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Originally appearing in Volume V24, Page 888 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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XXTV. 28 a cargoes; coal carrying vessels, colliers, are well-known examples of this class. One of the first colliers to be fitted with steam-engines was the sailing vessel " Q.E.D.," built at Wallsend in 1844, and fitted by Messrs R. & W. Hawthorn with auxiliary machinery of 20 N.H.P driving a screw propeller. She was constructed of iron, had an over-all length of 15o ft. with a breadth of 271 ft. In certain respects she was a remarkable vessel, for she was fitted with a double bottom, the space between the bottoms being divided into tanks and arranged for water ballast, a system which has since been re-invented and is now common in colliers and in most cargo ships. The advantage of the arrangement in colliers is especially great, as they usually carry a full cargo one way and return empty; in their light condition sufficient water ballast can be at once added to make them sea-worthy, and this at the end of the voyage can be pumped out at a small cost. It was not until about 1852 that steam alone began to be relied on for propelling colliers; in that year the iron screw collier, " John Bowes," was built by Messrs Palmer of Jarrow ; she was 152 ft. long, 26 ft. 4 in. beam, had a dead-weight capacity of about 540 tons, was fitted with temporary tanks for water ballast; had machinery of 70 N.H.P. placed right aft; and she took her cargo to London in 48 hours. The saving in time and cost, as compared with the transport of coals to London by the sailing colliers then in vogue, was very great, and this led to the building of many other such vessels. In 1880 the ordinary steam collier carried 60o or 700 tons of cargo ; a steady increase in size has been in progress, and the popular collier of to-day carries about 3000 tons, while for long voyages vessels of from 8000 to 10,000 tons capacity are used. While improvements have been made in hull and machinery, so also have improvements been made to enable the colliers' cargoes to be handled more rapidly. Appliances have been adopted for emptying truckloads of coal into the vessels when loading, and many arrangements have been devised for discharging rapidly, but derricks and winches supplemented in some cases by Temperley transporters are still generally relied on. An interesting vessel in which special appliances have been fitted to reduce the amount of hand labour in discharging is the " Pallion," built by Messrs Doxford & Sons in 1909. She is of the following dimensions: length 269 ft., breadth 441 ft., depth 22 ft.; tonnage 2474 tons gross, 1307 tons net, and can carry 3100 tons on a draught of 17 ft. 10 in. She is a single screw ship fitted with three cylinder compound engines of 217 N.H.P. and 1200 I.H.P. fitted aft. Systems of conveyor-belts are fitted so that the cargo can be delivered direct into trucks ashore or into barges or other vessels alongside by steam power, and under trial conditions at Sunderland the rate of discharge was found to be moo tons per hour. Oil Tank Steamers.—These form another class of vessels built for a particular cargo, and their construction and the character 'of the material carried are such that they cannot ordinarily be used for other purposes. In 1863 two sailing tank vessels were built on the Tyne. In 1872 Messrs Palmer built the " Vaderland," which appears to have been the first oil tank steamer. The oil carrying steamer" Zoroaster " was built in 1877 in Sweden and in 1910 was still on service. She was built of steel of length 184 ft., breadth 27 ft., draught 9 ft., and had a loading capacity of 250 tons. The oil tanks in the " Zoroaster " were separate from the hull, but after successful trials other vessels were built for Messrs Nobel Bros. in which the skin plating itself formed the tank. In 1886 Messrs Armstrong, Whitworth & Co. built the " Baku," and since that date large numbers of steamers have been built for this trade, the majority of them having been built by the Armstrong firm. Many of these steamers are of large dimensions while some are comparatively small. On the Caspian Sea, for instance, numerous small steamers are employed conveying oil from the Baku district to other ports, and to towns along the Volga; and in other places small steamers are used for the local distribution of oil brought across the ocean and stored in large depots. Such a small steamer is the " Chira," built by Smith's Dock Company in 1909; in size and appearance this vessel resembles a steam trawler, she is 95 ft. long, 19 ft. 3 in. beam, depth moulded 7 ft. 9 in., to8 tons gross, 46 tons net tonnage. The fish hold is in this vessel replaced by a tank for carrying oil in bulk and a hold for case oil. Vessels of 6000 to 12,000 tons carrying capacity are now preferred by the large companies for trans-porting oil over very great distances on account of their relatively great economy. Fig. 12 shows the general arrangements of a typical modern oil tank steamer. As an example of a large oil vessel, the " Pinna," engaged in carrying petroleum from Russian ports to the East, may also be mentioned. She is 420 ft. long, 52 ft. broad, and 32 ft. deep, and can carry 9000 tons of oil in her fully-laden condition. The machinery is placed well aft, and the cargo space is divided up into twelve large tanks, extending to the height of the main deck, by seven transverse bulkheads and a longitudinal middle-line bulkhead. The spaces between the transverse bulkheads are called Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 holds respectively, and each hold has a port and a star-board tank. Each tank is provided with an expansion trunk, in order that the free surface of the oil may always be small, however much the bulk of the latter may expand or contract with changes of temperature. Motor Tank Vessels.—Several oil tank vessels have been fitted with internal combustion engines instead of steam propelling machinery In 1903 the " Vandale " and " Sarmat," capable of carrying 750 tons of refined petroleum each, were built for Messrs Nobel Bros., and fitted with Diesel motors of 36o H.P. More recently the " Emanuel combined, and is fitted with one deck, but has two tiers of beams. Nobel " and " Karl Hagelin " have been built for the same firm;) B (fig. 14, Plate II.) is a vessel with a top-gallant forecastle, bridge-they are fitted with Diesel motors of 1200 H.P., are 38o ft. long, I house and poop, and a single deck. C is an awning-decked vessel, Profile. Upper Deck. Hold. FIG. 12.—General Arrangement of a Modern Oil-Tank Steamer. 1, Crew space. 5, Chain locker. 9, Coffer dam. 13, Donkey boiler. 2, Cabins. 6, Pump-room. io, Oil-tank. 14, Galley. 3, Engineers' cabins. 7, Water-ballast tank. 1I, Boiler-room. 15, Steering engine house. 4, Store. 8, Fore-hold. 12, Engine-room. 16, Cargo hatch. 17, Oil and cargo hatch. 