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XAPAKTHP ("engraving" or "engraved pi...

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Originally appearing in Volume V19, Page 883 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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XAPAKTHP ("engraving" or "engraved piece"). Seuthes (end of 5th century B.C.) and Cotys (1st century B.C.), semi-barbarian Thracians, afford no evidence for Gredk usage. The other instances (all archaic) point to the nominative understood in early times being in reality some word meaning type, or badge. But, if so, this latent nominative was eventually superseded by one meaning " money " or " coin." Thus the staters of Alexander of Pherae are inscribed 'AXsVw3peios, his drachms 'A?E evSpEta. Probably from the 4th century onwards " coin " was always understood. Occasionally the name of the issuing authority is found in the nominative, as Kupe (at Cumae), L]&vKAE (Zancle-Messana), 'AOE. o Se"pos on a late coin probably issued by the Athenians in Delos, Tapas at Tarentum. These are by no means always descriptive of the type, but merely a straightforward way of naming the issuing authority. The simple inscriptions of the early period of Greek coinage are under the kings and the Roman empire replaced by elaborate legends, most of which, however, fall under the description above given. A certain number of inscriptions directly describe the type (not merely giving the name of its owner) as fwetiroXrc (the goddess of Gela) or NIKa (at Terina). Others, especially in Roman times, indicate the reason of issue, as 'Ioviaias EaXwsvlas on coins of Judaea under Vespasian, or names of festivals for which the coins were issued. These, however, properly belong to the class of secondary inscriptions which either describe secondary ' types, as AOAA, " rewards," accompanying the representation of the arms given to the victor in the exergues of Syracusan decadrachms,' or are the names of magistrates or other officers, or in regal coins those of cities, or are those of the engravers of the dies, of whom sometimes two wen! employed, one for the obverse and the other for the reverse, or are dates. These inscriptions are often but abbreviations or monograms, especially when they indicate cities on the regal coins. The importance of Greek coins as illustrating the character of contemporary art cannot be easily overrated. They are beyond all other monuments the grammar of Greek art. Their gem- Art o1 graphical and historical range is only limited by Greek Coins. history and the Greek world; as a series they may be called complete; in quality they are usually worthy of a place beside contemporary sculpture, having indeed a more uniform merit; they are sometimes the work of great artists, and there is no question of their authenticity, nor have they suffered from the injurious hand of the restorer. Thus they tell us what other monuments leave untold, filling up gaps in the sequence of works of art, and revealing local schools known from them alone. The art of coins belongs to the province of relief, which lies between the domains of sculpture and of painting, partaking of the character of both, but most influenced by that which was dominant in each age. Thus in antiquity relief mainly shows the rule of sculpture; in the Renaissance that of painting. It may be expected that Greek coins will bear the impress of the sister art of sculpture, filling up the gaps in the sequence of examples of the art of which we have remains, telling us somewhat of that which has but a written tradition. Our first duty is to endeavour to place the documents in the best order, separating the geographical from the historical indications, first examining the evidence of local schools, then those of the succession of styles. It is from coins alone that we can discover the existence of great local schools, reflecting the character of the different branches of the Hellenic race. In tracing the changes in these schools we gain a great addition to our ideas of the successive styles, and can detect new examples of those which owe their fame to the leading masters. But in dealing with works in relief we have the advantage due to their intermediate character. In our larger geographical horizon we can trace the character of the successive styles, not of sculpture only, but also of sculpture and painting. Greek coins clearly indicate three great schools, each with its subordinate groups. The school of central Greece holds the first place, including the northern group centred in Thrace and Macedonia, and the southern in the Peloponnesus, with the outlying special schools of Crete and Cyrene. The Ionian school has its northern group, Ionia, Mysia and Aeolis, and its southern, Rhodes and Caria. Beyond these are certain barbarous and semi-barbarous groups, of which the most important is that of eastern Asia Minor, Persia and Phoenicia, with Cyprus. The school of the West comprises the two groups of Italy and Sicily. The whole duration of the schools is limited, by the repulse of the Persians and the accession of Alexander, from 48o to 332 B.C. Before this age all is archaic, and it is hard to trace local characteristics. After it, the centralizing policy of the sovereigns and the fall of the free cities destroyed local art. In certain cultivated centres under enlightened kings a local art arose, but it speedily became general, and we have thus to think of a succession of styles 1 The arms on the Syracusan decadrachms represent a reward given to the victors in the Assinarian games (see below). Local Schools. during the rest of the life of Greek art. The century and a half of the local schools is significantly the great age of this art. In the study of each school we have first to determine its character, and then to look in its successive phases for the influence of the great masters of style. Two dangers must be avoided. We must not too sharply divide the sculptors and the painters as if they always were true to the special functions of their arts. It is well to bear in mind that the earliest great painter, Polygnotus, was a portrayer of character, Kotos i 0oyparos, ?OrK6s, as Aristotle calls him, whereas the latest great sculptors represented expression (Ta aaBrf). Thus since i)Boc is the special province of sculpture, and Tilt auirOrl of painting, sculpture first weighed down the balance, afterwards painting; but it must be remembered that relief can be truer to painting than sculpture in the round, which is more limited by the conditions of the material and mechanical necessities. Our second danger is due to the ease with which local qualities may be ascribed to the influence of a leading style. It is also to be borne in mind that the movement of art in coins was during one period slower than in sculpture—hence an influence more general than particular. Pheidias and Myron do not make their mark so much as Polyclitus. In all cases the direct influence of great masters is to be looked for later than their age. The school of central Greece in its southern group, comprehending Attica, is remarkable for its widespread extent. It has its colonies in Magna Graecia at Thurium, an Athenian central foundation, probably at Terina, and in Macedonia at Greece. Amphipolis and Chalcidice under Athenian rule. It alone shows instances comparable to the works of Pheidias, though its most numerous fine works are of the age of Polyclitus and that of Praxiteles and Scopas. Its qualities may be seen by comparison of the same subjects as treated by the other schools and groups. The earliest works are marked more than any others by the qualities of high promise which characterized the Aeginetan marbles—the same dignified self-restraint and calm simplicity. Next we perceive a series strong in style, and showing that lofty dignity, that reposeful embodiment of character, which are the stamp of the works of Pheidias and his contemporaries. The subjects are more remarkable for fidelity, breadth and boldness than for delicacy of execution or elaboration of ornament. Every subject is ideal, even the portrayal of animal form. Thus the character shows us what divinity is intended and the ideality what is intended by the representation of beast or bird. From these works we pass to those which reflect the style of the time of Praxiteles and Scopas, when the influence of painting began to be felt, and art inclined towards feeling and descended to sentiment. Still, to the last, character rules these coins, and the chief difference we see is in the increased love of beauty for its own sake and the fondness for representing movement, not to the exclusion of repose, but by its side. In other respects there is little change except in the finer execution and more ornamental quality of the work. Even when the greatest achievement of the Sicilian school, the female head on the decadrachms of Syracuse, is copied by the Locrians and the Messenians, the larger quality of the school of Greece asserts itself, and the copy is better than the original: there is less artifice and more breadth. The northern group is at first ruder, in the age of Pheidias severer, and afterwards it merges into the greater softness of its southern rival. If it copies, as Larissa may copy Syracuse and Neapolis in Campania, it again asserts its superior simplicity, and we prefer the copy to the original. The Ionian school lacks the sequence which the rest of the Greek world affords. It is broken by the baneful influence of Ionia. the Persian dominion, and consequently the best works belong to the earliest and latest part of the period. The earliest coins, of the Aeginetan age, present nothing special; the later, of the time of Praxiteles and Scopas, comprise works not inferior to those of central Greece, and remarkable, like the Western and the Cretan, as the sole records of a school otherwise unknown. They are markedly characterized by the qualities of the style of feeling, that of Praxiteles and Scopas; but more than this, they are the expression of that style in pictorial form. They represent expression, and they treat it as it could not be treated in sculpture in the round, portraying locks streaming in the air and flowing draperies. It must be remembered that, while Hellas produced the great sculptors, western Asia Minor bred the great painters after Polygnotus, himself a sculptor in painting rather than a painter. In the native land of Zeuxis, Parrhasius and Apelles we see the evidence of the rule of painting. The technical skill is inferior to that of the West., yet the skill in modelling is far greater, and has no parallel in the medallic work of any other time or country. The school of the West, if we except such outlying examples of the art of Hellas as those of Thurium and Terina, has its highest expression in Italy, its most characteristic in Sicily. The West. It has distinctive qualities throughout the age. Even in the earlier period we trace a striving after beauty and a delicacy of finish, with a weakness of purpose, that mark the school with an influence increasing to a time long after the . extinction of its rivals. At the same time there is a knowledge of the capacity of the materials and the form of the coin and a masterly power of finish, on the whole a completeness of technical skill which is unequalled. The result in the lower subjects is splendid, if wanting in variety, but in the higher we miss the noble achievements of the greater