WORCESTER , acity and the
See also:county-seat of Worcester county, Massachusetts, U.S.A., about 44 M . W. of Boston on the
See also:river, a branch of the
See also:Providence river . Pop . (1900) 118,421 (37,652
See also:born); (1905, state
See also:census) 128,135; (1910) 145,986 .
See also:Area, 39 sq. m . Worcester is served by the Boston & Albany, the New
See also:York, New Haven &
See also:Hartford and the Boston & Maine
See also:railways, and is connected with
See also:Springfield and Boston by interurban electric lines . The
See also:system of the city comprises about twenty tracts with a
See also:total area of more than r too acres; among them are
See also:Elm Park (88 acres) in the W. including
See also:Hill (67o ft. above
See also:sea-level), and
See also:Green Hill Park (5oo acres) in the N.E . Other parks are Institute Park (18 acres) and Boynton Park (113 acres) in the N.W. on
See also:Salisbury Pond, given to the city by
See also:Stephen Salisbury;
See also:Dodge Park (13 acres, N.); Burncoat Park (42 acres, N.E.);
See also:Chandler Hill Park (8o acres, E.); Hadwen (5o acres), University (14 acres) and Crompton Park (15.25 acres) in the S.W. and S.; and Greenwood (12.65 acres), Beaver
See also:Brook (15.5 acres), Tatnuck (2.94 acres), Kendrick (14.87 acres) and Vernon Hill (16.4 acres) . Two
See also:miles N.E. of the centre of the city lies lake Quinsigamond, 4 M. long, from which flows the river of the same name, a branch of the Blackstone . On its shores is Lake Park (
See also:Ito acres) . Fronting the
See also:Common, a wooded square in the centre of the city, is the City
See also:Hall, near which is a
See also:bronze statue, by D . C .
French, of G . F .
See also:Hoar . On the Common there is a
See also:monument, designed by
See also:Rogers, to the soldiers and sailors of the
See also:Civil War, and one to Colonel Timothy
See also:Bigelow (1739—179o), one of Worcester's soldiers of the War of Independence . The E. side of the Common was the site of an old burying ground, and the W. side of the First
See also:Church, built in 1663 . About z m . N. of the Common is Lincoln Square, adjacent to which is the granite
See also:House; in front of it is a statue of General
See also:Devens (182o-1891) by French . The old Salisbury
See also:mansion, dating back to Colonial days, stands in this square . At Salisbury Street and Park Avenue are the library and museum (1910) of the
See also:American Antiquarian Society, established in 1812 by Isaiah
See also:Thomas, with a collection of interesting portraits, a library of 99,000 vols. and many thousands of
See also:pamphlets, particularly
See also:rich in Americana . The
See also:Art Museum was erected and endowed (1899—1903) by Stephen Salisbury, and contains a
See also:fine collection of casts, many valuable paintings, and the
See also:Ban-croft Collection of
See also:Japanese art . The city has many fine churches . Worcester is an important educational centre .
See also:Clark University was established here in 1889 by
See also:Gilman Clark as a purely graduate institution . In 1902 Clark
See also:College was opened for undergraduate
See also:work under the
See also:presidency of Carroll D .
See also:Wright, with a
See also:separate endowment of $1,3do,000 . In 1910 it had 30 teachers and 177 students . The university in 1910 had 15 instructors, . 103 students and a library of 5o,000 volumes . Under G .
See also:Stanley Hall, who was made
See also:president in 1888, the university became well known for its work in
See also:child-psychology . Worcester Polytechnic Institute (founded in 1865 by
See also:John Boynton of Templeton, Massachusetts; opened in 1868) is one of the best-equipped technical
See also:schools of college
See also:rank in the
See also:country; in 1910 it had 49 instructors, 515 students and a library of 12,700 vols.; the buildings are near Institute Park . On Packachoag Hill or Mt . St
See also:James (690 ft.) is the Jesuit college of the
See also:Cross, with a preparatory school, founded in 1843 by Benedict J .
See also:bishop cf Boston, and chartered in 1865; in 1910 it had 30 instructors and 450 students .
There is a State Normal School (1874), and connected with it a
See also:kindergarten training school (191o) . The city library (175,000 vols.), founded in 1859, was one of the first in the country to be open on
See also:Sunday . There are four daily
See also:newspapers, one printed in French . From 1775 to 1848 was published here the weekly edition of the Worcester
See also:Spy, established by Isaiah Thomas in 1770 in Boston as the Massachusetts Spy and removed by him to Worcester at the outbreak of the War of Independence; a daily edition was published from 1845 to 1904 . Early in the 19th century the city was an important
See also:publishing centre . Worcester is one of the most important manufacturing centres in New England: in 1905 the value of the factory product was $52,144,965, ranking the city third among the cities of the state . Manufacturers of hardware and tools at an early date laid the foundation for the
See also:steel and other
See also:industries, in which 42 8 % of all the workers were employed in 1905 . A large proportion are employed in the
See also:wire and wire-working industries, one plant, that of the American Steel and Wire
See also:Company, employing about 5000 hands; in 1905 the total value of wire-work was $1,726,088, and of foundry and machine
See also:shop products $7,327,095 . The first
See also:grant of
See also:land in this
See also:part of the Blackstone Valley was made in 1657, and the
See also:town, Quansigamond (or Quinsigamond)
See also:Plantation, was laid out in
See also:October 1668 . In 1675, on the outbreak of
See also:Philip's War, it was temporarily abandoned . In 1684 it was settled again and its name was changed to Worcester because several leaders in the settlement were natives of Worcester, England . In 1713 the vicinity was opened up to settlement, a
See also:tavern and a
See also:mill were constructed, and a
See also:turnpike road was built to Boston .
Worcester was incorporated as a town in 1722 . In 1755 a smallcolony of the exiled Acadians settled here . At the outbreak of the War of Independence Worcester was little more than a country market town . During
See also:Rebellion it was taken by the rebels and the courts were closed . The first real impetus to its growth came in 1835 with the construction of the Boston & Worcester railway, and it received a city
See also:charter in 1848 . The strong
See also:slavery sentiment of the city led in 18$4 to a serious riot, owing to an apparent attempt to enforce the Fugitive Slave
See also:Law . In Worcester, or within a
See also:radius of a dozen miles of it, were the homes of
See also:Howe, inventor of the sewing machine; Eli
See also:Whitney, inventor of the
See also:Erastus Bigelow (1814-1879), inventor of,the
See also:weaving machine; Dr
See also:Russell L . Hawes, inventor of an envelope machine; Thomas
See also:Blanchard (1788-1864), inventor of the machine for turning irregular forms;
See also:Samuel Crompton (1753–1827) and
See also:Lucius James Knowles (1819–1884), the perfectors of the
See also:loom; and Draper Ruggles, Joel Nourse and J . C .
See also:Mason, perfectors of the modern plough and originators of many inventions in agricultural machinery . See F . E .
Blake, Incidents of the First and Second Settlements of Worcester (\\Worcester, 1884) ; Wm . Lincoln,
See also:History of Worcester to 1836 (Worcester, 1837) ; also same extended to 1862 by Charles Hersey (Worcester, 1862) ; D . H .
See also:Hurd, History of Worcester County (Worcester, 2 vols., 1889) ; I . N .
See also:Metcalf, Illustrated Business
See also:Guide to City of Worcester (Worcester, 1880); C . F .
See also:Jewett, History of Worcester County (2 vols., Worcester, 1879); the Collections and Proceedings (1881 sqq.) of the Worcester Society of Antiquity (instituted in 1877) .
EARLS AND MARQUESSES OF WORCESTER
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