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Infrared Photography - Light and Heat: Near and Far Infrared, Near-Infrared: Light We Cannot See

nir visible film temperature

ANDY FINNEY
Atchison Topeka and Santa Fe Limited

Light and Heat: Near and Far Infrared

Light that is detectable by the human visual system occupies a tiny part of the electromagnetic spectrum, which extends from the long wavelengths of low-energy radio radiation at one end to very short wavelength and high-energy gamma rays at the other. The visible spectrum has a range of wavelengths from 400 to 700nm. Infrared radiation lies between visible red light and microwave radio waves and, for the purposes of this article, is divided into the near-infrared (NIR; from 700-1200nm, 0.7-1.2 µm) and the far-infrared (FIR) from about 2-30 µm. This also includes the region sometimes described as the mid-infrared.

The existence of radiation outside the visible spectrum was first discovered in 1800 by Sir William Herschel. He was experimenting with thermometers to measure the temperature of the bands of colored light produced by a prism, and placed thermometers outside either end of the visible spectrum as controls. To his surprise, the thermometer beyond the red end of the spectrum warmed up more than the rest, and he realized that there was radiation there that we could not see.

NIR is very similar to “ordinary” light in that it can be focused by normal lenses and recorded on special films or captured by imaging chips. The most common sources of NIR are those that also emit visible light and might include the sun, incandescent lamps, and flash guns. The making of images with NIR and traditional camera equipment can correctly be referred to as photography.

FIR is the radiated heat of an object detected by special electronic detectors and is sensed by its effect on the skin. FIR sources are usually the objects themselves, and images are made by recording the emitted thermal radiation. FIR imaging is thus known as thermal imaging or thermography and is described later.

Expressions such as white-hot and red-hot have real meanings in science, although these expressions are often used in every day language. The hotter an object is the more energy at all wavelengths each unit area of its surface radiates. An object (such as a human body) with a temperature of 310K (about 40°C) will be radiating at wavelengths of around 8000 to 9000 nm (8-9 µm) in the FIR. A soldering iron can reach a temperature of 1000K (about 700°C) and will be radiating strongly at 2 µm and weakly in the red part of the spectrum, so will glow a dull red. By contrast the sun has a surface temperature of about 5500 K (about 5200°C) and appears white. Physicists use an idealized concept known as a “black body” in order to describe how the wavelength distribution of emitted radiation varies with temperature. In the visible part of the spectrum the relationship between temperature and radiated light gives us the idea of color-temperature.

The peak wavelength of energy radiated by an object is given by a simple empirical formula known as Wein’s Law: 2898 µm/T where This in Kelvins. This wavelength is governed only by temperature: The nature of the object has no effect.

Near-Infrared: Light We Cannot See

The boundary between visible red light and infrared (NIR) is approximately at 700 nm wavelength but is not a well-defined location. Between 700 nm and about 1200 nm, NIR can be photographed with photographic film or captured using a charge-coupled device (CCD) or CMOS sensor of the kind used in digital cameras and camcorders. In these situations NIR generally behaves like light. In particular it passes through glass and is reflected and refracted by conventional optics, but some image differences will be evident as a result of imaging with the longer wavelengths.

Blue and red visible light will behave differently in a glass lens, but the effects are often overlooked because they are minimal. Blue and red light will be refracted differently and lens designers must compensate to avoid chromatic aberration. Additionally, the color energy will be scattered to different degrees as the energy passes through the atmosphere. Rayleigh (small particle) scattering is why the sky is blue and distant mountains are hazy. However, the large particles of dust storms, industrial pollution, and the water vapor in clouds are opaque to NIR. If we assume that whatever happens with red light (as opposed to blue) will be more pronounced with NIR (and extreme with FIR), it is possible to deduce some of the characteristics of an infrared photograph.

The lens focus when using NIR will be different than when photographing visible light. Since IR energy is refracted differently, a scene focused at infinity will have to be focused as if it were closer. On many lenses originally used with film cameras, there was often a red mark on the barrel to indicate the corrected infrared focus. This location may be different for the wide-angle and telephoto ends of a zoom lens. Using a small aperture to increase the depth of field will reduce the focus error potential. Autofocus systems used on many digital cameras that sense the sharpness of the image as seen by the sensor may compensate automatically for focus error.