schools. So far there is a general agreement in the northern and southern groups. Yet the Italian shows a nobler and simpler style, with some affinity to that of central Greece, which we look for in vain in Sicily, though we are dazzled by the rich beauty of the magnificent series of coins which marks her wealthiest age. Sicilian art has this apparent advantage, that the great cities, save Syracuse, perished in the Carthaginian invasion, or under the tyranny of the elder Dionysius. Thus we have no important works save of Syracuse during the second half of our period, and cannot judge fully to what this school would have fallen. The key to this exceptional development of Greek art is found in the absence of sculptors or painters in the West, except only Pythagoras of Rhegium at the very beginning of the age, whose influence is thought to be traceable on the money of his native town. On the other hand, there can be no doubt that many of the Sicilian die-engravers, as Phrygillos (to mention one whose signature is actually found on an intaglio) were gem-engravers. The Western art is that of engravers accustomed to minute and decorative work, uninfluenced by sculpture or painting. Their designs will not bear enlargement, which only enhances the charm of those of the other leading schools. Those of the great Syracusan decadrachms are small; those of the minute hectae of Cyzicus are large. The most important of the lesser schools is the Cretan. Crete, retaining the primitive life of older Hellas, was never truly civilized, but to the last enjoyed the privileges and Crete. exhibited the faults of an undeveloped condition. Producing in the age of high art neither sculptor nor painter of renown, the Cretans, to judge from their coins, were copyists of nature or art. At first rude, their work acquires excellence in design, but never in execution. While we see their poor reproductions of the designs of the Peloponnesus, we are amazed by their skill in portraying nature. Their gods are seated in trees with a background of foliage. Their bulls are sketched as they wandered in the meadows. All fitness for the mode of relief, as well as for the material and the shape of the coin, is entirely ignored. Hence a delight in foreshortening, and a free choice of subject with no reference to the circle in which it must be figured. In spite, however, of their skill, the Cretans never attempted the three-quarter face, which is at once the best suited to the surface of a coin and the most trying to the skill of the artist. Yet their work is delightfully fresh, as if done in the open air. There is no idealism, but much life and movement. In a word, the school is naturalistic and picturesque. Its works are of the highest value in the study of Greek art, but as examples of the application of that art to coins they are to be used with caution. Nowhere else do we see the artist so freely copying nature and art, nowhere so unshackled by academic rules, nowhere so little aware of the limitation of his province. Senor Zobel de Zangr6niz has classed them to Spain, on the grounds of provenance and the possession of the silver mines by the Barcide kings, against Muller, who attributes them to Africa. The types are Carthaginian, and present some interesting subjects. The true Iberian currency begins not long after the Punic. The later drachms of Emporiae, ultimately following the weight of the contemporary Roman denarius, have Iberian legends, and form the centre of a group of imitations issued by neighbouring native tribes with their distinctive inscriptions. This coinage ceased when the Roman province was formed in 206 B.C. A little before this date the Romans had begun to introduce Latin money; about this time, however, they took the backward step of permitting native coinages of Latin weight. Probably they found that native legends and types were more welcome to their subjects than those of Rome. Consequently this coinage of Spain under the republic, which lasted until 133 B.C., may be almost considered national. The two provinces Hispania Citerior and Hispania Ulterior have this marked difference: the coins of the nearer province, of silver and bronze, have always Iberian inscriptions on the reverse, and are clearly under distinct Roman regulation; those of the farther are apparently of independent origin, and consequently bear Iberian, Phoenician, Libyo-Phoenician and Latin legends, but they are of bronze alone. The interest of these coins lies mainly in their historical and geographical information. They bear the names of tribes, often the same as those of the town of mintage. The art is poor, and lacks the quaint originality and decorative quality of that of Gaul. Ultimately the native money was wholly latinized (133 B.C.), silver was no longer issued, and although the Ulterior continued to have its own coinage, in the Citerior only Emporiae and Saguntum were allowed to strike coins. Political circumstances for a time renewed the coinage under Sertorius (80-72 B.C.) in the modified form of a bilingual currency. The purely Latin issues of the two provinces, and under the empire more largely (from 27 B.C.) of the three, Tarraconensis, Baetica and Lusitania, present little of interest. They closed in the reign of Caligula (A.D. 37-41), though in later times purely Roman money in gold and silver was issued at different times in Hispania down to the establishment of the Visigothic kingdom. The imperial money of Hispania introduces us to one of the two great classes of provincial coins under the empire; the larger of these was the Greek imperial, bearing Greek inscriptions, the smaller the Roman colonial, with Latin inscriptions, deriving its name from the circumstance that among Greek-speaking nations the coloniae were distinguished by the use of the Latin language on their money. In the coinage of Hispania, issued by a nation adopting Latin for official use, the aspect of the coinage is colonial, though it was not wholly issued by colonies. Many of the Spanish towns belong to the kindred class of municipia; others are neither coloniae nor municipia. In Hispania the obverse of the coin bears, as usual in the colonial class, the head of the emperor or of some imperial personage, the reverse a subject proper to the town. The priest guiding a plough drawn by an ox and a cow is peculiarly proper to a colonia, as portraying the ceremony of describing the walls of the city, so also an ox, with the same reference, the altar of the imperial founder, or, as connected with his cultus, a temple, probably in some cases that of Roma and Augustus. Other types, however, portray the old temples in restored Roman shapes, or indicate directly by fishes, ears of corn and more rarely bunches of grapes, the pro-ducts of the country. Some original and grotesque types have a markedly local character. The money of Augusta Emerita (Merida) in Lusitania, a colony of pensioners (emiriti), is specially interesting, including as it does the silver issues of P. Carisius, the legatus of Augustus. The coinage commonly called that of Gaul belongs to the people more properly than to the country, for it comprehends pieces issued by the Gauls or other barbarians from the borders of Macedonia and Illyricum to the English The Gauls. Channel and the Bay of Biscay, through Pannonia, part of Germany, Helvetia and Gaul. It influenced the money of northern Italy, and, crossing the Channel, produced that of It is important to study the mode in which Greek money was coined, because the forms of the pieces thus receive explanation, and true coins are discriminated from such modern falsifi-Mode Colde of f cations as have been struck, and in some degree from those which have been cast. Our direct information on the subject is extremely scanty, but we are enabled by careful inference to obtain a very near approximation to the truth on all the most important points. Of the dies used by the Greeks exceedingly few have been pre-served. In the museum at Sofia is an iron die for the reverse of a coin of Philip II. of Macedon; and several Gaulish dies exist. Most ancient dies are of bronze, others of hardened iron or steel. The blanks were, as a rule, first cast, sometimes in a spherical form, some-times in a form more resembling that assumed by the finished coin. The blank was placed between two dies, the lower, let into an anvil, producing the obverse, the other, let into the end of a bar, producing the reverse. The bar was struck with a hammer, so that the blank received at the same time the impressions of both dies. This general rule was of course often modified; in some parts of the Greek world the dies were hinged together, in others not; and this arrangement of hinging the dies came in at different times in different places. The machinery of striking was probably much elaborated under the Roman empire, but a collar seems never to have been used in ancient times. Greek dies must usually have worn out very quickly; hence an enormous number of slightly varying representations of the same type. But the idea that it is uncommon to find two Greek coins from the same die is exaggerated. A great number of early Italian and Roman, and a few Greek coins, of large size, were cast in moulds, not struck; and under the empire many coins, originally struck, were reproduced, not always fraudulently, by casting; but the genuine ancient coin of small size is, as an almost invariable rule, struck and not cast. We may now pass on to notice the Greek coinage of each country, following Eckhel's arrangement. The series begins (}reek with Spain, Gaul and Britain, constituting the only coinage of great class of barbarous Greek coinage. It must not the Far be supposed that the money of the whole class is of west. one general character; on the contrary, it has very many divisions, distinguished by marked peculiarities; it has, however, everywhere one common characteristic—its devices are corrupt copies of those of Greek or Roman coins. The earliest of these barbarous coinages begin with the best imitations of the gold and silver money of Philip Ii. of Macedon. They probably first appeared to the north of his kingdom, but the gold soon spread as far as Gaul, and even found their way into southern Britain, by which time the original types had almost disappeared through successive degradations. Next in order of time are the silver imitations of Roman coins, the victoriati and denarii of the commonwealth, which began in Spain and passed into Gaul, being current with the gold money of Greek origin; even in Britain the later coinage shows much Roman influence. The copper money of Spain follows the imitated silver types ; that of Gaul and Britain, though showing Roman influence, is more original. Side by side with these large coinages we find Greek money of colonies in Gaul and Spain, and a far ampler issue of Spain. Phoenician coins by the Carthaginian kings and cities of the Peninsula. The coinage of Hispania, corre- sponding to the modern Spain and Portugal, was issued during a period of about four centuries, closing in A.D. 41. There are four classes of money, which in the order of their relative antiquity, are Greek, of two groups, Carthaginian, Romano-Iberian and Latin. The first or older group of Greek money (from before c. 350 B.C.) belongsto the widespread currency, which reveals the maritime power of the Ionians of Phocaea. It consists of fractions of the drachm of the Phocaean standard, from the diobol or third