18, Coal shoot. 46 ft. beam, 161 ft. draught and carry 4600 tons of kerosene oil. The large motor-driven vessels are arranged somewhat similarly to the steam-driven oil-tank vessels, but with the machinery fitted in a comparatively shorter space, no boiler room being then required. Table X. gives the dimensions, carrying capacity and other leading particulars of four cargo steamers of different types, with two decks, but three tiers of beams. D is a shelter-decked vessel of the highest class fitted with three decks and four tiers of beams and having machinery of high power. E is an American lake steamer in which the draught was limited to 20 ft., similar in many respects to the smaller vessels shown in fig. 15 (Plate II.) and in fig. 16 below. Besides the principal dimensions and light and load displacements, When built A. B. C. D. E. Builtin1881. Built in 1894. Built in 1897. Built in 1909. Built in 1909. Type of Vessel Well- With Top-gallant Awning-decked. Shelter-decked. American Lake decked. Forecastle, Steamer. Bridge House and Poop. Length . 263' 6" 300' o" 470' 0" 535' 0" 58o' o" Breadth . . 35' 8" 40' 0" 5o' o" 63, o" 58' o" Depth (moulded) . 20' 6" 23' 6" 34' 10" 38' o" 32' o" Draught (without keel) . . . 19' 3" 19' 2" 27' 5" 28' o" 19' o" Weight of steel or iron in hull 82o tons .. 3676 tons 4145 tons wood, outfit, &c. . 166 „ 509 7650 tons 300 „ propelling machinery . 184 „ 615 „ 2200 tons 350 , Total light displacement 1170 „ 162o tons 4800 „ 9850 „ 4795 ,, Load displacement . 3740 „ 5530 ,, 16,710 „ 18,35o „ 15,795 block coefficient . •72 •8o •81 •68 •886 Ratio of light to load displacement •313 zto 11,910 tons 850'537 ns I I,000 tons Dead-weight carried 2570 tons 3910 tons to Ratio of dead-weight carried to load displacement .687 •707 •713 •463 .696 Cargo capacity in cubic feet . 115,000 170,000 680,000 650,000 Tonnage under deck 1436 2150 7038 848o 7100 gross 1816 2385 7296 12,100 7268 net 1167 1500 4770 678o 5484 Water-ballast capacity . . . . 357 tons 500 tons 3346 tons .. 9464 tons and one steamer carrying mails and passengers as well as a large cargo. A is a well-decked vessel (fig. 13, Plate II.), having a top-gallant forecastle with a long raised quarter-deck and bridge-house the block " coefficients " corresponding to the load conditions are given in Table IV., in order to show the fullness of form commonly adopted in these vessels. The block coefficient is the ratio of the volume of the immersed portion of the ship to the volume of the parallelepiped, whose length, breadth and depth are the same as the length, breadth awl mean draught (without keel) of the vessel itself ; and it will be seen that in three cases out of the five given, the immersed volume, i.e. the displacement, is 80, or upwards of 8o% of this circumscribing parallelepiped. The low speed, which is found economical for the " ocean tramp," admits of this fullness, and provides that capability for large stowage accommodation for cargo which has brought it into existence. In vessels whose speed is of great importance the block coefficient varies from •5 to •68, the lower limit being reached on the smaller vessels on cross-channel services, and the higher limit on very long vessels, such as Atlantic liners. In the moderately fast vessel D shown in table the block coefficient is •68. The total weight of material in the hull, i.e. the iron or steel and woodwork, outfit, &c. and the propelling machinery, is called the vessel's light displacement. The load displacement is made up of the light displacement, together with the weight of the cargo, &c., or the dead-weight carried; this, it will be seen from Table X., varies from two to two and a half times the amount of the light displace- their machinery of Soo I.H.P. is placed amidships and gives a speed of 12 knots; two saloons are arranged forward and two aft with access to a promenade deck from each, accommodation for 200 passengers with luggage being provided. A light wooden awning extends over all. These vessels are built of steel and divided into eight water-tight compartments; they were built and put together at Southampton, then taken to pieces, packed and shipped abroad, re-erected and completed at Calcutta. The largest ferry-boats are to be found in America, and an interesting example is the " Hammonton " built in 1906 by the New York Shipbuilding Company. She is 168 ft. long overall, 38 ft. beam, 8 ft. 6 in. draught, 625 tons displacement. A feature of this vessel is that all details are arranged with the view to making the vessel practically fireproof, wood fittings being reduced to a minimum. The vessel is double-ended, carries over a thousand passengers and a large number of horses and vehicles on one deck. As in many American river vessels, the upper works extend to a considerable width beyond the body of the hull beneath to give large deck areas; the main deck being about 6 ft. above water and 55 ft. wide. Cart tracks are arranged along the midship portions of the deck with passenger saloons, &c., at the sides. A light shade deck extends forward and aft and carries a pilot house near each end. Water-tube boilers and three cylinder compound engines of 600 H.P. are fitted beneath the deck amidships and drive a propeller at each end of the boat. The " Oakland," " Berkeley " and " Newark " running at San Francisco are much larger than the " Hammonton," and have a seating capacity for 2000 people each, with a fine promenade deck above the upper deck. The first two are fitted with beam engines driving side paddle-wheels, while the third has a screw propeller at each end of the vessel driven by vertical triple expansion engines. Each of them burns oil fuel only. River and Sound Steamers.—For service on rivers, harbours and estuaries where the traffic is considerable, paddle-wheel vessels o: limited speed are usually preferred, as possessing great manoeuvring power, and therefore the capability of being brought alongside the landing-places with rapidity and safety. The paddle-wheel steamer HH.HHHHHHHH.H A, Cargo hold. B, Hatches. C, Engine-room. D, Boiler-room. E, Coal-bunker. F, Officers' Quarters. G, Crew's space. H, Water ballast. K, Pilot-house. ment, except in case D in which the machinery and the passenger accommodation absorb much weight. British vessels may not be loaded deeper than a certain mark, known for many years as the Plimsoll mark, which has to be placed on the sides of all merchant vessels. The mode of measuring tonnage is based on the Act of 1894, which embodies preceding legislation and subsequent Acts (see TONNAGE). The numerous varieties of passenger steamers may for convenience Passenger be taken in the following order :—Ferry ; River and Sound ; steamers. Cross Channel; and Ocean Steamers; although it must be understood that in many cases a hard and fast line cannot be drawn between steamers for the several services. Ferry Steamers.