WRITING deals, chiefly from the anthropological standpoint, with
See also:primitive attempts to record ideas in an intelligible
See also:form, e.g. with " knot-signs," "
See also:message-sticks," picture-writing and the like .
See also:PHONETICS covers the whole subject of speech sounds and pronunciation, the
See also:organs of speech and
See also:national sound systems . Supplementary, from another-point of view, to the article
See also:ALPHABET is a
See also:complete series of articles on the letters of the
See also:English alphabet . In these articles the
See also:history of the individual letters is traced from the Phoenician through Aramaic, Greek and
See also:Roman to
See also:modern times . All these articles may be read in connexion with a
See also:comparative table in the article ALPHABET (ad fin.), which shows in parallel columns the earliest equivalents of the modern English letters, i.e . Brahmi, Kharosthi,
See also:oldest 'Ethiopic, SabHan, Nashki, Tema,-Sindjirli, the Moabite
See also:stone, Phoenician, Greek, Latin,
See also:Cyrillic and Glagolitic . Another important comparative table of written signs is contained in the article
See also:SLAVS, showing the various Cyrillic, Glagolitic and Latin letters used by the Slav peoples . Passing from articles dealing with the method and general subject-
See also:matter of
See also:philology, the student will find articles on the
See also:great families of
See also:languages, each with its subordinate articles on
See also:special languages and dialects . r . Indo-
See also:European Languages.—Of articles on language-families, the most important is that under the heading INDO-EUROPEAN LANGUAGES . This great division, which is dealt with from the comparative standpoint in the second
See also:part of the article PHILOLOGY, is under its own heading treated in detail . The article begins with a sub-
See also:classification into two
See also:main groups—the so-called (A) centum and (B) satem groups—each of which is further divided into four sections .
In accordance with this classification there are
See also:separate articles on the individual
See also:ancient and modern languages and dialects . A . (1) GREEK LANGUAGE (supplemented by sections under
See also:DORIANS, &C.); (2) LATIN LANGUAGE (with OSCA LINGUA,
See also:IGUVIUM, &c., and articles on the
See also:Italic tribes and places, e.g .
See also:VENETI, CAERE); (3)
See also:Celtic, s.v . CELT (with subsidiary articles); and (4) Teutonic, S.D . TEUTONIC LANGUAGES, SCANDINAVIAN LANGUAGES, and the like . The modern descendants of these languages are all further treated separately . Thus following LATIN LANGUAGE iS the article
See also:ROMANCE LANGUAGES, which traces the development of the Latin
See also:tongue during its gradual differentiation into
See also:Italian, French,
See also:Spanish, Rumanian, &c.; while a more detailed account of these will be found under ITALIAN LANGUAGE; FRENCH LANGUAGE; SPAIN: Language; RUMANIA: Language . There is also a special article PROVENCAL LANGUAGE, dealing with the Romanic speech of
See also:southern France . The Teutonic languages are similarly dealt with in detail under ENGLISH LANGUAGE (including Anglo-Saxon); DUTCH LANGUAGE; GERMAN LANGUAGE . SCANDINAVIAN LANGUAGE itself includes Icelandic,
See also:Swedish, Danish. a B . In the satem
See also:group of the Indo-European
See also:family the four divisions are as follows: (I) Indo-Iranian or
See also:Aryan .
This division may be sub-divided into (a) Indo-Iranian, treated mainly in the article
See also:PERSIA: Language and Literature (including Zend, Old,
See also:Middle and New Persian, and the modern dialects), and (b)
See also:Indian . The Indian languages ,are discussed primarily under INDOARYAN LANGUAGES, which describes the relations of Pisaca,
See also:Prakrit, and gives a paradigm of the various languages of.the three great divisions of India . This central article refers to the separate articles PISACA, SANSKRIT and PRAKRIT, which in turn are supplemented by a number of articles on particular languages . Of these reference may be made to
See also:GUJARATI AND RAJASTHANI; HINDOSTANI;
See also:PALI . The gipsy languages, which may probably be assigned to the Indo-Iranian division, are described under Gums . (2) The account of Armenian will be found under ARMENIAN LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE . (3) The, Balto-
See also:Slavonic Languages . Of these the three comprised in the Baltic group, viz . Lithuanian, Lettic and Old Prussian, are described under the heading
See also:LITHUANIANS AND LETTS . For the Slavonic group, the chief article is SLAVS: Language, which deals with the elements
See also:common to all the Slavonic tongues, with their early history and differentiation . It contains a comparative table of alphabets . It is supplemented by an article OLD SLAVONIC, and by further information under the headings RUSSIA, BULGARIA,
See also:SERVIA, POLAND, BOHEMIA, CROATIA-SLAVONIA,
See also:SORBS, KASHUBES,
See also:POLABS .