downwards. Its later pieces are of the Phocaean colony of Emporiae, founded by the earlier settlement of Massilia. Next in order and in part contemporary, beginning before the middle of the 3rd century B.C., come the drachms of Emporiae, which betray the influence of Siculo-Punic art. Their standard is probably Carthaginian. Of the neighbouring Rhoda, a Rhodian colony, there is similar money. Carthaginian coins of Spain begin in the same period with the issues of the great colony of Gades, following the same weights as the Emporian drachms. These are followed by the issues of the Barcides from 234 to 210 Bed., with Carthaginian types and of Phoenician weight, struck of six denominations, from the hexadrachm to the hemidrachm. Britain, which has its own distinctive features. Four classes of coinage are found in these vast limits. Arranging them by date, they are the money of the Greek colony of Massilia and her dependencies, that of the Gauls and other barbarians of central and western Europe, that which can be classed to the tribes and chiefs of Gaul and the imperial coinage of that country. The coins of the Gauls and other barbarians outside Gallia include the gold coins known as " rainbow cups " (Regenbogenschiisselchen), which seem to have been an original currency of the tribes inhabiting the Bohemian and Bavarian districts, and other gold and silver coins (the later series bearing names in Latin characters) which circulated in Noricum, Pannonia, Helvetia, Upper Germany, &c. The great mart of Massilia (Marseilles), founded about 600 B.C. by the Phocaeans, was the centre of the Greek settlements of Gaul Masai/1a. and northern Spain. Emporiae was her colony, with other nearer towns of inferior fame. Yet Massilia always held the first place, as is proved by the abundance of her money. At first it consisted of Phocaean obols, part of the widespread Western currency already noticed in speaking of Emporiae. These were succeeded by Attic drachms, some of which, about Philip of Macedon's time, are beautiful in style and execution. Their obverse type is the head of Artemis, crowned with olive, at once marking the sacred tree, which had grown from a branch carried by the colonists, so tradition said, with a statue of the goddess, from Ephesus, and proclaiming the value of the olive-groves of Massilia. On the reverse we note the Asiatic lion, common to it and the last colony of Phocaea, the Italian Velia in Lucania. These coins circulated extensively in southern Gaul, and were much imitated by the barbarians on both sides of the Alps. The Gauls, on their predatory incursions into Greece, must have seized large quantities of the gold coinage circulating there, oaaL but it is probable that the gold staters of Philip (Pl. I. fig. 14), from which the chief types of the Gaulish gold are derived (Pl. I. fig. I), had already found their way, independently of such raids, by means of trade along the Danube valley into the districts then inhabited by the Gauls. This is clear from the fact that the gold coins of Alexander were never, his silver rarely, imitated by the Gauls, yet these were in circulation at the time of the incursions. Nor did the influence of Philip's silver travel far west. But his gold money evidently travelled through central Europe to Gallia. The money of Gallia before the complete Roman conquest, to which it may be anterior in its commencement by half a century, belongs in the gold to degraded types of the earlier widespread currency. The undoubted gold and electrum of this imitative class, identified as bearing regal or geographical names, are extremely limited. By far the most interesting coin of the group is the gold piece which bears the name at full length of the brave and unfortunate Vercingetorix. The silver money is comparatively common. The Gauls were ready to copy any types that came in their way, so that in the coinage of Gaul we find imitations of the coinage of Tarentum, Campania, various Spanish cities such as Rhoda, and Roman coins of the republic and early empire. The effect of the silver of Massilia and other Greek colonies is especially noticeable in S. Gaul, and the Roman denarius naturally exerted a strong influence. The bronze money of Gaul is still more abundant than the silver, and has a special interest from its characteristic types. Some of the later local coins are casts of an alloy of copper and tin called polio, but merely a variety of bronze. The Roman coins recall those of Hispania, but are limited to a few coloniae. They range in date from Antony and Augustus to Claudius. The best-known coins of this time, those struck at the colony of Copia Lugdunum (Lyons) with the " Altar of Roma and Augustus," belong, how-ever, strictly speaking, to the Roman series. The coins of Nemausus (Nimes), commemorating the conquest of Egypt in the crocodile chained to a palm-tree, were sometimes made in the shape of the hind-leg of an animal, evidentiy for dedication in the sacred fountain, from the mud of which all the specimens of this variety are derived. The ancient coinage of Britain is the child of that of Gaul. retaining the marks of its parentage, yet with characters of its own due to independent growth. Money first came in Britain. trade by the easiest sea-passage, and, once established in Kent, gradually spread north and west, until the age of the earlier Roman wars, when it was issued in Yorkshire, probably in Lincolnshire, and in a territory of which the northern limits are marked by the counties of Norfolk, Cambridge, Huntingdon, Bedford, Buckingham, Oxford, Gloucester and Somerset. The oldest coins are gold imitations of Philip's staters, which, whether struck in Gaul or Britain, had a circulation on the British side of the Channel. They are the prototypes of all later money. From a careful comparison of their weights with those of later coins, and from a study of the gradual degradation of the types, Evans places the origin of the coinage between 200 and 150 B.C. Its close may be placed about the middle of the 1st century A.D. The inscribed coins occupy the last century of this period, being contemporary with uninscribed ones. The uninscribed coins are of gold, silver, bronze and tin, the gold being by far the most common. There is small variety in the types, nearly all in gold and silver, and some in copper, presenting in more or less degraded form the original Gaulish type for gold. It may be suspected that all new types and the extremely barbarous descendant of the tin series are of the age of the inscribed coins, or but little earlier. The Channel Islands are remarkable for a peculiar coinage of billon, a very base silver, presenting the usual types modified by Gaulish grotesqueness. The place of this group in the British series is merely accidental; in character as in geography it is Gaulish. The inscribed coins are evidently in most cases of chiefs, though it is certain that one town (Verulamium) and some tribes had the right of striking money. The most interesting coins are those of known chiefs and their families—of Commius, probably the active prince mentioned by Caesar, of Dubnovellaunus, mentioned in the famous Ancyra inscription, which has been called the will of Augustus, and most of all the large and interesting series of Cunobelinus, Shakespeare's Cymbeline (Pl. I. fig. 2), his brother Epaticcus, and his father Tasciovanus. It is evident from the coins and historical evidence collected by Evans that Tasciovanus had a long reign. His chief town, as we learn from his money, was Verulamium. His coins are in three metals, repeat the traditional types, and present new ones, some showing a distinctly Roman influence. The money of Epaticcus is scanty, but that of Cunobelinus, with Camulodunum (Colchester) for his chief town, is even more abundant than his father's, indicating a second long reign, and having the same general characteristics. The gold shows a modification of the traditional type, the silver and bronze the free action of Roman influence and a remarkable progress in art. With the death of this prince not long before A.D. 43 the bulk of the British coinage probably ceases, none being known of his sons, Adminius, Togodumnus and the more famous Caractacus, but the coins of the Iceni may have continued as late as A.D. 50, and the Brigantes issued silver coins as late as the time of Cartimandua, whose name is partly preserved on one of them. The ancient coins of Italy occupy the next place. They appear to have been struck during a period of more than 500 years, the oldest being probably of the beginning of the 6th thy, century B.C. and the latest somewhat anterior to the time of Julius Caesar. The larger number, however, are of the age before the great extension of Roman power, which soon led to the use of Roman money almost throughout Italy. There are two great classes, which may be called the proper Italian and the Graeco-Italian; but many coins present peculiarities of both. The proper Italian coins are of gold, silver and bronze. Of these, the gold coins are extremely rare, and can never have been struck in any large numbers. The silver are comparatively common, but the bronze are very numerous and characteristic. A few of the earliest gold and silver coins of Etruria have a perfectly plain reverse. The most remarkable bronze coins of this class are of the kind called aes grave, most of which were the early proper coinage of Rome, although others are known to have been issued by other Italian cities. These are very thick coins, some of which are of great size, while most have a rude appearance. They are always cast, and were preceded by formless lumps of bronze, known as aes rude, which were not properly a state-coinage. The designs of the Italian coins are generally, if not always, of Greek origin, although the influence of the native mythology may be sometimes traced. The inscriptions are in Latin, Oscan or Etruscan, and follow a native orthography; sometimes on the earlier coins they are retrograde. The art of this class is generally poor, or even barbarous. The denominations are common to Greek money, except in the case of the bronze, which follows a native system. Of this system the early proper Roman coins afford the best known examples. The Graeco-Italian coins are of gold, silver and bronze. The silver and bronze are very common, and the gold comparatively so, although struck by few states or cities. A number of the cities of S. Italy issued in the 6th century coins with an incuse design, on the reverse repeating with slight modifications the design of the obverse. The designs are of Greek origin, although here, as in the proper Italian coins, but less markedly, native influence can be detected. This influence is evident in the frequent occurrence of types symbolically representing rivers, showing a bias towards the old nature-worship, and still more in the use of Latin inscriptions, with half-Italian forms of the letters on coins other-wise Greek. Of the best art of ancient Italian money we have already spoken, and we shall have occasion to mention some of its most beautiful examples. The denominations of the gold and silver coins are unquestionably derived from those of Greece, according to the weight of the Attic talent, the heaviest gold piece being the stater or 3000th part of that talent; in silver there are few tetradrachms, the didrachms are extremely common, and smaller denominations are usually not rare. We thus learn that the silver currency was chiefly