—Ferry steamers are found on many rivers and harbours in the United Kingdom; they perform important services in transporting passengers and road traffic across sheltered waters where bridges are not available; and others are built in the United Kingdom for service in all parts of the world. The " Guanabacoa," a double-ended steel vessel built by Messrs Cammell, Laird & Co., for ferry service on Havana Bay, is 140 ft. long overall, breadth moulded 38 ft., depth moulded amidships 13 ft. 21 in. Well-decorated saloons 12 ft. high extend along the sides of the vessel, and between them are wood-paved tracks for 30 to 40 carts and horses. One thousand passengers can be carried, and a fine promenade deck for them extends over the saloons, &c. Above all a light sun deck extends right fore and aft. Compound surface-condensing engines are fitted with a screw propeller at each end of the vessel, which drive her either way at from to to 11 knots. She made the passage to Havana under her own steam. A number of ferry-boats have been built by Messrs Thornycroft for service in India; they are toy ft. long overall, of 20 ft. beam, 10 ft. moulded depth and 5 ft. draught; " City of Cleveland," longitudinal section. " City of Cleveland," midship section. " La Marguerite," which formerly in the summer months made trips from London to the coast of Kent and to France, now conducts service between Liverpool and North Wales. She is 330 ft. long, has accommodation for a large number of passengers, and obtained 22 knots with 7500 I.H.P. on trial. Another well-known Thames steamer is the " Royal Sovereign," of length 300 ft., breadth 33 ft., depth moulded to ft. 6 in., draught 6 ft. 6 in., tonnage 891 tons gross, 190 tons net; carrying 232o passengers at a speed of 21 knots. Excursion steamers working round the coast are frequently of similar type to this vessel, but of less length and less extensive open promenade decks. A popular south coast pleasure steamer, built in 1909, is the paddle boat " Bournemouth Queen," shown in fig. 17 (Plate X.). She is 200 ft. long, 24 ft. breadth moulded and 48 ft.6in. outside guards, 8 ft. moulded depth, tonnage 353 tons gross, 139 tons net; she can carry 610 passengers on a No. 3 certificate and 704 on a No. 4 certificate. Her displacement at 5 ft. 2 in. load draught is 406 tons and her speed 154 knots. The " King Edward," a steamer which began to ply on the Clyde in 19o1, is 250 ft. long, 30 ft. wide, to ft. 6 in. deep to the main deck, and 17 ft. 9 in. to the promenade deck. She was the first passenger steamer to be driven by Parsons steam turbine. Her speed is 20 knots. A second turbine steamer, the " Queen Alexandra," began to run on the Clyde in 1902; she is generally similar to the " King Edward," but larger and faster. These vessels are popular because of their great speed and the absence of vibration. They have been followed by others such as the " Kingfisher " on the Thames and the " Atalanta " on the Clyde. The latter being 227 ft. long, 27 ft. beam, depth 10 ft. 6 in., draught 5 ft. 6 in., displacement 520 tons and gross tonnage 400; the machinery of 2500 H.P. gives a speed of 18 knots, and is of interest as it was utilized for very extensive shop experiments to obtain data for the construction of the turbines of the great Cunarders. Numerous steamers of this class are to be found on the rivers and coasts of the Continent, but the finest are employed on the rivers and harbours of America, together with large numbers of a smaller class. Most of the light-draught river steamers of the United States are built of wood, but those employed elsewhere are usually built of steel. The Hendrick Hudson " (fig. 18, Plate III.), built of steel in 1906, one of the most famous river boats of America, carries 5000 passengers, for whom five decks, which have a breadth of 82 ft.—the full width over the paddle-boxes—are set apart. She is 38o ft. long, 45 ft. breadth moulded, 13 ft. 5 in. moulded depth, draught 8 ft., freeboard amid-ships 6 ft. 3 in., tonnage gross 2847 tons. The old walking-beam arrangement of engines, for many years a distinctive feature of American river steamers, is in this vessel replaced by inclined, three-cylinder, compound, direct acting engines; her feathering paddle wheels are 24 ft. in diameter and 16 ft. 6 in. wide, and her speed is 22 knots. Some of the boats of the Fall River Line are larger than the " Hendrick Hudson "; the " Puritan " is 420 ft. long, of 7500 I.H.P. and 4650 tons gross; the " Priscilla,' built in 1904, is very similar to the " Puritan," but is 440 ft. long and 202 ft. depth moulded; her moulded breadth is 522 ft. and her decks extend to an extreme breadth of 93 ft.; her tonnage is 5292 tons gross ; the side wheels are 35 ft. in diameter and 14 ft. wide, driven by inclined engines of 8500 I.H.Y., and running at about 24 revolutions per minute maintain a speed of about 15 knots on service. A still larger vessel of the same type is the " Commonwealth," which is 456 ft. overall; breadth of hull 55 ft., breadth of decks outside guards 96 ft., horse power 11,000. The " Puritan," " Priscilla " and " Commonwealth " run on night service only to Fall River through Long Island Sound, and the accommodation provided is very large; the " Priscilla," for instance, can sleep 1500 persons besides her crew of over 200. In these vessels the freeboard is carried to one deck higher than in the " Hendrick Hudson," to enable them to accomplish the exposed ocean portion of their passage with safety; and they form a link between the fast river steamer and the fast cross-channel steamer. Similar passenger vessels are employed on the Great Lakes, an example being the " City of Cleveland " (fig. 19), built in 1908, of the following dimensions: length overall 404 ft., breadth hull proper 54 ft., width over paddle-boxes 92 ft. 6 in., depth 22 ft.; tonnage 4568 tons gross, 2403 tons net. She is built of mild steel, divided into to principal water-tight compartments and fitted with a cellular double bottom, and has a water chamber of 100 tons capacity to check rolling in a sea way. The engines are compound, three-cylinder, inclined, connected directly to cranks on the paddle-wheel shaft, the diameters of the cylinders being one of 54 in. and two of 82 in., and the stroke 8 ft.; eight single-ended cylindrical boilers fitted with Howden forced draught supply steam at 16o lb, and on service the vessel can maintain 20 m. or 17.5 knots per hour without difficulty, developing about 6000 I.H.P. at 28 revolutions per minute. Cross-Channel Steamers.