YUCCA ,' a genus of the
See also:Liliaceae (q.v.), containing about
See also:species . They occur in greatest frequency in Mexico and Yucca
See also:gloriosa in flower, much reduced . 1, flower,
See also:abt. z nat.
See also:size; 2,
See also:diagram showing arrangement of the parts of the flower in
See also:horizontal plan . the S.W .
See also:United States, extending also into Central
See also:America, and occurring in such numbers in some places as to
See also:form straggling 'A
See also:Spanish word meaning "
See also:bayonet," recalling the form and character of the leaves . forests . They have a woody or fibrous
See also:stem, sometimes
See also:short, and in other cases attaining a height of 15 to 20 ft., and branching at the top into a series of forks . The leaves are crowded in tufts at the ends of the stem or branches, and are generally stiff and sword-shaped, with a
See also:sharp point, sometimes flaccid and in other cases fibrous at the edges . The numerous
See also:flowers are usually
See also:bell-shaped and pendulous, and are
See also:borne in much-branched terminal panicles . Each flower has a perianth of six
See also:regular pieces, and has as many hypogynous stamens, with dilated filaments, bearing relatively small anthers . The three-celled ovary is surmounted by a short thick
See also:style, dividing above into three stigmas, and ripens into a succulent
See also:berry in some of the species, and into a dry three-valved capsule in others . The flowers are fertilized by the agency of moths .
A coarse fibre is obtained by the Mexicans from the stem and foliage, which they utilize for cordage, and in the S.E . United States the leaves of some species, under the name "bear-grass," are used for seating chairs, &c . The fruits, which resemble small bananas, are cooked as an article of
See also:diet; and the roots contain a saponaceous
See also:matter used in place of
See also:soap . Many of the species are
See also:hardy in
See also:Great Britain, and their striking appearance renders them attractive in gardens even when not in flower . They thrive in a
See also:soil, and are propagated by divisions planted in the open ground, or by pieces of the thick, fleshy roots in sandy soil under
See also:heat . Their rigid foliage, invested by thick epidermis, enables them to resist the noxious air of towns better than most
See also:plants . A popular name for the plant is "
See also:needle." The species which split up at the margins of their leaves into filaments are called "
See also:thread." YUE-CHI (or YuEH-CHIH), the
See also:Chinese name of a central
See also:Asiatic tribe who ruled in
See also:Bactria and India, are also known as Kushans (from one of their subdivisions) and Indo-Scythians . They appear to have been a nomad tribe, inhabiting
See also:part of the
See also:present Chinese province of Kan-suh, and to have been driven W. by Hiung-nu tribes of the same stock . They conquered a tribe called the Wusun, who lived in the
See also:basin of the
See also:river, and settled for some
See also:time in their territory . The date of these events is placed between 175 and 140 B.C . They then attacked another tribe known as Sakas, and drove them to
See also:Persia and India . For about twenty years it would seem that the Yue-Chi were settled in the
See also:country between the
See also:rivers Chu and Syr-Darya, but here they were attacked again by the Hiung-nu, their old enemies, with whom was the son of the defeated Wusun chieftain .
The Yue-Chi then occupied Bactria, and little is heard of them for a
See also:hundred years . During this
See also:period they became a united
See also:people, having previously been a confederacy of five tribes, the
See also:principal of which, the Kushans (or Kwei-Shwang), supplied the new
See also:national name . They also to some extent gave up their nomadic
See also:life and became civilized . Bactria about this time was said to contain a thousand cities, and though this may be an exaggeration it was probably a
See also:meeting-place of Persian and Hellenic culture: its
See also:Demetrius and
See also:Eucratides had invaded India . It is iherefore not surprising to find the warlike and
See also:mobile Yue-Chi following the same road and taking fragments of Persian and Greek
See also:civilization with them . The chronology of this invasion and of the
See also:history of the Kushans in India must be regarded as uncertain, though we know the names of the kings .
See also:Indian literature supplies few data for the period, and the available information has been collected chiefly from notices in Chinese
See also:annals, from inscriptions found in India, and above all from coins . From this evidence it has been deduced that a
See also:king called Kozulokadphises, Kujulakasa or Kieu-tsieu-k'io ( ? A.D . 45-85) united the five tribes, conquered the
See also:Kabul valley and annihilated the remnants of Greek dominion . He was succeeded, possibly after an
See also:interval, by Ooemokadphises (Himakapisa or Yen-kao-tsin-tai), who completed the annexation of N . India .
See also:Kanishka (? c . A.D . 123-53), who is celebrated throughout eastern
See also:Asia as a
See also:patron of the Buddhist
See also:church and convener of the third Buddhist council . He is also said to have conquered
See also:Kashgar, Yarkand and
See also:Khotan . His successors were Huvishka and then Vasudeva, who may have died c . A.D . 225 . After Vasudeva's reign the power of the Kushans gradually decayed, and they were driven back into thevalley of the
See also:Indus and N.E .
See also:Afghanistan . Here, according to Chinese authorities, their royal
See also:family was supplanted by a
See also:dynasty called Ki-to-lo (Kidara),whowere also of Yue-Chi stock, but belonged to one of the tribes who had remained in Bactria when the Kushans marched to India . The subsequent
See also:migration of the Kitolo S. of the
See also:Hindu Kush was due to the movements of the Jwen-Jwen, who advanced W. from the Chinese frontier . Under this dynasty a state known as the Little Kushan
See also:kingdom flourished in Gandhara (E .