of didrachms, smaller pieces being less used, and larger ones scarcely used at all. It is important here to notice that the interchange of the native or Italian bronze coinage with the Greek silver coinage led to a double standard, silver and bronze. The bronze standard, as might be suspected, was of Italian origin, the silver of foreign introduction. The peculiarity of the Italian bronze is that in its oldest cast form it was of such weight as to show the absence in some parts of the country of silver equivalents. It was long after silver had been introduced everywhere, with struck bronze equivalents, before the heavy coinage (aes grave) went out of circulation. The silver money is at first remarkable for the evidence it affords of its extraneous character in presenting two standards. After-wards it becomes equivalent to the bronze, or supplies equivalent pieces, and is quite regular. The original condition of the Italian currencies is best illustrated by the money of Etruria in the 4th and 3rd centuries B.C. Etruria, be it remembered, was an early goal of oriental commerce by sea. At the great mart of Populonia, and in the country round, we find, besides a few gold coins, not only silver coins of two different foreign standards, the Euboic and the so-called Persic, but also cast aes grave and later struck bronze pieces. Without discussing the origin of these various currencies it is enough to note that they bear witness to the effects of a widely-spread commerce, and show that here was the meeting-point of the native system and of foreign ones. In Italy the aes grave long ruled. Originally it was libral, the principal coin being the as, nominally of the weight of the Italic pound of 273 grammes; this, at least, is the weight of the earliest Roman coinage. On the other hand, the aes grave of some places in E. Italy, as Hatria and Ariminum, is heavier. The successive reductions of the as belong to Roman numismatics, and it is only necessary here to add that they affected the local bronze coinages as Italy fell under the rule of the republic. The silver coinages, on the other hand, survived for a longer time throughout the Greek cities. Apart from the complicated silver coinage of Etruria, and from the Roman issues, we find in central Italy a few silver coins (the unit of 1.18 grammes being the equivalent, at the rate of 1.250, of a bronze as of 11-10 oz.) and a large silver coinage of didrachms and smaller denominations in lower Italy. This was chiefly issued by the wealthy marts which dotted the coasts of Campania, Calabria, Lucania and the Bruttii. We find Etruscan inscriptions on the coins of Etruria, and Oscan on some of those of middle and lower Italy, where they are eclipsed in number and style by the Greek issues. The chief silver standards of S. Italy are (1) the Campanian (with a didrachm of 7.41 grammes); (2) the Italic, with a stater of 8.16 grammes, divided into thirds; and (3) the Tarentine, with a stater of 8.32 grammes, divided into halves. The Tarentine stater was known as voO,uyos. The independent coinage of Italy, with one exception, came to an end in 89 s.C. Beginning in the north of Italy, the first coins that strike us are those of Populonia in Etruria. The silver money of this place is generally of the peculiar fabric in which the reverse is left perfectly plain. The aes grave of upper and middle Italy was largely dominated by the issues of the Roman mints at Rome and Capua (to be treated later). Samnium shows us a curious revival of native silver money after the local coinage of the Italian towns had been almost abolished by Rome. It was the result of the Social or Marsic War of the confederate tribes, who struck for Italy against the Roman supremacy during the years between 90 and 88 B.C. The coins present the head of Italia, and reverse types, of which the most striking are warriors, varying in number, taking an oath over a sacrificial pig, and a bull for Italy goring the prostrate wolf of Rome. The inscriptions are Oscan or Latin. Certain of the Greek towns of Italy deserve special mention for the splendour of their coinage—beautiful in style and delicate in execution. In Campania (leaving the Romano-Campanian Qreek for later notice) the two most interesting currencies are of are esot Cumae and Neapolis, the modern Naples. Cumae presents `O silver money of the archaic and the early fine style, Y in which last we first observe the peculiar naivete of western Greek art before it had attained elaboration. The abundant silver coins of Neapolis are of the early and the late fine periods and of the decline. The types are usually the head of the siren Parthenope, more rarely Athene; the reverse presents the man-headed bull common on Campanian money, and possibly meant for the river-god Acheloiis, father of the Sirens. The bronze money is of good style, and age has beautified it with the rich blue or green patina due to the sulphurous soil. When we reach Calabria the Greek money startles us in astonishing wealth of beauty in the currency of the opulent and luxurious mart of Tarentum, second only to Syracuse in the whole West, of all the main periods of art, and including in the age of its present prosperity and its fall (the time of the contest with Rome) the most abundant gold issues of any Greek city. The gold money of Tarentum (see Plate) is a delight to the eye, with the varied beauty of its gem-like types, which, while they show the gem-engraver's art, prove the medallist's knowledge of the rich but opaque metallic material. Several heads of divinities adorn these coins, and the chief reverse types relate to the legendary founder, Taras, son of Poseidon. Always a youth, he appears as a charioteer, perhaps as a horseman, and riding on a dolphin—the familiar Tarentine type. The most remarkable subject represents him with outstretched arms praying to Poseidon, probably in allusion to the Tarentines' appeal to Sparta for aid about 346 B.c. (Pl. I. fig. 3). The silver coinage is chiefly of didrachms of reduced Corinthian weight. The prevalent type is Taras seated on a dolphin; in the earliest money the type is single, and repeated incuse on the reverse; afterwards this subject occupies the reverse, and, itself a charming composition, is delightfully varied. On the early fine coins the people or demos, personified generally as a youth, often holding a spindle, occupies the obverse, but gives place in the 4th century to a horseman in various attitudes, affording great scope to the engraver's skill; probably he is Taras himself, save when he is a full-grown warrior. These representations illustrate the famed horsemanship of the Tarentines, and refer to contests and games which were probably local. Heraclea in Lucania shows us didrachms of the fine age, with heads of Athene and subjects connected with Heracles: the contest with the Nemean lion is most skilfully treated, and the series is very characteristic of the gem-engraver's art. The powerful city of Metapontum begins with early coins having the incuse reverse, and then displays a long series stretching down to the decline of art. The constant type, which recurs with the heraldic instinct of the West, is the ear of barley, reminding us of the " golden harvest " (xpvvoiv OEpos) which the Metapontines dedicated at Delphi. Like the Tarentine badge, it first occupies the obverse, then the reverse, balanced by a charming series of heads of divinities. Persephone is the most appropriate counterpart ; we also note heads of Concordia ('Oµ6voea) and Hygieia, marked by an ingenuous grace peculiar to the early fine work of the Western school, of Leucippus the founder as a helmeted warrior (occurring on a rare tetradrachm and the usual didrachms), and many other types of unusual variety and originality of conception. 8,8 Poseidonia issued coins from the archaic period (beginning with the usual incuse fabric) to its capture by the Lucanians early in the 4th century. Its successor Paestum began to coin about 300, and was allowed to keep its mint open even after 89 B.C., when all other local mints in Italy were closed, until the time of Tiberius. The ancient Sybaris, famous for her luxury, has left archaic coins; she was, however, destroyed by Croton in 510 B.C. The Athenian colony of Thurium eventually arose near the site of the old Sybaris in 443, and immediately began to issue a splendid series of coins. Not only is the face of the coin occupied by the head of Athene, and the great currency, as at Athens, of tetradrachms, but the severe beauty of the style points to the direct influence of the art of central Greece (Pl. I. fig. 4). The head of Athene is covered by a helmet adorned first with a wreath of olive and then a splendid figure of the sea-monster Scylla. The reverse shows a bull butting (Bofiptos), in a strikingly ideal form. Probably the obverse type affords the nearest reflection of the masterpiece of Pheidias, or at least the closest following of his style. Velia, the last colony of Phocaea, whose citizens sailed away to the far west rather than submit to the Persian tyrant (544 B.c.), shows coins from its foundation. The pieces of fine work witness to an Asiatic origin in the types of the lion, devouring the stag or as a single device, while the obverse displays the head of Athene so much in favour in Magna Graecia. • The style, which lacks strength but not beauty, is Italian, and we see no trace of the pictorial qualities of Ionian art. which indeed had not taken its mature form when the exiles left the mother country. The Bruttii are the first native Italians whom we find striking a fair Greek coinage. Their gold and silver is of late style, the gold presenting the head of Poseidon and Thetis on a sea-horse, the silver the head of Thetis and the figure of Poseidon, both with other subjects. Caulonia has early coins running down to the early fine period, mythologically interesting in type, and the later with a beautifully designed stag on the reverse. For Croton the ruling type is the tripod. The eagle occurs on the obverse and the tripod on the reverse. The bird of Zeus is inferior to that at Agrigentum, as this again is inferior to the eagle of Elis. We note also beautiful types of Heracles seated, one of marvellously delicate work, on the reverse of which Apollo aims an arrow at the Python from behind his tripod—a remarkable composition. The other Heracles types form a most interesting series of recollections, " memory sketches," of a famous statue, the pose of which recalls the so-called Theseus of the Parthenon, while the obverse presents the head of the Hera Lacinia worshipped on the promontory close by. The latest coins, like the parallel ones of Metapontum, are weak and pretty. The money of the Locri Epizephyrii affords two curious types of reverse, Eirene seated, of fine style, with the legend EIPHNLt AOKPfIN, and the later yet more remarkable subject of Roma seated while Pistis crowns her, the legend being PI1MA HIETIE AOKPfZN. There are beautiful coins of the little known town of Pandosia, bearing the head of the nymph Pandosia (?) ; the reverse has the river Crathis, a splendid head of the Lacinian Hera, and Pan. Rhegium was closely connected with Messene in Sicily opposite, and thus the great Sicilian currency of tetradrachms prevails. Anaxilaus, tyrant of Rhegium from 494 to 476 B.C., early in his rule acquired Messene through Samian adventurers. The coins of both towns at first present Samian types, and then, the Samians having