comments yet for this article.
Do not copy, download, transfer, or otherwise replicate the site content in whole or in part.
Links to articles and home page are encouraged.