Virtually no NIR is scattered by the atmosphere when the atmosphere is clear, so a clear sky appears black or dark in a monochrome infrared photograph. As a result there is less scattered light reaching the shadows so they also appear darker. Bodies of water under an open sky will similarly look dark because there is no sky to reflect.

The effect of natural atmospheric haze is reduced or removed. The longer the wavelength, the less the scattering effect, so at NIR wavelengths the haze will often disappear. This is a mixed benefit for landscape photography as haze provides depth cues in an image. Haze particles in the air measure less than 1000 nm (1 µm) and are of the same order of size as NIR wavelengths. Fog, clouds, and dust, on the other hand, have particles ten times larger and so remain opaque until the imaging wavelengths approach the size of the particles, when it is possible to “see” through them.

In visualizing how a scene might look in an infrared photograph, it is helpful to think of NIR as an invisible color since color is an indication of which wavelengths of light an object absorbs, scatters, or reflects. This means that something that is dark in visible light may become light when viewed in NIR; in particular, artificial fibers and dyes used in clothing can reflect NIR strongly. Infrared photographs are popular at weddings, and the photos often show up the lapels and piping on the groom’s dark tuxedo quite dramatically. In addition, NIR penetrates a few millimeters into skin, often giving a milky and flattering appearance to portraits. There have even been embarrassing instances of flimsy clothing being transparent in the NIR. Some visually opaque substances, such as certain woods and plastics, also transmit some NIR, so photographic darkslides and processing tanks have been known to allow fogging of infrared film.

The high reflectance from green plants between 700 and 1300 nm results in green foliage appearing white in an infrared photograph, particularly when the leaves are in direct sunlight. The effect is so distinctive that NIR images are often mistaken for snowy scenes. This is because NIR is strongly scattered by the cell walls of leaves in the way that visible light is scattered by small crystals of transparent water-ice. However, some of the light passes through the leaves, so there is more NIR under a canopy of foliage than green light, which is mostly reflected. Chlorophyll is transparent to NIR and plays no part in this process: Any infrared fluorescence is of such low intensity as to have no photographic effect.

The white foliage phenomenon (see Figure 48) is known as the Wood Effect, named for Professor Robert Williams Wood. He was the first person to publish infrared (and ultraviolet) photographs and discussed both in his benchmark presentation to the Royal Photographic Society in London in 1910.

Shooting the Invisible

Both film and electronic cameras can be used for NIR photography, and the light sources involved are much the same as for conventional photography. The sun, flash guns, or tungsten lights work well, but some visible light sources, such as television screens, fluorescent lights, and narrowband lighting used for streets and buildings, produce little or no NIR.

Digital still and video cameras have either CCD or CMOS imaging sensor chips that are as sensitive to NIR as to visible light (see Figure 50). Ultraviolet exposure may be evidenced as a blue cast to images shot at high altitudes; NIR interferes with correct color reproduction. In the case of UV contamination, a UV-blocking filter is used over the lens. To filter out the NIR, an infrared-blocking filter, also known as a hot mirror, is usually built into the camera or its sensor.

Using a digital camera to make infrared photographs requires either removing the IR blocking filter or taking long exposures in bright sunlight. In either of these techniques visible light is removed by using a visually opaque filter that passes NIR. It should be noted that removing the blocking filter can be difficult and not always possible, since it is often an integral part of the imaging chip assembly. In some of the early digital camera models, the IR cut-off filter was coupled to an anti-aliasing filter. Similarly, early generation digital cameras are also susceptible to noise and other artifacts when taking long exposures.

Digital photographs taken through an infrared filter can appear to be colored, even though NIR is essentially monochromatic. The colors range from subtle to bizarre depending on the imaging chip used (see Figure 50). They are due to the different NIR responses of the color filtering and processing in the red, green, and blue channels of the camera and are not
necessarily representative of anything in the scene itself. The digital result is completely different to the result produced by color-infrared film, which is described below. A digital infrared photograph is likely to need some adjustment in a computer, especially to sort out black and white levels and compensate for any unwanted coloration.