—Cross-channel steamers are of a heavier type than those just considered and require higher freeboard and better sea-keeping qualities to be able to make passages across more exposed waters in all weathers. Over 200 such vessels are employed carrying mails, passengers, luggage, cattle and merchandise between Great Britain and Ireland, the Isle of Man, and continental ports. The mail service between Holyhead and Kingstown has for many years employed a number of splendid vessels of this class. The four paddle-steamers, " Ulster," " Munster," " Leinster " and " Con-naught," built in 186o, were 337 ft. long, 35 ft. broad and 19 ft. deep; their speed was 18 knots with 6000 I.H.P. A vessel of the same type, but larger, named the " Ireland," was added to the fleet in 1885. In 1896 and 1897 four new twin-screw steamers were built, and received the same names as the four vessels built in t86o, which they have replaced. Their length is 36o ft., breadth 41 ft. 6 in., depth 29; ft., tonnage 2633 tons gross, 733 tons net, and displacement 2230 tons at 14 ft. 6 in. load draught. Their engines are of 9000 i.H.P. and sea-going speed 23 knots, over 24 knots having been reached on trial. They have sleeping-berths for 238 first-class and 124 second-class passengers, and large dining and other public rooms for general accommodation. In recent years large numbers of very fine vessels of the cross-channel type have been built for other services. In 1903 the " Queen," the first turbine vessel for the Dover-Calais service, was built by Messrs Denny of Dumbarton; she is 310 ft. long and obtained 214 knots. In 1905 the " Invicta " was built of the same dimensions and boiler power, and by means of improved turbines the speed was increased to 23 knots. In the same year the Midland Railway Company ordered three vessels each 330 ft. long, 42 ft. beam and 25 ft. 6 in. moulded depth; and a fourth similar but a foot wider. Two of these vessels, the " Antrim " and " Donegal," were fitted with four-cylinder triple-expansion engines driving twin screws; the third and fourth, the " Londonderry " and " Manxman," were fitted with turbines of 6000 and 8000 H.P. respectively. All had cylindrical boilers of the same dimensions. The " Antrim " did better than the " Donegal and obtained a speed of 21.86 knots with very remarkable economy; of the turbine vessels, the " Manxman " did better than the " Londonderry," reaching 23.12 knots, and proving more economical than the " Antrim " at all speeds above 14 knots. Other successful vessels of this class are the " St George " and three sister vessels, 350 ft. long, 2500 tons displacement, 11,000 H.P. and 222 knots speed, built for the Great Western Railway Company for service from Fishguard to Rosslare; and the " Princesse Elisabeth," of 24 knots, employed on the Dover-Ostend service. But all these vessels were surpassed by the " Ben-my-Chree," built at Barrow Fin. 29.—Section of " Mauretania." for the Isle of Man Steam Packet Company. She is 375 ft. long, 46 ft. beam, 18 ft. 6 in. moulded depth, carries 2549 passengers on a No. 2 certificate, and displaces 3353 tons at 13 ft. 5 in. draught. On trial she attained 2s4 knots on the measured mile, and maintained 244 knots for over 6 hours; on service she averages 24 knots at sea and 23 knots between the Liverpool landing stage and Douglas pier. Numbers of cross-channel steamers are owned by continental companies, among which the " Prinses Juliana " (fig. 20, Plate III.) and her two sister vessels, belonging to the Zeeland Steamship Company of Holland, run on the night service between Queenboro' and Flushing. They are 350 ft. long, 42 ft. 6 in. beam, 16 ft. 4 in. depth, gross tonnage 2885 tons; they have four-cylinder triple-expansion engines of 10,000 H.P., and attained 224 knots on the mile, and 22 knots on a six hours' run; they have excellent accommodation for 350 passengers. For services on which relatively large cargoes and fewer passengers are carried smaller vessels of less speed are built, such as the " Rowan," built by Messrs D. & W. Henderson & Co. for the Laird Line service between Glasgow and Dublin. She is 292 ft. long, 38 ft. beam, 17 ft. 6 in. depth moulded, has sleeping accommodation for zoo passengers, triple-expansion engines, and a speed of 16 knots. In America a number of vessels of the cross-channel type have recently been built. One of these, the " Governor Cobb," 290 ft. long, 54 ft. beam, 20 ft. 6 in. moulded depth, 14 ft. draught loaded, was the first merchant vessel in America to be driven by turbines. She was followed by the " Harvard " and " Yale of the same type, 407 ft. overall, 63 ft. extreme breadth, 16 ft. draught loaded; they carry 800 passengers and 600 tons freight on a night service between New York and Boston; turbines of 10,000 H.P. give them a speed of 20 knots, making them at the time the fastest sea-going vessels on the American coast. The " Prince Rupert," " Princess Charlotte," &c., recently built for service on the western coast of Canada, also belong to this section. The first-named (fig. 21, Plate III.) is 306 ft. long, 42 ft. beam, 24 ft. moulded depth. At 15 ft. draught her displacement is 3150 tons, of which 'coo tons is cargo; she is of 3379 tons gross, 6000 I.H.P. and her speed 184 knots. The " Prince George " is similar to the " Prince Rupert " and obtained 19.2 knots on trial at 13 ft. 3 in. draught and 2622 tons displacement; both vessels can carry 220 first-class and a t/ppee Deck Main Deck Lower Deck. _aw Or/op Deck Lower Or/op Deck large number of second-class passengers. The " Princess Charlotte " is of 360o tons and 20 knots speed. Japan has built and engined two cross-channel steamers, which maintain a service between Japan and Korea. They are 335 ft. long, 43 ft. beam, gross tonnage 3200, displacement, at 17 ft. draught, 388o tons. Parsons turbines of 850o H.P., made in Japan, are fitted and give a speed of 21 knots. Ocean Liners.-The article on STEAMSHIP LINES gives an account of the rise of the great shipping companies. The steamships of 12,000 tons and upwards, referred to on page 873, are shown in Table XI.:- Gross Gross Name. Tonnage. Name. Tonnage British.' German. Mauretania . 31,938 George Washington . 25,570 Lusitania 31,550 Kaiserin Auguste Victoria 24,581 Adriatic . 24,541 Amerika 22,622 Baltic . . . 23,876 Kronprinzessin Cecilie 19,503 Cedric 21,035 Kaiser Wilhelm II. . 19,361 Celtic . . . . 20,904 President Lincoln 18,168 Caronia . . . 19,687 President Grant . 18,072 Carmania 19,524 Berlin . . 17,324 Oceanic . 17,274 Prinz Friedrich Wilhelm 17,082 Arabic . . . 15,801 Cleveland . . . . 16,96o Laurentic . . . 14,892 Deutschland . . . 16,502 Megantic . . . 14,878 Cincinnati . . . . 16,339 Minnewaska . 14,317 Kronprinz Wilhelm . 14,908 Saxouia 14,281 Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse 14,349 Empress of Ireland 14,191 Empress of Britain 14,189 261,341 Ivernia . . 14,067 8 other vessels of 12,000- 14,000 tons . . . 103,435 326,945 25 other vessels of 22 ships. Total . 364,776 12,000-14,000 tons 317,358 Belgian. 42 vessels. Total 644,303 Lapland 17,540 Finland 12,185 Dutch. Kroonland . . . . 12,185 Vaderland 12,018 Rotterdam . 24,149 - Niew Amsterdam 16,967 4 ships. Total . 53,928 Noordam . . . 12,531 - Rijndam . . 12,527 French. Potsdam . . . 12,522 La Provence . . . . 13,753 Espagne . 13,600 5 ships. Total . 78,696 American. 2 ships. Total . . 27,353 Minnesota 2 20,718 Japanese. Manchuria . . 