ZALEUCUS , of
See also:Locri Epizephyrii in Magna Graecia, Greek lawgiver, is supposed to have flourished about 66o B.C . The statement that he was a
See also:pupil of Pythagoras is an anachronism . Little is known of him, and
See also:Timaeus even doubted his existence, but it is now generally agreed that this is an error . He is said to have been the author of the first written
See also:code of
See also:laws amongst the Greeks . According to the
See also:story, the Locrians consulted the Delphic
See also:oracle as to a remedy for the disorder and lawlessness that were rife amongst them . Having been ordered to make laws for themselves, they commissioned one Zaleucus, a shepherd and slave (in later tradition, a man of distinguished
See also:family) to draw up a code . The laws of Zaleucus, which he declared had been communicated to him in a dream by Athena, the
See also:patron goddess of the city, were few and
See also:simple, but so severe that, like those of Draco, they became proverbial . They remained essentially unchanged for centuries, and the Locrians subsequently enjoyed a high reputation as upholders of the
See also:law . One of the most important provisions was that the punishment for different offences was definitely fixed, instead of being
See also:left to the discretion of the
See also:judge before whom a case was tried . The
See also:penalty for
See also:adultery was the loss of the eyes, and in general the application of the lex talionis was enjoined as the punishment for
See also:personal injuries .
See also:Special enactments concerning the rights of
See also:property, the alienation of
See also:land, settlement in
See also:foreign countries, and various sumptuary laws (e.g. the drinking of pure
See also:wine, except when ordered medicinally, was forbidden) are attributed to him . After the code was firmly established, the Locrians introduced a regulation that, if a
See also:citizen interpreted a law differently from the cosmopolis (the chief
See also:magistrate), each had to appear before the council of One Thousand with a rope
See also:round his
See also:neck, and the one against whom the council decided was immediately strangled .
Any one who proposed a new law or the alteration of one already existing was subjected to the same test, which continued in force till the 4thcentury and even later . Zaleucus is often confused with
See also:Charondas, and the same story is told of their
See also:death . It is said that one of Zaleucus's laws forbade a citizen, under penalty of death, to enter the
See also:house bearing aweapon . During the stress of war, Zaleucus violated this law; and, on its being pointed out to him, he committed suicide by throwing himself upon the point of his sword, declaring that the law must be vindicated . See Bentley, Dissertation on the Epistles of
See also:Phalaris; F . D . Gerlach, Zaleukos, Charondas, Pythagoras (1858) ; G . Busolt, Griechische Geschichte, i.; Schol. on Pindar, 01. x . 17;
See also:Strabo vi. p . 259; Diod . Sic. xii . 20, 21;
See also:Demosthenes, In Timocratenz, p .
See also:Stobaeus, Florilegium, xliv . 20, 21, where the supposed preface of Zaleucus and the collection of laws as a whole is
See also:spurious; Suidas, s.v., who makes him a native of
See also:Cicero, De Legibus, ii . 6 . See also article GREEK LAW .
ZAISAN, or ZAISANSK
ZALMOXIS, or ZAMOLXIS
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