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YORKE (1757-1834)

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Originally appearing in Volume V12, Page 946 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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YORKE (1757-1834), 3rd earl of Hardwicke, eldest son of Charles Yorke, lord chancellor, by his first wife, Catherine Freman, who was born on the 31st of May 1757 and was educated at Cambridge. He was M.P. for, Cambridgeshire, following the Whig traditions of his family; but after his succession to the earldom in 1790 he supported Pitt, and took office in 18o1 as lord lieutenant of Ireland (18o1-18o6), where he supported Catholic emancipation. He was created K.G. in 1803, and was a fellow of the Royal Society. He married Elizabeth, daughter of James Lindsay, 5th earl of Balcarres, in 1782, but left no son. He was succeeded in the peerage by his nephew, CHARLES PHILIP YORKE (1799-1873), 4th earl of Hardwicke, English admiral, eldest son of Admiral Sir Joseph Sydney Yorke (1768-'830, who was second son of Charles Yorke, lord chancellor, by his second wife, Agneta. Johnson. Charles Philip was born at Southampton on the 2nd of April 1799 and was educated at Harrow. He entered the royal navy in 1815, and served on the North American station and in the Mediterranean, attaining the rank of captain in 1825. He represented Reigate (1831) and Cambridgeshire (1832-1834) in the House of Commons; and after succeeding to the earldom in 1834, was appointed a lord in waiting by Sir Robert Peel in 1841. In 1858 he retired from the active list with the rank of rear-admiral, becoming vice-admiral in the same year, and admiral in 1863. He was a member of Lord Derby's cabinet in 1852 as postmaster-general and lord privy seal in 1858. In 1833 he married Susan, daughter of the 1st Lord Ravensworth, by whom he had five sons and three daughters. His eldest son, CHARLES PHILIP YORKE (1836-1897), 5th earl of Hardwicke, was comptroller of the household of Queen Victoria (1866-1868) and master of the buckhounds 1874-188o). He married in 1863, Sophia Georgians, daughter of the 1st Earl Cowley. He was succeeded by his only son ALBERT EDWARD PHILIP HENRY YORKE (1867-1904), 6th earl of Hardwicke, who, after holding the posts of under-secretary of state for India (1900-1902) and for war (1902-1903), died unmarried on the 29th of November 1904; the title then went to his uncle, JOHN MANNERS YORKE (1840-19o9), 7th earl of Hardwicke, second son of Charles Philip, the 4th earl, who joined the royal navy and served in the Baltic and in the Crimea (1854-1855). This earl died on the 13th of March 1909 and was succeeded by his son Charles Alexander (b. 1869) as 8th earl. The contemporary authorities for the life of Lord Chancellor Hardwicke are voluminous, being contained in the memoirs of the period and in numerous collections of correspondence in the British Museum. See, especially, the Hardwicke Papers; the Stowe MSS.; Hist. MSS. Commission (Reports 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 11) ; Horace Walpole, Letters (ed. by P. Cunningham, 9 vols., London, 1857—185q); Letters to Sir H. Mann (ed. by Lord Dover, 4 vols., London, 1843—1844), Memoirs of the Reign of George II. (ed. by Lord Holland, 2nd ed. revised, London, 1847); Memoirs of the Reign of George III. fed. by G. F. R. Barker, 4 vols., London, 1894) ; Catalogue of Royal and Noble Authors of England, Scotland and Ireland (ed. by T. Park, 5 vols., London, 1806). Horace Walpole was violently hostile to Hardwicke, and his criticism, therefore, must be taken with extreme reserve. See also the earl Waldegrave, Memoirs 1754—1958 (London, 1821); Lord Chesterfield, Letter? (ed. by Lord Mahon, 5 vols., London, 1892) ; Richard Cooksey, Essay on John, Lord Somers, and Philip, Earl of Hardwicke (Worcester, 1791); William Coxe, Memoirs of Sir R. Walpole (4 vols., London, 1816) ; Memoirs of the Administration of Henry Pelham (2 vols., London, 1829) ; Lord Campbell, Lives of the Lord Chancellors, vol. v. (8 vols., London, 1845) ; Edward Foss, The Judges of England, vols. vii. and viii. (9 vols., London, 1848—1864) ; George Harris, Life of Lord Chancellor Hardwicke; with Selections from his Correspondence, Diaries, Speeches and Judgments (3 vols., London, 1847). The last-named work may be consulted for the lives of the 2nd and 3rd earls. For the 3rd earl see also the duke of Buckingham, Memoirs of the Court and Cabinets of George III. (4 vols., London, 1853—1855). For the 4th earl sec Charles Philip Yorke, by his daughter, Lady Biddulph of Ledbury (1910). (R. J. M.)
End of Article: YORKE (1757-1834)
CHARLES YORKE (1722-1770)

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