13,639 Tenyo Maru 3 . . . 13,454 Mongolia 13,639 Chiyo Maru 13,426 3 ships. Total . 47,996 2 ships. Total 26,88o Summary. Country. Ships in No. Gross Tonnage. Average (Tons),I British 42 644,303 15,341 German 22 364,776 16,581 Dutch 5 78,696 15,739 Belgian . 4 53,928 13,482 American 3 47,996 15,999 French . . 2 27,353 13,676 Japanese 2 26,88o 13,440 Grand Total 8o 1,243,932 . 15,549 Atlantic Liners.-The Atlantic liners running between Europe and the United States of America are the best known of all ocean liners; they exhibit the highest attainment of excellence in merchant-ship building, and their great size and speed, and continuous rivalry, excite universal interest. Particulars of the famous liners which have had a share in the development of the trans-Atlantic service from 1819 to 1900 are given in Table XIL, some of which is taken from The Atlantic Ferry by A. J. Maginnis. The " Persia " (fig. 22, Plate IV.) was the first iron steamer to be placed on the Atlantic service by the Cunard Company (1856). She was followed two years later by the " Great Eastern," 688 ft. long, 82.8 ft. broad, 48.2 ft. depth and 32,160 tons displacement with a gross tonnage of 18,915 tons and I i ,000 H.P., giving her a speed of 13 knots by paddle-wheels and screw. She was built from designs by I. K. Brunel, and remained the ' " Titanic," launched October 10, 43,500 tons. 2 Sister vessel " Dakota " was lost on Japan coast March 1907. 3 A third vessel of same size was being completeo largest vessel afloat until the " Cedric " was built 45 years later. Fig. 23 is the " City of Rome," built in 1881 at Barrow for the Inman Line, one of the most graceful vessels placed on the Atlantic. The " Campania " (fig. 24) and her sister-ship the " Lucania," each 600 ft. long and built in 1893 for the Cunard Company by the Fairfield Shipbuilding Company, held the record for fast passages across the Atlantic for several years. With twin screws and triple-expansion engines they attained a speed of 231 knots on trial with 31,050 I.H.P. On her best runs the " Lucania " crossed the Atlantic, 2823 nautical miles, in 5 days 8 hours 38 minutes, the mean speed being 22 knots for the run, maintained with a consumption of coal amounting to 201 tons an hour. In the 'fifties the Collins Line took the record for speed to America, but, apart from that, the competition was chiefly between British companies until 1897, when the " Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse " made a better record than the " Campania " or " Lucania," and for ten years from that date the fastest vessels were in German hands. The " Deutschland " (fig. 25, Plate V.), built at Stettin for the Hamburg-American Line, took the record in 1900, traversing the Atlantic from New York to the Eddystone in 5 days 17 hours 28 minutes, at a mean speed of 23.36 knots. The North German Lloyd Co. added three splendid vessels: the " Kronprinz Wilhelm " in 1901, the " Kaiser Wilhelm II." in 1902, and the " Kronprinzessin Cecilie " in 1906, the machinery being respectively of 35,000,'42,000 and 45,000 I.H.P. and forming the finest series of reciprocating engines ever built for ships. The " Kaiser Wilhelm II." raised the record on the home-ward run to 23.71 knots, and made practically the same speed as the " Deutschland " on the outward run, viz. 23.12 knots. The " Kronprinzessin Cecilie " (fig. 26, Plate VI.) raised the outward record to 23.21 knots, and homeward her best passage was at 23.58 knots. In 1903 the British government made an agreement with the Cunard Company under which two vessels of 24 to 25 knots speed across the Atlantic were to be built for mail and passenger service, and to be available for the use of the Admiralty in time of war. In accordance with this agreement the " Mauretania " (fig. 27, Plate VI.) was built by Swan, Hunter, Wigham Richardson & Co., and the " Lusitania " by John Brown & Co., and both were supplied with Parsons turbines of 70,000 H.P. driving four screws. The latter vessel was the first on service in 1907, and at once regained for Great Britain the Atlantic record, the " Mauretania " following a little later and doing still better. Both vessels maintained very high speeds, and steadily improved their records, until the " Mauretania " averaged 26.06 knots and the ` Lusitania " 25.85 knots on the passage. They are 790 ft. long overall, of 88 ft. beam, 57 ft. moulded depth, 42,000 tons displacement on a draught of 331 ft. and of 32,000 tons gross tonnage. They are thus Too ft. longer, 5 ft. wider, 600o tons more displacement and of 70 % greater gross tonnage than the " Great Eastern." Figure 28 is a section of the " Mauretania," which shows clearly the great height of the decks. The French liner " La Provence " was built in 1905, of 13,753 tons gross, and 22 knots speed. On her displacement of 19,16o tons she must carry about 3500 tons of coal for the; voyage, which leaves a margin of about 900 tons for passengers and cargo. The " France," launched September lo, is of 23,000 tons, 45,000 H.P. and 231 knots. A notable tendency in recent years is to build vessels of great size to run at more moderate speeds. The American liners " St Louis " and " St Paul " (fig. 29, Plate VII.), built in 1895, are of 11,630 tons gross and 21 knots; while the " Finland " and " Kroonland," built in America in 1902, are of 12,185 tons and only 16 knots. The last-named vessels are now running under the Belgian flag (see Table XII.). The " Caronia " and " Carmania," built by the Cunard Company in 1905, furnished evidence of the advantage of the turbine for Atlantic liners, and also illustrate the gain due to a lower speed. Their dimensions are given in Table XII.; as compared with" La Provence " it will be seen that they are of 12,000 tons greater displacement, 2 knots less speed and 10,000 less H.P. Allowing for the voyage two-thirds the quantity of coal carried by " La Provence," these vessels thus have a margin of about Io,000 tons compared with the 900 tons of that vessel, so that a much larger quantity of cargo may be taken when required. The " Rotterdam," of 24,170 tons gross tonnage, can load to a displacement of 37,200 tons. Her speed is 17 knots; the reduction of engine-power gives space and weight for no less than 3585 passengers and nearly 13,000. tons of cargo after allowing for accommodation of crew and for coal, water and stores for the voyage. The second " Oceanic," of 17,274 tons (fig. 30, Plate V.), built in 1899 for the White Star Company, was the largest vessel then built and had 21.5 knots speed ; she was followed by the " Celtic," " Cedric," " Baltic " and " Adriatic " for the same company, of 16 to 18 knots speed and size increasing up to nearly 25,000 tons gross. These vessels each carry about 3000 passengers as well as a crew of 350 and upwards, and very large cargoes. The " Adriatic " (fig. 31, Plate VII.) is of 24,541 tons gross, 30 % greater tonnage than the ` Great Eastern." The " Titanic " and " Olympic," which in 1910 were in course of building by Harland & Wolff for the White Star Line, are not only much larger than the " Adriatic,' but they are 90 ft. longer, of 13,000 tons greater tonnage and of 18,000 tons greater displacement than the " Mauretania "; a combination of reciprocating and turbine machinery of 50,000 H.P. is provided for driving the vessels at a speed of 21 knots. - Owners. a r a ~ v I a F 8 How Propelled. a, s1 3 Name of Ship. w 3 -91 w a A a 00, -8? 