been expelled, Anaxilaus commemorates his Olympic victory in the mule-car. The same type appears at Messene and last longer. In both cases the reverse bears a running hare, an animal which Anaxilaus introduced into Sicily. The later 5th-century coinage of Rhegium shows a seated figure of the Rhegine Demos, and a fine head of Apollo, by the engraver Hippocrates. The little-known town of Terina is illustrious as having produced a series of silver didrachms which, on the whole, is the most beautiful in Italy (Pl. I. fig. 5). The obverse has the head of a goddess, who is portrayed winged on the reverse—a wonderfully fine subject, well conceived and most delicately executed in a variety of different attitudes, some recalling the Victories which adorn the balustrade of the temple of Wingless Victory at Athens. Very curiously, the money of Terina begins with an archaic coin which bears on the reverse the named figure of a Wingless Victory, surrounded by the olive-wreath. The coinage of Sicily is Greek. The Hellenic and Carthaginian colonies of the coast left the barbarous natives undisturbed in the Sky. inland country, and both issued Greek money, the Punic with a tincture of Phoenician style. The coinage ranges from the 6th century B.C. until the subjugation of the island by the Romans, after which a few cities struck colonial or imperial coins for a short space. The marked periods are those of the preponderance of Syracuse from 480 to 212 B.C., interrupted by the great Carthaginian wars, which were fatal to the cities of the southern coast. The coinage is in gold and electrum, mainly issued at Syracuse, in silver and in bronze. The standard is Attic, except the earliest money of the Chalcidian iGREEK COINS colonies Himera, Zancle (Messene), and Naxos, which follows the Aeginetan weight. The metrology of Sicily has a distinct relation to that of Italy. Here also there is a double standard, silver and bronze, and in consequence an intrusive silver coin, differing but little from the obol, weighing o•87 instead of •73 grammes, the silver equivalent of the bronze litra, whose name it borrows. The litra in bronze was the Sicilian pound of 258 grammes, equal to half an Attic mina, and to two-thirds of the Roman libra or pound. So important was the litra in Sicily that the silver litra supplanted the obol, and the didrachm was sometimes called a stater of ten litrae, the decadrachm a piece of fifty litrae, pentecontalitron. The leading coin is the tetra-drachm, not, as in Italy, the didrachm. The Sicilian money is of extremely careful artistic work, not unfrequently even in the case of bronze allowing for a more rapid execution of the die; and the highest technical excellence is attained. The art is that of the southern branch of the great Western school, generally more skilful than the art of southern Italy, but less varied. The earlier fine work has a naive beauty peculiar to the West and almost confined to Sicily; all that follows is evidently gem-engravers' work. These coins are remarkable for the frequency of artists' signatures, which for the short period of highest skill are almost universal on the larger silver money of Syracuse, and occur less frequently on that of the other great cities. Among these artists may be mentioned Exacestidas (at Camarina), Eucleidas, Eumenes, Phrygillus (at Syracuse), Euaenetus (Syracuse, Camarina, Catana), Cimon (Messana, Syracuse Pl. I. figs. 7, 8), Heracleidas and Choirion (Catana). As in Italy, the decline is more rapid than elsewhere in the Greek world, in consequence of the inherent weakness of the style; but it is in part due to the calamities of the island, as of lower Italy. The fame won by the tyranni and other leading aristocrats of Sicily in the great national contests of Hellas, in the race with the quadriga, the mule-car and the horse, led to the introduction and supremacy of types commemorating these victories, probably in most cases those achieved at Olympia. It is obvious that no success could be so appropriately figured on the coinage; the charioteer or the horseman, not the city, was the victor, but at the same time the renown of the city was indissolubly connected with the citizen who won it. Hence these types are almost confined to states ruled by tyranni or oligarchies; outside Sicily they are practically only found at Rhegium when it was closely connected with Sicily, at Cyrene, in the money of Philip II. of Macedon and at Olynthus and in Euboea. The horseman is not a frequent type; the mule-car is limited to Messene (and Rhegium); but the quadriga becomes the stereotyped subject for the reverse of the great Sicilian tetradrachms—the bulk of the coinage—and only escapes heraldic sameness by a charming variety in the details. In the age of finest art a divinity of the city takes, in Homeric guise, the place of the charioteer, or Victory herself so wins the contest; commonly she hovers above, about to crown the charioteer or the horses. Yet more interesting are the types connected with nature-worship, especially those portraying river-gods in the form of a man-headed bull, or a youth with the budding horns of a calf, or in the shape of a dog, and also the subjects of the nymphs of fountains. These types occur on either side of the coin. On nearly all, one side (in early times the reverse, later the obverse) is held by the head of a divinity, Persephone and Athene taking the first place. The leading position which Syracuse held in the island makes it proper to notice her splendid currency first, the finest for knowledge of the materials, for skill in suitably filling Syracuse. the space, and for delicacy of execution in the whole range of Greek money, though we miss the noble simplicity of Greece, the strong feeling of western Asia Minor, and the simple picturesqueness of Crete. Syracuse. was founded in 734 B.C. by Archias of Corinth, an origin which, remembered on both sides, served her well in later history. In the 6th century, perhaps while still under the oligarchy of the Geomori, she issued her most archaic silver money, ,which, primitive as it is, gives promise of the care of the later coinage, and begins and the city seized by Agathocles (317–289 B.C.), the worst the agonistic types, thus indicating some early victory at a great Hellenic contest. Gelo, tyrant of Gela, won the chariot race at Olympia in 488 B.c., secured Syracuse in 485 B.C., and, when the Carthaginians, probably by agreement with Xerxes, invaded Sicily, utterly routed them at the great battle of Himera (480 B.c.), the Salamis of the West. These events find their record in the issue and subjects of his Syracusan money, which, however, was struck, as usual in that age, in the name of the people. The chariot type is varied, for Victory appears hovering above the charioteer, about to crown the horses, and the coins issued after the great battle show the lion of Libya beneath the car in the exergue (Pl. I. fig. 6). These last pieces are fixed in date by the famous story how Gelo's wife Demarete, having gained favourable terms for the vanquished Carthaginians, was presented by them with a hundred talents of gold, by means of which were coined the great silver pieces of fifty litrae or ten drachms, which were called after her Demareteia. They bear the head of Victory, crowned with laurel, and the quadriga and lion. The battle of Himera and the death of Gelo (478 B.C.) fix the date of these remarkable coins, which close the archaic series of Syracuse and give us a fixed point in Greek art, at about 479 B.C. Hiero I. (478–466 B.C.), the brother and successor of Gelo, continues the same types, alluding, as Head well remarks (loc. cit.), to his great victory over the Etruscans off Cumae (474 B.C.), by the marine monster in the exergue of the reverse which denotes the vanquished maritime power. It is to be noted that as Gelo introduces the Victory in the chariot type, so in the horseman type we now first see Victory crowning the rider. Gelo had won an Olympic victory in the four-horse contest, Hiero in the horse-race, though he also won with the four horses in the Pythian games. With Hiero's money we say farewell to archaic art. The female heads on the obverse now have the eye in profile and snow beauty and variety, and the horses are even exceptionally represented in rapid action. With the short rule of Thrasybulus, the last brother of the house, it came to an end, and the age of the democracy (466–406 B.C.) began. The victories by land and sea of Gelo and Hiero had established the power of the city on a sure basis, and fifty years of prosperity followed. To the earlier part of this age belong the beautiful transitional coins in which the female heads are marked by a youthful simplicity of beauty combined with fanciful and even fantastic treatment of the hair; the reverses remain extremely severe. Towards the close of this age, beginning about 430, there are very fine works, the first signed coins, with the old dignity yet with greater freedom of style, the horses of the quadriga in rapid movement. The victory of Syracuse in the contest with Athens was the occasion for the reissue of ten-drachm pieces, commonly but erroneously called medallions. On the reverses of these are a victorious chariot and a panoply of arms, representing the prizes offered at the games by which the Syracusans commemorated the defeat of the Athenians on the Assinarus in 413. On the obverses is the head of the local nymph Arethusa. The designs are by the artists Cimon (Pl. I. fig. 8), Euaenetus, and a third who is nameless. These pieces continued to be issued down to about 36o B.C. through the Dionysian period. Contemporary with them are numerous Splendid tetradrachms—signed and unsigned—as well as the first gold and bronze issued by Syracuse. The interference of Dion in Syracusan politics (357–353) was marked by the introduction of an electrum coinage, and of a silver didrachm of Corinthian type, corresponding in weight to the tridrachm of Corinth, and with the same types, the head of Athena and the Pegasus. The Dionysian dynasty closed in anarchy, until Syracuse appealed to Corinth, and Timoleon was sent to restore order (344 B.C.). His advent marks an epoch in Sicilian coinage. He restored the gold coinage and issued various silver coins which allude to Corinth and to liberty, and under his influence many small cities in Sicily awoke to political life as members of Timoleon's league and issued a scanty but interesting bronze coinage. The Syracusan democracy was overthrown in 317 B.C. bear allusions to his campaign in Africa. The tyrant Hicetas (288–8o B.c.) and the next ruler, Pyrrhus, king of Epirus (278–275 B.C.), continue the coinage, Pyrrhus issuing money in the name of the Syracusans and also striking his own pieces. The departure of Pyrrhus led to the establishment by Hiero II. (c. 270–216 B.C.) of a dynasty which, so long as he ruled, restored the ancient prosperity and preponderance of the rule of his namesake. At first content with inscribing his name alone, he soon not only takes the title of king, conferred on him in the early years of his reign, but also places his portrait on the money. Of his time is the beautiful portrait of his queen Philistis. The money of the short reign of Hieronymus (215–214 B.C.) and of the brief democracy which fell before the Romans (214–212 B.c.) close the independent series of this great city. But her name still appears in bronze money issued after the conquest. Taking the rest of the money of Sicily in alphabetical order, we first note a very fine bronze coin bearing a beautiful female head, perhaps that of Sicilia, crowned with myrtle, and a lyre, Other which belongs to the time of Timoleon's league. This coin Cittes of is conjecturally attributed to Adranum. The first great town is Agrigentum, represented by archaic, transitional, Sicily. and fine coins, the fine series ending with the overthrow of the city by the Carthaginians in 406 B.c.