Afghanistan) about A.D . 43o, but was broken up by the attacks of the
See also:Harms . Some authorities do not accept the
See also:list of Kushan kings as given above, and think that Kanishka must be placed before Christ and perhaps as early as 58 B.C.: also that there was another king with a name something like Vasushka before or after Huvishka . In any case the invasion of the Yue-Chi cannot have been very long before or very long after the Christian era, and had an important influence on Indian civilization . Their coins show a remarkable union of characteristics, derived from many nations . The genera' shape and style are
See also:Roman: the inscriptions are in Greek or in a Persian language written in Greek letters, or in Kharoshthi: the
See also:reverse often bears the figure of a deity, either Greek (Herakles, Helios, Selene) or Zoroastrian (Mithra, Vata, Verethraghna) or Indian (generally
See also:Siva or a war
See also:god) . One figure called Sarapo appears to be the
See also:Serapis, and others are perhaps Babylonian deities . On the obverse is generally the king, who, in the earlier coins at any
See also:rate, wears a long open coat,
See also:knee boots and a tall cap—clearly the
See also:costume of a nomad from the
See also:north . The Gandhara school of sculpture, of which the best specimens come from the neighbourhood of Kanishka s capital, Purushpura (the
See also:Peshawar), is a branch of Graeco-Roman
See also:art adapted to
See also:Oriental religious subjects . The Yue-Chi were probably the principal means of disseminating it in India, though all movements which kept open the communications between Bactria and Persia and India must have contributed, and the first introduction was due to the short-lived Graeco-Bactrian
See also:conquest (18o-13o s.C.) . The importance of the Gandharan influence on the art of India and all Buddhist Asia is now recognized . Further, it is probably in the mixture of Greek, Persian and Indian deities which characterizes the
See also:pantheon of the Kushan kings that are to be sought many of the features found in Mahayanist
See also:Buddhism and
See also:Hinduism (as distinguished from the earlier
See also:Brahmanism) .
Kanishka and other monarchs were zealous but probably by no means exclusive Buddhists, and the conquest of Khotan and Kashgar must have facilitated the spread of Buddhist ideas to
See also:China . It is also probable that the Yue-Chi not only acted as intermediaries for the introduction of Greek and Persian ideas into India, and of Indian ideas into China, but
See also:left behind them an important
See also:element in the population of N . India . It is hard to say whether the Yue-Chi should be included in any of the recognized divisions of Turanian tribes such as
See also:Turks or
See also:Huns . Nothing whatever is known of their
See also:original language . Such of the inscriptions on their coins as are not in Greek or an Indian language are in a form of Persian written in Greek
See also:uncials . In this
See also:alphabet the Greek
See also:letter b (or rather a very similar letter with the
See also:loop a little
See also:lower down) is used to represent sh, and there are some peculiarities in the use of o apparently connected with the expression of the sounds Is and i . Thus PAONANO PAo KANIPK1 KorANO is to be read as something like Shdhandn Shah Kanishki Kushan: Kanishka the Kushan, king of kings . This Persian title became in later times the
See also:special designation of the Kushan kings and is curiously parallel to the use of Arabic and Persian titles (
See also:padishah, sultan, &c.) by the
See also:Ottoman Turks . The
See also:physical type represented on these coins has a strong prominent
See also:nose, large eyes, a moderately abundant
See also:beard and somewhat thick or projecting lips . Hence, as far as any physical characters can be formulated for the various tribes (and their validity is very doubtful) the Yue-Chi type is
See also:Turkish rather than Mongol or Ugro-Finnic . In such points of temperament as military ability and power of assimilating Indian and Persian civilization, the Yue-Chi also resemble the Turks, and some authorities think that the name Turushka or Turukha sometimes applied to them by Indian writers is another evidence of the connexion .
But the national existence and name of the Turks (q.v.) seem to date from the 5thcentury A.D., so that it is an anachronism to speak of the Yue-Chi as a division of them . The Yue-Chi and Turks, however, may both represent parallel developments of similar or even originally identical tribes . The
See also:Mahommedan writer Alberuni states that in former times the kings of the
See also:Hindus (among whom he mentions Kanik or Kanishka) were Turks by
See also:race, and this may represent a native tradition as to the
See also:affinities of the Yue-Chi . Some authors consider that the Yue-Chi are the same as the
See also:Getae and that the original form of the name was Yiit or Get, which is also supposed to appear in the Indian
See also:lat . See Vincent
See also:Smith, Early History of India (19o8); Hoernle and Stark, History of India . (1905) ; Rapson, Indian Coins (1898) ; Gardner, Coins of Greek and Scythian Kings in India (1886) ; Franke, Beitrage aus Chinesischen Quellen zur Kenntnis der Tiirkvolker and Skythen (1904), and numerous articles by
See also:Fleet, A . Stein, Vincent Smith, Sylvian Levi, E . H .
See also:Parker and others in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Journal asiatique, Asiatic Quarterly, &c . Owing to the new evidence which is continually being brought forward, the most
See also:recent writings on this subject are generally to be preferred . (C .
There are no comments yet for this article.
Do not copy, download, transfer, or otherwise replicate the site content in whole or in part.
Links to articles and home page are encouraged.