3 b A , a " xi 0 o qE 8' (Savannah Feet. Feet. Feet. Tons. Knts. Lb. Colonel Stevens 1819 New York Wood 130 26 16.5 1,85o 32o 6 Paddles 10 90 Royal William . City of Dublin Co. 1838 Liverpool „ 145 27 17.5 1,98o 720 7.5 5 400 Sirius Brit. & Amer. St. Nay. Co. 1838 Leith „ 178 25.5 18.25 1,995 703 8.5 ,, 15 600 Great Western . Great Western S. S. Co. . 1838 Bristol „ 212 35.3 23.25 2,300 1,340 8.5 ,, 15 750 British Queen . Brit. & Amer. St. Nay. Co. 183g London „ 275 37.5 27.o 2,970 1,863 8 15 700 Britannia Cunard 184o Greenock „ 207 34.5 22.5 2,050 1,150 8.5 12 740 Great Britain . Great Western 1843 Bristol Iron 274 48.2 31.5 5,780 3,270 r1 Single Screw 25 1,500 America Cunard 1848 Greenock Wood 251 38 25.3 4,25o 1,825 10.25 Paddles 13 1,400 Asia Cunard 1820 „ 268 45 24 3,620 2,227 12 ,, 15 2,000 . . . . Collins 185o New York 282 45 31.5 6,2oo 2,86o 12.5 ,, 17 2,000 Arctic Persia Cunard 1856 Glasgow Iron 36o 45 29.9 7,130 3,300 12.5 „ 20 3,600 Adriatic . Collins 1857 New York Wood 355 50 35.0 7,564 3,670 13.5. „ 25 4,000 Great Eastern . Great Eastern S.S. Co. *--858 Millwall Iron 68o 82.8 48.2 32,16o 18,915 13 S. Screw and Paddles 30 11,000 Scotia Cunard 1862 Glasgow „ 379 47.8 30.5 7,600 3,871 13.5 Paddles 25 4,000 City of Paris . Inman 1866 „ „ 346 40.4 26.2 6,411 2,651 13.5 Single Screw 3o 2,60o Russia Cunard 1867 „ „ 358 43 28.8 6,770 2,959 13.5 ,, ,, 25 2,500 City of Brussels . Inman 1869 „ 390 40.3 27.r 6,goo 3,081 14.5 3o 3,000 Oceanic . White Star 1871 Belfast „ 42o 41 31 7,240 3,707 14.75 „ 65 3,000 City of Richmond . Inman 1874 Glasgow „ 441 43.5 34 9,320 4,623 15 70 4,000 Britannic . White Star 1874 Belfast „ 455 45.2 33.7 9,600 5,000 16 „ 75 5,100 City of Berlin . . Inman 1875 Greenock „ 488.5 44.2 35 10,100 . 5,491 16 „ 75 5,200 Arizona . Guion 1879 Glasgow ,, 450.2 45.4 35.7 9,900 5,147 16.25 „ 90 6,300 Servia . Cunard 1881 Steel 515 52.2 37.9 12,300 7,392 16.5 go 12,000 City of Rome . Inman • x881 Barrow Iron 56o.z 52.3 37 13,500 8,144 17.5 ,, ,, 90 1x,500 Alaska . . Guion . 1881 Glasgow 500 5o 38 9,500 7,142 17.75 too =1,000 Notting-Hill . I Notting-Hill S. S. Co. 1351 Steel 42o 45.1 26.5 6,210 3,92o 12 Twin Screw 100 2,800 Aurania Cunard 1882 „ „ 470 57.2 373 13,360 7,209 17 Single Screw go 8,5oo Oregon . Guion and Cunard . 1883 „ Iron 5o1 54.2 40 12,500 7,375 19 110 13,000 America . National 1884 „ Steel 432 51.3 38.6 9,550 5,528 18.75 ,, „ 95 8,300 Etruria Cunard 1885 „ 501 57 3 38.2 13,300 8,120 19.5 no 14,500 Alter North German Lloyd 1886 „ „ 438 48 34.6 10,460 5,400 16.5 150 8,200 City of Paris (second of Inman 1889 „ 527.6 63.2 39.2 17,650 10,670 21 Twin Screw 15o 18,500 name) Teutonic White Star 1889 Belfast „ 566 57.8 39.2 16,740 9,984 20 „ 18o 17,500 Furst Bismarck Hamburg-American 1890 Stettin „ 502.6 57.6 38 15,200 8,874 19.5 „ 16o 17,000 Campania Cunard 1893 Glasgow „ 598 65 43 21,000 12,950 22 „ 165 30,000 St Louis . American . 1895 Philadelphia „ 535.7 63 42 16,000 11,630 21 ,, „ zoo s0.50o Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse North German Lloyd 1897 Stettin „ 625 66 43 23,760 14,35o 23 ,, 178 32,000 Kaiser Friedrich. North German Lloyd 1898 Danzig „ 584 64 41 20,100 12,000 21.5 „ 226 27,000 Oceanic (second of name). White Star 1899 Belfast „ 685 68 44.5 26,100 17,274 21.5 192 29,000 Deutschland .(second of Hamburg-American 1899 Stettin „ 666 65.5 45.5 24,400 14,500 23.25 .5 ,, 225 36,000 name) . Kronprinz Wilhelm . . North German Lloyd Igor „ 637.3 66.3 39.3 22,300 14,908. 23.47 ,, ,, 213 35,000 Celtic White Star 19or Belfast „ 680.9 75.3 44.1 37,900 20,904 17.0 210 13,000 Kaiser Wilhelm II North German Lloyd 19,52 Stettin „ 684.3 72.3 40.2 26,000 x9,36, 23.71 ,, „ 213 42,000 Finland Red Star 1902 Philadelphia „ 56o.o 60.2 38.4 12,185 16•o ~ 17o to coo Cedric White Star 1903 Belfast 680.9 75.3 44.1 38,000 21,035 16.o „ 210 13,000 Baltic . White Star 1904 „ 709.2 75.6 52.6 40,700 23,876 16.0 „ 210 13,000 Kaiserin Auguste Victoria Hamburg-American . 1905 Stettin „ 677.5 77.3 50.2 43,000 24,581 17.5 ,, „ 213 16,700 La Provence . Cie Gbnerale Trans- 19o5 St Nazaire „ 602.3 65.o 38.3 19,16o 13,753 22.0 ,, 198 30,000 atlantique Carmania . . Cunard 1905 Glasgow „ 650.4 72.2 40 31,000 19,524 20.0 Parsons Turbines 3 Screws 195 22,000 Caronia . Cunard 1905 „ 65o.o 72.2 40.2 31,000 19,687 19.0 Twin Screw 210 21,000 Amerika . Hamburg-American 1905 Belfast „ 66g.o 74.3 47.8 42,000 22,622 17.5 ,, ,, 210 15,800 Kronprinzessin Cecilie . North German Lloyd 1go6 Stettin „ 6854 72.2 40.5 27,000 19,503 23.58 ,, ,, 213 45,000 Nieuw Amsterdam . Holland Amerika 1906 Belfast „ 600.3 68.9 35.6 31,000 16,967 16.o „ 2x5 10,000 Adriatic White Star 1906 709.2 75.5 52.6 40,800 24,541 ,8.o 210 16,000 Mauretania . Cunard 1907 Newcastle „ 762.2 88.o 57.1 42,000 31,938 26.06 )y. Parsons Turbines s 195 70,000 Lusitania Cunard 1907 Glasgow „ 762.2 87.8 56.6 42,000 31,55o 25.85 ) 4 Screws 195 70,000 Rotterdam . . Holland Amerika 19o8 Belfast 650.5 77.4 43.5 37,200 24,149 17.0 Twin Screw 215 15,000 Lapland . Red Star s9o8 ,, 605.8 70.4 37.4 30,500 17,540 17.5 5, , •. 13,000 George Washington . North German Lloyd 19o8 Stettin „ 699.1 78.2 5o.2 37,000 25,570 19.o 2x3 20,000 Minnewaska Atlantic Transport Co. . 1909 Belfast „ 600.3 65.4 39.6 26,530 14,317 16.0 ,, 224 11,000 . Titanic White Star Iwo „ „ 850.0 92.5 64.5 52,300 43,500 21.0 Combination of Par- 215 5o,000 _sons Turbines and Olympic White Star .. „ „ 850.0 92 5 52,300 43,500 21.0 Reciprocating En- 215 50,000 164.5 J pines, 3 Screws L. The Hamburg-American Company followed a similar course to the White Star Line and added two large vessels of 17z knots speed-the •` Amerika " of 22,622 tons gross, built by Messrs Harland & Wolff, and the " Kaiserin Auguste Victoria " (fig. 32, Plate VII.), of 2 ,581 tons gross, built at Stettin. The largest German vessel afloat in 1910 was the " George Washington," built in 1908 at Stettin for the North German Lloyd. The Hamburg-American Company ordered in 1910 two vessels, not only much larger than the " George Washington," but exceeding even the " Olympic " in dimensions. They were said to be over 900 ft. long over all, 94 to 95 ft. beam, 20,000 tons gross greater tonnage than the " George Washington," 13,000 tons more than " Mauretania " and 2000 tons more than " Titanic " and " Olympic " turbines of 60,000 to 70,000 H.P. being provided to maintain a speed of 22 knots across the Atlantic. The Cunard Company ordered in Dec. 1910 a 50,000-ton turbine-driven ship from John Brown & Co., to steam at 23 knots on service. The " Minnewaska " of the Atlantic Transport Company is typical of vessels on the Atlantic route carrying a large cargo together with a limited number of passengers of one class. Three hundred and twenty-six first-class passengers are carried and provided with excellent accommodation. When fully loaded the displacement is over 26,000 tons and the speed 16 knots; the horse-power required being only a sixth that of the fast Cunarders. To large numbers of passengers the additional period on the voyage is no disadvantage, while the transport of a large cargo at the relatively high speed of 16 knots is a great advantage. Canadian Liners.