(4) The Albanian dialects are treated under
See also:ALBANIA . 2 . Semitic Languages.—At the heading of this section stands the article SEMITIC LANGUAGES, supplemented by
See also:HEBREW LANGUAGE, ARAMAIC LANGUAGES, and linguistic sections under
See also:PHOENICIA, ETHIOPIA, and the like . 3 . Hamitic Languages.—The central article in this family is HAMITIC LANGUAGES, which is supplemented, so far as the Cushitic or Ethiopian group is concerned, by further information in the articles
See also:EGYPT; ETHIOPIA;
See also:SOMALILAND; and, so far as the Libyan group is concerned, by the articles
See also:BERBERS and
See also:KABYLES . 4 . The chief feature of the Monosyllabic family is the section Language under
See also:CHINA, supplemented again by similar sections in articles on other countries of south-eastern
See also:Asia, and by the article TIBETO-BURMAN LANGUAGES . There is also a language section under
See also:Japan which discusses the
See also:affinities between
See also:Chinese, Korean and
See also:Japanese . 5 . The Ural-Altaic family is described in outline in the article URAL-ALTAIC, which gives the general relationships of
See also:Turkish, Finno-Ugrian, Mongol and Manchu, and of minor sub-divisions such as Syryenian, Mordvinian and Votyak . Turkish is discussed in the article
See also:TURKS: Language, which deals with Osmanli proper and the Tatar-Turkish languages generally . The article FINNO-UGRIAN is a comparative survey dealing with the language of the Finns, Lapps,
See also:Samoyedes, &c.; while Magyar is treated separately in HUNGARY: Language .
See also:MONGOLS there is a special section Language, discussing the three groups of East Mongol, West Mongol (including
See also:Kalmuck) and Buriat . 6 . The
See also:principal languages of southern India, e.g . Tamil,
See also:Telugu, &c., are dealt with generally under the heading
See also:DRAVIDIAN; while there is a separate article
See also:TAMILS, containing a section on their language; and brief notes under the headings
See also:BRAHUI, TELUGU, MALAYALAM, &c . y and 8 . The scattered languages of the
See also:Malay-Polynesian family and other Oceanic peoples are treated principally in the article
See also:MALAYS, which further information is given under the headings POLYNESIA;
See also:JAVA; NEGRITOS,
See also:BATTAS, &C . q . The Caucasian family is described chiefly in the article
See also:Ethnology . Further information will be found in CAUCASIA: Ethnology . to . Of the remaining European languages only two need special. mention: Basque, which is treated in a special section under the heading
See also:BASQUES; and the lost
See also:Etruscan, which is treated under
See also:ETRURIA and LATIN LANGUAGE . Ir .
The principal languages of southern and centralAfrica are treated fully under
See also:BANTU LANGUAGES . There is a brief account of the Bushman language under
See also:BUSHMEN, and of the Hottentot languages under
See also:HOTTENTOTS . 12 . Intermediate
See also:African Languages.—Among the numerous languages spoken by the
See also:people of the great central
See also:belt of the African continent, the most important is the
See also:Hausa, described under that heading . 13 .
See also:America.—The whole question of the languages of the
See also:Indians is dealt with in the article INDIANS, NORTH AMERICAN, which contains an elaborate linguistic paradigm .
See also:Bibliographical information will be found in practically all the above headings . In addition to the most modern authorities there quoted, there will be found in the article
See also:DICTIONARY a very full
See also:list of older lexicographical
See also:works . The above
See also:summary does not purport to
See also:present dogmatically a rigid philological classification . It disregards many problems, and is intended solely to enable the student readily to find the material of which he may be in
See also:search .
WRITERS TO THE SIGNET
WRITING (the verbal noun of " to write," O. Eng. wr...
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