—a blow from which it never re-covered. The usual types are the eagle and the fresh-water crab, but in the age of finest art we see two eagles devouring a hare (cf. Aeschylus, Agam. 109 seq.) and a victorious chariot; these occur in the rare decadrachm (PI. I. fig. 9), on which the river-god Acragas himself drives the car, and the tetradrachms. The eagle is superior to that of Croton, inferior to that of Elis. Many of the bronze coins are of good work. The type most worthy of note is the head of a river-god, with the name Acragas, which was that of the local stream, and on the reverse an eagle standing on an Ionic capital, the Olympic turning-post. The success of Agrigentum at the games is attested by Pindar, while Virgil (Aen. iii. 704), Gratius (Cyneg. 526) and Silius Italicus (xiv. 210) mention its ancient renown for horses. The money of Camarina is of especial beauty and interest. Camarina struck but few coins before the year of liberation (461), soon after which was issued a didrachm having on the obverse a helmet upon a round shield and on the reverse a pair of greaves, between which is a dwarf palm. This piece is followed by tetradrachms and didrachms of the best period, most beautiful in style, and varying a little from difference of age. The tetradrachms bear on the. obverse the head of Heracles in the lion's skin, and on the reverse Athena as a victor at the Olympic games in a quadriga. It was Athena, protector of the city (iro),.hoxs IlaXX6s), whose sacred grove was made more illustrious by the success of Psaumis. The didrachms have on the obverse the head of a river-god, portrayed as a young man with small horns and with wet hair. Of the two rivers of Camarina, the Oanus and the Hipparis, the Hipparis is here represented, for in one case the name is given on the coin. Pindar seems to show the same preference, for, while he merely mentions the Oanus *rail& . . . "llama), he speaks of the sacred channels by which the Hipparis watered the city (es zvous bxerous, "Ia~rapir oroiv 'ap3sr. erpar6v). On the reverse the nymph Camarina ('SZs savou O yarep . Kapaplva) is seen carried across her lake (iyxwp(av . . . Xi ivav) by a swan swimming with expanded wings, while she aids it by spreading her veil in the manner of a sail. Some of these didrachms have on either side, around the chief device, fresh-water fishes. The series of Catana comprises fine archaic tetradrachms and others of the time of the best art. The archaic tetradrachms have the types of a river in the form of a man-headed bull and of the figure of Victory, of a type remarkably advanced for the time at which they were struck. From 476 to 461, under the name of Aetna, its coinage is represented especially by a unique tetradrachm (Pl. I. fig. io), with a wonderful head of Silenus, and Zeus as the god of the volcano holding a thunderbolt and a sceptre made of a vine-branch; before him is an eagle perched on one of the Aetnaean pines. The head of Apollo succeeds, with for reverse the victorious quadriga, in one case passing the turning-post, an Ionic column. Historically interesting is a small silver coin issued by Catana and Leontini in alliance between 405 and 403. Eryx towards the end of the 5th century produced some rare tetradrachms on which Eros is represented at the knees of his mother, asking for the dove which she holds. Gela is represented by coins of which the archaic tetradrachms must be especially mentioned. They have on the obverse the fore-part of the river-god Gelas, whence the city took its name. The Gelas is represented as a bull, having the face of a bearded man. On the reverse is a victorious quadriga, in some examples represented passing of the tyrants of Syracuse. In the course of his reign he adopted the royal style, and his coins, a reflection of earlier work, give his name first without and then with the title king—a double innovation. The most interesting of his coins are those which an Ionic column, as on coins of Catana. A beautiful tetradrachm represents the city goddess (Sosipolis) placing a wreath on the head of the monstrous river-god. A little later is a tetradrachm which has types of the head of the Gelas as a young man horned, surrounded by three fishes, and on the reverse Victory in a biga with a wreath above. Small gold coins, and a didrachm representing a Geloan cavalryman spearing an Athenian hoplite, are among the coins issued shortly before the fall of Gela in 405. The money of Himera is of great interest. The oldest didrachms of Himera, which probably began in the 6th century B.c., bear on the obverse a cock and on the reverse an incuse pattern; later, a hen. During the time that Thero of Agrigentum held the city (before 48o to 472), the crab of Agrigentum appears on the didrachms. The transitional tetra-drachms bear on the one side a victorious quadriga and on the other a nymph sacrificing, near whom a little Silenus stands under the stream of a fountain issuing from a lion's head in a wall. Leontini is represented by tetradrachms with the head of Apollo and the victorious car, which gives place to a lion's head. The series of Messene begins, when the town was called Zancle, or, as it is written upon the coins, Dancle, with early drachms or smaller pieces of the Aeginetan weight, and of very archaic work. On the obverse is a dolphin, and around it a sickle; on the reverse the earliest pieces repeat the same design incuse (as in the earliest coinage of S. Italy), but later we find a shell in the midst of an incuse pattern. The place is said to have received its name on account of the resemblance of the harbour to a sickle (rayKxov or fkyKX,j). Next to these first coins of Zancle may be placed, as the oldest piece of the Attic weight, a tetradrachm with the Samian types, a lion's scalp on one side and on the other the head of a calf, and bearing the inscription MEEEENION. This coin was doubtless struck during the rule of the Samians, who took the place about 494 B.c., at the instigation of Anaxilaus, tyrant of Rhegium, by whom they were subsequently expelled (Thucyd. vi. 4). The next pieces are the earliest of those which have on the obverse the mule-car and on the reverse a running hare, like the contemporary coins of Rhegium, with the same devices and equally of the rule of Anaxilaus. These types cease at Rhegium, though they continue at Messene, some of the tetradrachms bearing them being of the age of fine art. About 450 there must have been a temporary restoration of the Zancleans, who struck a tetradrachm with Poseidon and the dolphin as types. A fine piece of rather later date represents Pan caressing a hare. When the town had been seized (287 B.c.) by the Mamertini, money was struck with their name. Naxos is represented by early Aeginetic drachms with an archaic head of Dionysus. Immediately after the year of liberation (461) it produced a tetradrachm with a head of Dionysus and, on the reverse, a squatting Silenus, remarkable for the study of anatomical detail (see P1. I. fig. i 1). These types are repeated in a less severe style some fifty years later, when also an engraver Procles signs some pretty didrachms. Segesta is represented by coins from about 48o B.C. We first notice the head of the nymph Segesta and a hound, probably the river-god Crimisus; then the same type for reverse associated with a young hunter accompanied by two hounds—a charming composition. Another interesting type is a victorious car driven by Persephone, who carries ears of corn. In the series of the city of Selinus the first coins are didrachms, bearing on the obverse a leaf and on the reverse an incuse square. The city and the river of the same name no doubt derived their name from the plant eiAu'ov (probably wild celery, Apium graveolens), the leaf of which must be here intended. Tetradrachms and didrachms of transitional and of good art have devices of more than usual interest. The obverse exhibits a river-god, sometimes the Selinus, sometimes the Hypsas, sacrificing at an altar to the god of healing, while on the didrachm a wading-bird is sometimes seen behind him, as if departing. The obverse of the didrachms shows Heracles subduing the bull, and the reverse of the tetradrachms generally shows a quadriga in which Apollo stands drawing his bow, while Artemis is charioteer. The reference in all these cases must be to the driving away of the pestilence from the neighbourhood of Selinus by the draining of the marshes. The Siculo-Punic coins, that is, those actually struck by the Carthaginians in Sicily, will best be dealt with under Carthage, below. The islands of Melita, Gaulos and Cossura near Sicily issued late coins which belong tb the African series, showing a curious mixture of Phoenician and Egyptian elements in some of their types. Of Lipara there is heavy bronze money on the Sicilian system, having on the obverse a head of Hephaestus, or sometimes a figure of the same divinity seated, holding a hammer and a vase, which he seems to have just formed. In the Tauric Chersonese there are interesting coins, in the three metals, of the city of Panticapaeum, the modern Kcrtch. Their obverse usually bears the head of Pan and their The Taurlc reverse a griffin and other subjects; some are of fine Sarmatia we may notice the autonomous and imperial pieces of Olbia, which alone amongst Greek cities produced a series of cast bronze coins, and in Dacia the series bearing the name of the province. The Roman colonia Viminacium in upper Moesia is represented by numerous coins of a late time. Of Istrus, in lower Moesia, there are drachms having a strange type on the obverse, representing two beardless heads, side by side, the one upright and the other upside down; on the reverse is an eagle devouring a fish. The style of these coins is in general fair, though it sometimes approaches to barbarism. Apollonia Pontica produced fine silver coins with a head of Apollo and an anchor. There are abundant Greek imperial coins of Marcianopolis and Nicopolis, while Tomi is represented in this class as well as by autonomous money. The coins of Thrace are of high interest. Here and in Macedonia we observe the early efforts of barbarous tribes to coin the produce of their silver mines, and the splendid Thrace. issues of the Greek colonies; and we see in the weights the influence of the Asiatic Greeks and the Athenians. The oldest coins are of the early 5th century B.C., and there are others of all subsequent times, both while the country was independent and while it was subject to the Romans, until the cessation of Greek coinage. Some of the best period are of the highest artistic merit. So long as they maintain any general distinctive peculiarities of fabric and design, that is, from their commencement until the age of Philip, the Thracian coins resemble those of Macedonia. The money of Abdera comprises tetradrachms and smaller coins of the periods of archaic and fine art, all but the latest of the Phoenician standard, ultimately superseded by the Persic. The principal type is a seated griffin, copied