-With the increasing trade between Europe and Canada the direct Canadian liners increased in numbers and importance, and now bear favourable comparison with the great liners running between Europe and the United States. The " Victorian " and " Virginian " of the Allan line, built in 1904 and 1905 and plying between Liverpool and Montreal, were the first ocean liners to be fitted with Parsons turbines; they are 520 ft. long, 6o ft. 5 in. beam, 38 ft. moulded depth and 10,629 tons gross; and they can carry 1500 passengers and a large cargo at a speed of 17 knots. They were followed in 1906 by the " Empress of Britain " and " Empress of Ireland," built by the Fairfield Company for the Canadian Pacific Railway Company; they are 570 ft. long over all, 549 ft. between perpendiculars, 65 ft. 6 in. beam, 36 ft. 8 in. depth moulded, tonnage 14,189 gross tons, displacement 20,000 tons at 28 ft. draught; quadruple-expansion engines of 18,00o I.H.P. are fitted and a speed of over 20 knots was obtained on trial. Excellent accommodation is provided for 158o passengers; and a considerable quantity of meat can be carried in insulated holds provided with refrigerating arrangements, besides a large general cargo, a total of 6500 tons of cargo being carried in addition to the coals, water and stores required for the passage across the Atlantic. In 1908 the " Laurentic " and " Megantic " were built by Messrs Harland & Wolff for the White Star Canadian Service; they are 550 ft. long, 67 ft. 4 in. beam, 41 ft. 2 in. depth moulded and 14,890 tons gross; they can carry •166o passengers and a very large cargo. The " Laurentic " is provided with reciprocating engines of 6500 I.H.P. in combination with Parsons turbines of 3500 H.P., while the " Megantic " is fitted with reciprocating engines only. On trial the Laurentic " developed 12,000 H.P. with a speed of 171 knots, and on service her coal consumption is 12 to 15% less than that of the " Megantic." A service from Bristol to Quebec and Montreal was opened in 1910 by the " Royal George " and the " Royal Edward," which ran for some time in a fast mail service from Marseilles to Alexandria under the names of " Heliopolis " and " Cairo " respectively. They were built in 1908 and are 545 ft. long, breadth 6o ft., depth 38 ft., tonnage 11,150 tons gross, displacement 15,000 tons at 22 ft. 6 in. draught. Parsons turbines of 18,000 H.P. are fitted, driving three screws at 370 revolutions per minute and giving a maximum speed of 20 knots, while 19.1 knots has been maintained by the " Royal Edward " from Bristol to Quebec. Accommodation is provided for over 1000 passengers. Still larger and faster vessels were being arranged for in 1910. Emigrant Vessels.—Marty vessels on the Atlantic Service are fitted up for carrying emigrants either with or without other passengers; they are always arranged to carry as much cargo as possible. Ships built for such services include the " Gerania," built by the Northumberland Shipbuilding Company in 1909 for Austrian owners. Her dimensions are : length 402 ft., beam 52 ft. 6 in., moulded depth 27 ft. I in., 4900 tons gross. She can carry 8000 tons dead-weight on 24 ft. draught at a speed of 11 knots, but her 'tween decks are arranged so that they car. be used to carry cattle, troops or emigrants as required. The " Tortona," built in 1909 by Messrs Swan & Hunter for the Italian emigrant trade to Canada, is 464 ft. long over all, beam 54 ft., depth 29 ft., she is 7900 tons gross and can carry 8600 tons dead-weight as well as over loon emigrants. The "Ancona," built in 1908 by Messrs Workman,Clark& Co. for the Italian emigrant trade to the United States, is 500 ft. long, 8188 tons gross, 7500 I.H.P. ; she can carry 2500 emigrants and a large cargo, and in addition 6o first-class passengers in spacious cabins on a promenade deck amid-ships. Some of the finest vessels carrying emigrants are the ships of the " Cleveland " type belonging to the Hamburg-American Company. The " Cleveland " is 587 ft. long, 65 ft. breadth moulded, 46.7 ft. depth, 27,000 tons displacement on a draught of 32 ft. 8 in., 13,000 tons dead-weight capacity, about 17,000 tons gross and 10,000 tons net, with machinery of 9300 I.H.P. and 16 knots speed. She can carry 250 first-class, 392 second-class, 494 third-class and 2064 fourth-class or emigrant passengers, making with a crew of 36o a total of 356o persons, and has cold storage spaces of io,000 cub. ft. for provisions, and 30000 cub. ft. for cargo. Liners on other Routes.—Only a few typical vessels engaged on other routes can be mentioned here. The Royal Mail Company's " Avon " (fig. 33, Plate VIII.), trading to the West Indies and round South America to the Pacific coasts, is 520 ft. long, 62 ft. 4 in. beam, 31 ft. 9 in. depth moulded and 11,073 tons gross tonnage. The" Kenilworth Castle " (fig. 34, Plate VIII.), in 1910 one of the latest additions to the Union-Castle Line Fleet trading to South Africa, is 570 ft. long, 64 ft. 8 in. beam, 38 ft. 8 in. moulded depth, 12,975 tons gross tonnage, 12,500 I.H.P. and 172 knots speed. The " Osterley " (fig. 35, Plate VIII.) is typical of the splendid ships running via the Suez Canal to the Eastern ports, Australia and New Zealand ; she was built in 1909 by the London & Glasgow Shipbuilding Company for the new fleet of the Orient Line. She is 535 ft. long, 63 ft. beam, 38 ft. depth to upper deck, 18,360 tons displacement at 28 ft. draught, 12,129 tons gross, and obtained 18.76 knots on trial with 13,790 I.H.Y.; 1150 passengers can be carried as well as some 7000 tons of cargo. The " Maloja," which in 1910 was being built for the P. & O. Company, is a little larger than the " Osterley," being 55o ft. long, 621 ft. broad, 12,500 tons gross, of 15,000 I.H.P. and 19 knots speed. Many vessels carrying very large cargoes and comparatively few passengers are engaged in the meat and fruit trades, and are fitted up with refrigerating machinery, insulated holds and cooling appliances so as to keep the fruit, vegetables or meat at the required temperature, and at the same time maintain a proper degree of humidity or of dryness of the atmosphere. The number and size of vessels engaged in these trades continue to increase, and the enormous volume of the trade may be indicated by the