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Overviews of Selected Applications of Photography

20th photographic century professional

Rochester Institute of Technology

Many professional photographers start out as generalists; however, as their careers evolve, they are often recognized for a specific type of work. Photography as a field has become increasingly dependent on technology in the digital age where imaging equipment, software, and related products are necessary to make and deliver pictures as well as related services at a professional level. Staying current is quite a challenge—financially as well as educationally—for the most motivated professionals. Specialization by photographers is mostly a consequence of the markets and services professionals choose to offer. It is interesting to observe that as technology continues to change, the practitioners of traditional photographic services are displaced into photographic services that employ new technology. In some disciplines—such as film retouching—is a field almost nonexistent. Although new job titles are being created, there still exists a core group of professional photographers worldwide who make pictures. Their pictures, however, are distributed and viewed using a myriad of new methods, including cell phones.

The following list enumerates many recognized areas of photographic specialization. Some of these titles are supported by essays that can be found in this section, while other titles on this list may have essays that will be found in the History (h), Science (s), 20th Century Themes and Practitioners (20th), or the Contemporary Issues © sections of this book. While most of these fields have adopted digital technologies, the motivation to make pictures in these various disciplines remains mostly unchanged, and has stayed principally the same since the invention of photography.

On the following pages you will find essays written for this edition by invited contributors, this editor (Michael Peres), as well as entries that were originally published in the Focal Encyclopedia of Photography , 3rd Edition. Minor updating may have been done in these entries.

Abstract photography

Advertising photography

Aerial photography (s)

Allegorical photography (h)

Anthropological photography (s)

Archaeological photography (s)

Architectural photography

Astrophotography (s)

Audiovisual communications

Ballistics photography/videography (s)

Biological photography (s)

Botanical photography (s)

Candid photography

Catalog photography

Close-up photography (s)

Commercial photography

Communications photography

Corporate photography

Custom finishing

Dance photography

Decoration photography

Dental photography (s)

Documentary photography (h)

Erotic photography

Existing-light photography

Expressive photography

Fashion photography (20th century)

Fine-art photography (20th century)

Flash photography

Food photography

Forensic photography (s)

Freelance photography

Geological photography (s)

High-speed photography (s)

Historical photography

Holography (s)

Identification photography

Illustration photography

Image analysis

Imaging science

Industrial photography

Infrared photography (s)

Landscape photography

Magazine photography

Medical photography (s)


Military photography (s)


Nature photography (s)

Narrative, documentary and editorial

ORB photography

Ophthalmic photography (s)

Panoramic photography


Photogrammetry (s)

Photographic education (20th century)

Photographic science

Photographic workshops (20th century)



Photojournalism ©

Photomacrography (s)


Photomicrography (s)


Pictorial photography

Picture editing

Pornographic photography (20th century)

Portrait photography

Postcard photography

Professional photography

Radiography (s)

Remote sensing (s)

Repeat photography

Research photography

Reproduction photography

Restoration photography

School photography

Scientific photography

Snapshot photography

Space photography (s)

Spirit photography

Sports photography

Stereo photography

Stock photography

Still-life photography Streak photography (s)

Surrealistic photography

Surveillance photography

Technical photography (s)

Theatrical photography

Travel photography

Underwater photography(s)

Wedding photography Yearbook photography

Ovitz, Michael - Overview, Personal Life, Career Details, Social and Economic Impact, Chronology: Michael Ovitz [next] [back] Overview of Visual Arts - ANCIENT VIEW OF ART., NATURALISM., EGYPTIAN WORLD., MOVEMENT., INTEGRATION OF VIEWS AND SYMBOLISM., LABELS., MAGIC.

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