from its mother-city, Teos. The reverse type, an incuse square, has at first four divisions, but in the age of the finest art contains a variety of beautiful subjects, the signets of the magistrates. Aenus is remarkable for the great beauty of . some of its coins. These are tetradrachms of Attic weight, of the late archaic and best ages. The interesting turning-point from growth to maturity is seen in a vigorous head of Hermes in profile, wearing the petasus. A little later is the splendid series of facing heads, the broad, severe, and sculptural treatment of which is truly admirable, and far superior to the more showy handling of the same subject in later drachms. A goat is the reverse type of the larger coins. The money of the city of Byzantium begins with coins on the Persic standard of good style, having on the obverse a bull above a dolphin and on the reverse an incuse square of four divisions, and closes with the series of bronze coins issued under the empire. The star and crescent type first appears in the Roman period. Of Maronea, anciently famous for its wine, there is an interesting series, among which we notice fine tetradrachms of Phoenician weight, having on the obverse a prancing horse and on the reverse a vine within a square. The standard changes to Persic, of which there is a beautiful series of didrachms. Then the series is interrupted by the rule of the Macedonian kings, and resumed in a barbarous coinage of the native Thracians, issued in the second and first centuries before the Christian era, consisting of spread Attic tetradrachms with the types of the head of beardless Dionysus crowned with ivy and on the other side his figure. The Greek imperial coins of Pautalia and Perinthus are worthy of notice. Among those of the latter town we may mention fine pieces of Antoninus Pius and Severus, and large coins, commonly called medallions, of Caracalla and other emperors. The money of the imperial class issued by Philippopolis, Serdica and Trajanopolis should also be noticed. In the Thracian Chersonese the most important series is one of small autonomous silver pieces, probably of the town of Cardia. There is a limited but highly interesting group of coins of Thracian kings and 0-masts. The earliest are of kings of the Odrysae, including Sparadocus and Seuthes I., who began to reign in 424 B.C., and whose money bears the two remarkable inscriptions EEYOA KOMMA and EEYOA API'YPION. It closes with the issues of Roman vassals, such as Cotys IV. (A.D. 12-19). Lysimachus, commonly classed as king of Thrace, belongs to the group of ever- Greek style. The gold is of higher weight than usual, owing to the cheapness of the metal at this place. The money of Sarmatia, of Dacia, and of upper and lower Moesia. ;.s chiefly bronze of the Graeco-Roman class. In Alexander's western successors (see below). Among the islands of Thrace, Imbros with its trace of Pelasgic worship, and, equally with Lemnos, showing evidence of Athenian dominion, and Samothrace with the Asiatic worship of Cybele yield in interest to Thasos. Here a long and remarkable currency begins with very early Persic didrachms, the obverse type a Silenus carrying a nymph, the reverse an incuse square of four divisions. Under the Athenian supremacy we see a decline of weight, and in style the attainment of high excellence. After this we observe coins of Phoenician weight, bearing for their obverse types the head of Dionysus. These are of the best period of art, and some tetradrachms are among the very finest Greek coins. The head of Dionysus is treated in a sculptural style that is remarkably broad and grand. The massive, powerful features, and the formal hair, nearly falling to the neck in regular curls like those of the full beard, are relieved by a broad wreath of ivy-leaves, designed with great delicacy and simplicity. The reverse bears a Heracles kneeling on one knee and discharging his bow—a subject powerfully treated. Of a far later period there are large tetradrachms, much resembling those of Maronea, with the same type of the beardless Dionysus, but on the reverse Heracles. The money of Macedonia both civic and regal is of great variety and interest. It begins at an early time, probably towards the end of the 6th century B.C. The old pieces Me- donia. are of silver, bronze having come into use a century later, and gold about the middle of the 4th century B.C. The character of the coinage resembles that of Thrace; the earliest pieces are of the Phoenician, Babylonic and Attic standards. The most remarkable denominations are the pieces of eight and twelve Phoenician drachms. The largest coins are of the time of Alexander I. (498–454), and somewhat earlier, and indicate the metallic wealth of the country more than its commercial activity. The chief groups of coins are those of the Pangaean, Bisaltian, Strymonian and Chalcidian districts, of the kings of Macedon and Paeonia, and of Macedon under the Romans. This last series begins with the coins of the " regions " issued by permission of the senate and bearing the name of the Macedonians, from 158 to 15o B.C.; these are followed by coins of the Roman generals against Andriscus and of the pretender himself, and, from 146 onwards, of the Roman province. Under the empire a large series of bronze coins was issued in the name of the Koinon, i.e. the provincial diet. As regards the earlier ,civic coinage: the coinage of Acanthus comprises fine archaic tetradrachms of Attic weight and others of Phoenician weight and very vigorous in style, of the commencement of the period of good art. The type of their obverse is a lion seizing a bull (cf. Herodot. vii. 125 f.). The money of Aeneia is chiefly interesting from its bearing the head of the hero Aeneas; and on one extraordinary coin of archaic fabric, an Attic tetradrachm, the subject is the hero carrying Anchises from Troy, preceded by Creusa carrying Ascanius; this is in date before 500 B.C. The town of Amphipolis is represented by a long series. There are Phoenician tetradrachms of about 400 B.C. having on the obverse a head of Apollo, facing, sometimes in a splendid style, which recalls the art of the immediate successors of Pheidias (P1. I. fig. 12). The reverse type is a flaming race-torch in an incuse square. The territory of Chalcidice is eminent for the excellence of some of its silver coins. There is a very early Attic tetradrachm of Olynthus, with a quadriga, and an eagle within a double square, which reminds us of the idea of the great Sicilian currencies, the record of Olympic victory. The Phoenician tetradrachms of the best period struck by the Chalcidian League (392–379 B.C., and later), Olynthus being probably the mint, are of great stylistic interest (Pl. I. fig. 13). The obverse bears the head of Apollo in profile crowned with laurel. It is in very high relief and treated with great simplicity, though not with the severity of somewhat earlier pieces. The delicacy of the features is balanced by the simple treatment of the hair and the broad wreath of laurel. On the reverse is a lyre. There is an early series of coins of Lete, none later than about 480. The obverse type is a satyr with a nymph, and on the reverse is an incuse square divided fourfold,first diagonally and then in squares. Mende has money of Attic weight, the types being connected with Silenus, who on a tetra-drachm of fine style is portrayed reclining, a wine-vase in his hand, on the back of an ass; the reverse bears a vine. Of Neapolis (Datenon) there are early coins with the Gorgon's head and the incuse square, which in the period of fine art gives way to a charming head of the " Virgin Goddess " crowned with olive. The coins of Philippi in the three metals are mainly of the time of Philip II., who, having found a rich gold mine near Crenides, changed its name to Philippi. The gold coins are Attic staters, the silver pieces of the Phoenician or Macedonian weight, like Philip's own money. The earliest bear the name of the " Thasians of the Mainland," who immediately preceded Philip's colony. All bear the head of young Heracles in a lion's skin, and a tripod. Imperial pieces were struck by the city as a colonia. There is a long but late series of' Thessalonica which in the time of the regions was the mint of the second region; the numerous bronze coins of the Roman period show a figure of Cabirus among other types. Uranopolis has a few coins with very curious astronomical types, probably issued by the eccentric Alexarchus, brother of Cassander. The issues of the Thraco-Macedonians are extremely interesting. They are all just anterior to, or it may be contemporary with, Alexander I. of Macedon. The leading coins are octadrachms of the Phoenician standard. They have usually but one type, the reverse bearing a quadripartite incuse square. Their sudden appearance and heavy weight are due to the working of the silver mines on the border of Macedonia and Thrace. The usual types are a warrior leading a horse or a yoke of oxen. The coins bear the names of the Bisaltae, Getas, king of the Edoni, the Orrescii and other tribes. Besides these there are very curious Attic decadrachms of the Derronians of Sithonia, bearing the unusual type of an ox-car, in which is a figure seated, and on the reverse a symbol of three legs. The oldest coins of the Macedonian kings are of Alexander I., from 498 to 454 B.C., the contemporary of Xerxes. These are Phoenician octadrachms, having on the obverse a cavalryman by the Kings of side of a horse, and coins of a lower denomination with the Mace- same or a similar type. The money of Alexander's donia. successors illustrates the movement of art, but it is not until the reign of Philip II. that we have an abundant coinage. He first strikes gold pieces, chiefly Attic didrachms, from the produce of his mine near Philippi (Pl. I. fig. 14). They are of fair style, and bear on the obverse the head of Ares. On the reverse is a victorious Olympic biga. These coins were afterwards known as 4'rXirrrraoc and the gold money of Alexander as 'AXeEavSpecoc--appellations which probably did not include larger or smaller pieces. Horace calls the gold coins of Philip " Philips " (" regale nomismaPhilippos," Epist. ii. 1, 232). The silver coinage of Philip is mainly composed of tetradrachms of the Phoenician standard (PI. I. fig. rg). Their type of obverse is a head of Zeus and of reverse either a horseman wearing a causia or a victor in the horse-race with a palm—these last coins being the best of Philip's, although the horse is clumsy. The coinage of Alexander the Great, both in the number of the cities where it was issued and in its abundance, excels all other Greek regal money; but its art is, without being despicable, far below excellence. The system of both gold and silver is Attic. The gold coins are distaters or gold tetradrachms, staters or didrachms see Pl. I. fig. 17), hemistaters or drachms, with their half or a smaller denomination. The types of the distaters or staters, which last were the most common pieces, are for the obverse the head of Athena and for the reverse Victory bearing a naval standard. The largest silver piece is the decadrachm, which is of extreme rarity. The types of the tetradrachms and most of the lower coins are on the obverse the head of Heracles in the lion's skin and on the reverse Zeus seated, bearing on his hand an eagle (Pl. I. fig. 16). The head has been supposed to be that of Alexander, but this is not the case, although there