fact that thirteen million carcases of mutton would be required to fill the holds of the vessels fitted for that particular trade. A typical vessel is the " Highland Laddie," built for the Argentine trade in 1909, 420 ft. long, 56 ft. beam, 37 ft. 6 in. moulded depth to shelter deck, 7500 tons gross, 4600 H.P. and speed 15; knots on trial. She can carry over 500 passengers in well-fitted and comfortable apartments amidships, and has insulated cargo-holds of 343,000 cub. ft. capacity. To control the temperature of the chilled beef or frozen mutton in these holds she is fitted with powerful refrigerating machinery, and cooled brine is circulated through tubes lining the sides and ceilings of the holds, some .20 miles cif brine pipes being so used. The " Ruahine," built in 1909 for the New Zealand trade, is similarly fitted; she is 48o ft. long, 6o ft. broad, 44 ft. depth moulded, speed on trial 15.9 knots. The " Port Royal " of the Elder Dempster Line has insulated holds capable of transporting 3,000,000 bananas, besides pineapples, oranges and other tropical and semi-tropical fruits. The fruit is kept at the desired temperature by means of large volumes of cold dry air circulated through the holds, and the air is cooled by contact with nests of pipes through which brine of a low temperature is circulated. The " Tortuguero," a vessel 390 ft. long, 48 ft. beam, 29 ft. 6 in. depth, 4200 tons gross, built for Messrs Elders & Fyffes, has a storage capacity of 22 times that of the " Port Royal." Pacific Liners.—The " Empress " vessels of the Canadian Pacific Railway Company were the first liners built specially for the trans-pacific ocean service. The railway reached the Pacific seaboard in 1885, and in 1891 these vessels began running. They reached a maximum speed of 19'75 knots on trial, and in 1910 could still maintain 17 knots across the Pacific. In 1901 the " Korea ' and " Siberia " were built for the service; they were in their day the largest American-built vessels, each being 552 ft. long, 63 ft beam and 41 ft. depth, of tonnage 11,276 gross, and displacement 18,600 tons when loaded to 27 ft. draught. Quadruple-expansion engines of 18,000 I.H.P. gave them a speed of 20 knots on trial and 18 knots sea-going speed. Two hundred and twenty first-class passengers are carried in cabins and saloons above the upper deck, and pro-vision is made for 6o third-class, and for 1200 Chinese steerage passengers. In 1904 these were joined by the American-built vessels the " Manchuria ' and " Mongolia," of 2000 tons greater tonnage. They are 616 ft. long, 65 ft. beam, depth 31 ft. I in., 13,639 tons gross, 27,000 tons displacement and 20 knots maximum speed, and can each carry 1920 passengers and a large cargo. These were again outstripped in size by the " Minnesota " and " Dakota," which arrived shortly afterwards. They were 622 ft. long, of 20,718 tons gross, 33,000 tons displacement, 14 knots speed, and had capacity for 285o passengers and 20,000 tons of cargo. The " Dakota " was lost off the coast of Japan in March 1907, but the " Minnesota " was in 1910 still on service, and was the largest merchant vessel yet built in the United States. These American vessels carry on the transpacific service from San Francisco and Seattle, and replace the older vessels with which the American Pacific Mail Company carried on the service for many years. The American and British vessels were all outstripped by the Japanese, vessels " Tenyo Maru " and " Chiyo Maru " of the Toyo Kaisen Kaisha (Japanese Oriental S.S. Co.). They were built in Japan, of the following dimensions: length over all 575 ft., between perpendiculars 558 ft., breadth 63 ft., depth to shelter deck 46 ft. 6 in., to upper deck 38 ft. 6 in., gross tonnage 14,700 tons; displacement 21,500 tons at 31 ft. 8 in. draught. They are driven by three sets of Parsons turbines of a total H.P. of 17,000 at 270 revolutions per minute, and have attained 21.6 knots on trial and 20 knots on ocean service. Steam is supplied by 13 cylindrical boilers, working at 180 lb pressure and fired by oil fuel only. They have accommodation for 275 first-class, 5q. second-class and 800 steerage passengers, and over 8000 tons of cargo. Special Vessels`.-Many vessels are built for special and exceptional purposes, and cannot be classed with either ordinary cargo or passenger vessels. Amongst these may be included dredgers, train-carrying ferry-boats, ice-breakers, surveying vessels, lightships, fishing vessels, coastguard and fishery cruisers, salvage and fire vessels, lifeboats and tugs. To DREDGERS a special article is devoted (see DREDGE). Train Ferries.—In 1869 Mr Scott Russell described (Trans. Inst. N¢v. Arch.) a train ferry-boat of special construction in use on the Lake of Constance, having a length of 220 ft., a breadth over the paddle-boxes of 6o ft., and a displacement of 1600 tons; the horse-power of her machinery was zoo, divided between two paddle-wheels, each of which was driven by a pair of independent oscillating engines. The object of this steamer was to convey trains between Romanshorn, on the one side of the lake, and Friedrichshafen, on the other; she was built of iron, and was designed to have great strength combined with light draught. In 1872 train ferry-boats were introduced into Denmark to carry trains between the mainland and the islands and, later, between Denmark and Sweden. The first was a single track iron paddle vessel, the " Lille Baelt," built by Richardson of Newcastle for the service from Fredericia to Strib (2 m.) ; her dimensions were : length 139 ft., breadth moulded 26 ft., extreme 44 ft. 6 in., draught 8 ft., tonnage 306, .I.H.P. 280, and speed 8 knots. A similar boat, the Fredericia," was afterwards built by Schichau of Elbing for the same service; in 1883 this firm built two very similar but longer vessels for ferries of 2-22 M. across, which proved very successful; and others of various types followed for ferries of i6, 181 and 48 in. across. The Danish government in 1910 employed 22 vessels of a total of about 16,000 tons on eight ferries for railroad cars, as well as separate vessels for other traffic. These services have to be maintained all the year round, and several of the vessels are specially strengthened for passage through ice; in addition, four other vessels of 497 to 553 tons gross and 600 to Boo I.H.P. are employed wholly as ice-breakers. The latest of these vessels in 1910 was the " Christian IX." employed on the ferry across the Great Belt. a distance of 16 m. Fig. 36 shows the profile and deck plans of this vessel, for which, with other particulars of the Danish ferries, we are indebted to International Marine Engineering. Particulars ferry service between Sweden and Germany from Trelleborg to Sassnitz, a distance of 65 m. For this service the " Drottning-Victoria " (fig. 37, Plate IX.) was built by Messrs Swan, Hunter,
End of Article: XXTV

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