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Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V19, Page 321 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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XTX. II. 19 Neander's theological position can only be explained in connexion with Schleiermacher, and the manner in which while adopting he modified and carried out the principles of his master. Characteristically meditative, he rested with a secure footing on the great central truths of Christianity, and recognized strongly their essential reasonableness and harmony. Alive to the claims of criticism, he no less strongly asserted the rights of Christian feeling. " Without it," he emphatically says, " there can be no theology; it can only thrive in the calmness of a soul consecrated to God." This explains his favourite motto: " Pectus est quod theologum facit." His Church History (Allgemeine Geschichte der christlichen Religion and Kirche) remains the greatest monument of his genius. In this Neander's chief aim was everywhere to understand what was individual in history. In the principal figures of ecclesiastical history he tried to depict the representative tendencies of each age, and also the types of the essential tendencies of human nature generally. His guiding principle in treating both of the history and of the present condition of the church was—that Christianity has room for the various tendencies of human nature, and aims at permeating and glorifying them all; that according to the divine plan these various tendencies are to occur successively and simultaneously and to counterbalance each other, so that the freedom and variety of the development of the spiritual life ought not to be forced into a single dogmatic form " (Otto Pfleiderer, Development of Theology, p. 28o). Several of his books have passed into new and revised editions and have been translated into English. Among these English versions may be mentioned General History of the Christian Religion and Church, translated by J. Torrey (1850-1858) ; History of the Planting and Training of the Church by the Apostle, by J. E. Ryland (185; Julian and his Generation, by G. V. Cox (85o); Life of Jesus, by J. M'Clintock and C. E. Blumenthal (1848); and Memorials of Christian Life in the Early and Middle Ages, by J. E. Ryland (1852). See O. C. Krabbe, August Neander (1852), and a paper by C. F. Kling (1800-1861) in the Stud. u. Krit. for 1851 ; J. L. Jacobi, Erinnerungen an August Neander (1882); Philipp Schaff, Erinnerungen an Neander (1886) ; Adolph Harnack, Rede auf August Neander (1889); A. F. J. Wiegand, Neanders Leben (1889); L. T. Schulze, August Neander (189o); and K. T. Schneider, August Neander (1894). Cf. Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopadie, and P. Schaff, Germany: its Universities and Theology (1857).
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