may be some assimilation to his portrait. The great currency was of tetradrachms. The coinage was struck in different cities, distinguished by proper symbols and monograms. The classification of the series is difficult, but is gradually advancing. (For Alexander's Eastern coinage see § iv. Oriental Coins.) The coinage of Alexander is followed by that of Philip Arrhidaeus, with the same types in gold and silver. That of Alexander IV. was issued by Ptolemy I. alone. In these coins the types of Alexander were modified, the dead king being represented with the ram's horn of Ammon, and wearing an elephant's skin head-dress and aegis. Meanwhile Seleucus, Lysimachus, Antigonus, king of Asia, struck Alexander's money with their own names, and the tetradrachms of Macedonia were generally of this kind until the time of Philip V, The same coinage, marked by a large flat form, was reissued later by various cities, especially of western Asia, when the Romans, after the battle of Magnesia in 190 B.C., restored the liberties which Alexander had granted. The series of Alexandrine money is interrupted by various small coinages and the later issues of Lysimachus, king of Thrace, with a fine portrait—head of Alexander with the ram's horn, as the son of Zeus Ammon, a work sometimes worthy of Lysippus and an excellent indication of his style. The reverse has a figure of Athena holding a little Victory (Pl. I. fig. 19). The coins of Demetrius I. (Poliorcetes) comprise fine tetradrachms, some of the types of which have an historic reference. They bear either on the obverse his portrait with a bull's horn and on the reverse a figure of Poseidon, or on the one side a winged female figure (Victory) on the prow of a galley, blowing a trumpet, and on the other Poseidon striking with his trident. The latter types cannot be doubted to relate to the great naval victory which Demetrius gained over Ptolemy in 306; the Victory reproduces the Victory of Samothrace," dedicated by Demetrius and now in the Louvre. The tetradrachms of Antigonus I. (Gonatas), which are of inferior style and work to those of Demetrius, have types which appear to refer in like manner to the great event of his time. The obverse type is a Macedonian buckler with the head of Pan in the midst, and the reverse type Athene Promachos. The head of Pan is supposed to have been taken as a device in consequence of the panic which led to the discomfiture of the Gauls at Delphi. Another pair of types, the head of Poseidon and Apollo seated on the prow of a warship, probably refers to the victory of Leucolla about 258 B.C. The tetradrachms of Philip V. have on the obverse a head in the helmet of Perseus, representing probably Philip's son, Perseus, in the character of that hero. The reverse bears a club. Other tetradrachms and smaller coins have a simple portrait of Philip. The tetradrachms of Perseus are of fair style, considering the time at which they were struck. They bear on one side the king's head and on the other an eagle on a thunder-bolt. Andriscus (Philip VI., 150-1.49 B.c.) issued tetradrachms some of which represent him as Perseus. The coins of the Paeonian kings (from about 359 to 286 B.C.) show Macedonian influence, but are semi-barbarous. The coin systems of northern Greece, Thessaly, Epirus, Corcyra, Acarnania and Aetolia present certain difficulties Thessaly. which disappear if we consider them as originally Aeginetan, modified in the west by Corinthian, and later by Roman, influence. The coinage of Thessaly represents very few specimens of a remote period, while pieces of the best time are numerous. These are in general remarkably like the finest coins of Sicily and Italy, although the style is simpler. The prevalence of the horse and horseman is significant. The money of the Thessalian Confederacy, being of late date (196-146 B.c.), is of little interest. The commonest types are the head of Zeus crowned with oak and the Thessalian Athena Itonia in a fighting attitude. The coinage is resumed in imperial times. Numerous small places, such as Gomphi, Homolium, Lamia, Phalanna, produced coins of considerable beauty; more extensive are the issues of Pharsalus, Pherae (with fine coins of the tyrant Alexander), and especially Larissa. The last series begins with archaic pieces and some of the early period of good art, but sometimes of rather coarse execution. The small silver pieces have very interesting reverse types relating to the nymph of the fountain, and to be compared for mutual illustration with the didrachms of Terina and with some of those of Elis. These are followed by coins of fine work. The usual obverse type is the head of Larissa, the nymph of the fountain, facing, and on the reverse is generally a horse, either free or drinking. The head is treated in a very rich manner, like that of the fountain-nymph Arethusa, facing, on tetradrachms of Syracuse; indeed, the debt to the Sicilian type is obvious. The bronze money is also good. The wine-producing island of Peparethus, off the Thessalian coast, is represented by a remarkable series of Attic tetradrachms (about 500-480 B.c.) with a variety of types, partly Dionysiac. The coinage of Illyria (strictly Illyris or Illyricum) is usually of inferior or rude art; the pieces are Aeginetic, ultimately changing to /t/Y~yum Corinthian, and then, in 229 B.C., to the standard of the Roman Victorialus. Of Apollonia there is a large series. The earliest (early 4th century) have the Corcyraean types of the cow and the calf and the floral pattern; the latest, usually the head of Apollo and three nymphs dancing round a fire, the outer ones holding torches. Dyrrhachium, which never bears on its coins the more famous name of Epidamnus, is represented by an important series. First there are reduced Aeginetan didrachms with Corcyraean types. These are succeeded by tridrachms with Corinthian types, and of Corinthian weight; and then the old typesare resumed, but the standard is that of the victoriatus. Dyrrhachium, it must be remembered, was founded partly by Corcyraean and partly by Corinthian colonists. The Illyrio-Epirote mining towns, Damastium, &c., struck barbarous silver coins in the 4th century, on some of the small pieces we see an ingot of metal or a miner's pick. The coins of Epirus are of higher interest and beauty than those of Illyria. Of the Epirots there are bronze coins of the regal period (342-272 B.C.), and both silver and bronze of the republic Epirus. (238-168 B.C.), with the heads of the Dodonaean Zeus and Dione, together or apart. Ambracia is represented by silver pieces, with on the one side a head of Dione, on the other the obelisk of Apollo Agyieus. The series of Greek imperial money of Nicopolis must also be mentioned. The coinage of the kings begins under Alexander I. His coins have been found in the three metals, but they are rare. It is probable that both gold and silver were struck in Italy while he was in that country. The coins of Pyrrhus in all metals are of high interest, and remarkable for their beauty, though the style is usually florid. There can be little doubt that they were for the most part struck in Italy and Sicily, at Tarentum and Syracuse. The tetra-drachm has for the type of the obverse a head of the Dodonaean Zeus crowned with oak and for that of the reverse Dione seated. A fine didrachm bears on the obverse a head of Achilles helmeted, with for the reverse Thetis on a sea-horse carrying the shield of her son. Among the copper coins of Pyrrhus we must remark the beautiful ones with the portrait of his mother Phthia. The coinage of the island of Corcyra begins with very early reduced Aeginetic didrachms and drachms of the 6th century. The types are the cow suckling the calf and the floral pattern, as at Corcyra. Dyrrhachium. These leading subjects are varied in later times by others illustrating the Corinthian origin of the nation, its maritime power, and the fame of its wine. Not the least curious are the bronze pieces with galleys bearing their names, as Freedom, Glory, Orderly Government, Corcyra, Comus, Cypris, Victory, Youth, Preserver, Fame, Light-bearer. The abundant bronze series goes on under the emperors. The coins of Acarnania are not remarkable for beauty or for variety in their types. The money of several cities in the 4th century B.C. is Corinthian in types and weight. That of the Acarnanian League (229–168 B.c.) bears the head of Acar- the Achelous as a man-headed bull and the seated Apollo nan/a. Actius. Of Leucas the silver coins show the archaic cultus-figure of Aphrodite Aeneias. In Aetolia the gold and silver coins of the Aetolian League have some merit (279–168 B.c.). The gold pieces have on the obverse the head of Athena or that of Heracles in the lion's skin and on the reverse Aetclia personified, seated on Gaulish and Aetolia. Macedonian shields (a figure dedicated after the repulse of the Gauls; Paus. x. 18, 7). These subjects recur, with others indicating the hunter-life of the population, on the silver money; of especial interest are the head of Atalanta and the Calydonian boar, and the spear-head with which he was slain. On some of the copper the spear-head and the jaw-bone of the boar are seen. The coinage of Locris,Phocis and Boeotia is entirely on theAeginetic standard. The'coins of the Locri Epicnemidii are mainly didrachms, struck at Opus, with the head of Persephone and the figure of the Lesser Ajax in a fighting attitude, sometimes .Goer/s• accompanied by his name. These coins were struck between 369 and 338 B.C., and are remarkable for the manner in which a Syracusan head is copied, if indeed the dies were not actually in some cases made in the western city. The money of Phocis begins at a very early age, some time in the 6th century B.c., and extends in silver down to the conquest by Philip (346 B.c.). The prevalent type is a bull's head. mac/s The generalsOnymarchus andPhalaecus in the Sacred War placed their names on bronze coins. Delphi, geographically included in Phocis, strikes very remarkable money,wholly distinct in types from the Phocian. The principal subjects are heads of rams and goats, the symbols of Apollo as a pastoral divinity, a dolphin (Apollo Delphinius), the omphalos and tripod, and a negro's head, which has not been satisfactorily explained. The Amphictyonic Council struck beautiful didrachms, probably on the occasion of Philip's presidency (346 n.c.), with the head of Demeter, and the Delphian Apollo seated on the omphalos. Under Hadrian and the Antonines there is an imperial coinage of Delphi, some pieces bearing the representation of the temple of Apollo, on one type the letter E appearing between the columns of the face, representing the mystic Delphic EI, on which Plutarch wrote a treatise. The coinage of Boeotia is chiefly of a period anterior to the reign of Alexander, under whom the political importance of Thebes and the whole country came to an end. The Boeotia. standard until the end of the 4th century is Aeginetic. The main characteristic of the money is the almost exclusive use of the Boeotian shield as the obverse type, marking the federal character of the issues. These were struck by various cities, or by Thebes as ruling the League. The earliest pieces are drachms, presumably of Thebes, issued between 60o and 55o B.C.
End of Article: XAPAKTHP ("engraving" or "engraved piece")
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FRANCISCO DE XAVIER (1506-1552)

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