One key benefit of using a digital camera to shoot NIR images is that the results can be seen immediately. If it is possible to see “live” images using the camera’s screen or electronic viewfinder then the infrared effects can be seen as the shot is composed. However, the opaque filter makes it impossible to see anything through the viewfinder of an SLR, and in this case the shot must be composed before the infrared filter is fitted.

Infrared Film

Infrared photographs can be taken using film with most 35 mm cameras if the lens can be focused manually. There are a few cameras that use infrared sensors for film loading and transport. These sensors can fog the film and so should be avoided. Possible leakage of infrared through seals, bellows, the film edges, and even some plastics used in camera bodies
should also be checked. An emulsion specific to infrared photography has been made by several manufacturers since the 1930s, but currently only Kodak in the United States and Hans O Mahn and Co. in Germany continue to produce IR films.

Kodak’s high-speed infrared film, known as HIE, is a monochrome negative film and is notable for having its own idiosyncrasies that add to those of NIR itself. There is no anti-halation layer in this film, consequently, the highlights in the print will have a distinctive “glow.” This is an artifact of the film and is accentuated in the NIR because silver halide emulsions are quite transparent at these wavelengths. It is also possible for patterns caused by reflections of IR from the camera’s film pressure plate to be recorded in the film. The lack of an anti-halation layer also means that light can enter the film through an outside edge of the film and then be piped through the substrate and fog the whole roll even through the tail of film juts out from a “daylight-loading” film cassette. HIE must always be loaded and unloaded in complete darkness. The Kodak film is panchromatic, with a “dip” around 500nm and an NIR sensitivity extending to just under 900nm. It is also grainy, but the halation and grain are often considered to be part of the character of infrared photographs taken with this material.

The Mahn film (branded Maco), is also a black and white, panchromatic negative film and has been available both with and without an anti-halation layer. The NIR sensitivity of the film is slightly narrower than the Kodak and its spectral sensitivity curve is relatively flat.

These films are sensitive to visible and ultraviolet light, so a filter must be used to make an infrared image. A visually opaque NIR-pass filter produces the strongest NIR effects, but a deep red filter is almost as effective and allows composition of the shot through the viewfinder of an SLR. Alternatively a
twin-lens or range-finder camera can be used or an infrared filter can be mounted between the film rails inside the camera, in which case the viewfinder is unobstructed.

Color infrared film is a false-color material made exclusively by Kodak as Ektachrome Professional Infrared (EIR) reversal film. When the film was introduced in 1943 it was intended for camouflage detection and other military use. The way the color dyes are coupled to the sensitized layers results in a shift of colors such that near-infrared in the scene is reproduced as red, red appears as green, and green as blue. Blue and UV are removed from the scene by shooting through a yellow filter as all layers are blue- and UV-sensitive. The resulting images feature red or magenta foliage and deep blue skies (see Figure 51). EIR is less prone to the light-piping effect of HIE so it can be loaded in subdued light.

The NIR sensitivity film deteriorates relatively quickly at room temperature and shelf life is greatly prolonged if the films are stored in a fridge or freezer. They should be allowed to warm to room temperature before use to avoid condensation.

The ratio of NIR to visible light varies with the time of day, the light source, and the filtration among other factors, so a normal exposure meter provides only a rough guide. Information on filtration, exposure, and development of these films can be found in the manufacturer’s data sheets; however, it is important to avoid any sources of infrared light during handling and processing. Leakage through the walls of some plastic development tanks and infrared sensors used in commercial processors have caused problems.

Some Applications of NIR

Art

It is possible to use infrared photography to great artistic effect looking for the qualities that are unique to photographing in this spectrum. The glowing foliage and black skies can add drama to landscape scenes and the unusual appearance of skin and eyes in infrared makes for novel portraits. Prints of infrared landscapes also respond well to hand-coloring. Color infrared film is less used artistically but can produce startling results with appropriate subjects.

Art restoration

The ability of NIR to penetrate more deeply through some materials—such as vellum—and the different reflectance characteristics of inks and pigments give infrared imaging a place in the diagnostic stages of art restoration. NIR photography has been used to see through the back of works of art when the base material is thin enough and transparent at NIR wavelengths. Longer NIR wavelengths, for example, 2-3 µm, can be used to reveal even more information in works of art by “seeing” further through the paint materials from the front. In this way, many over-painted preliminary drawings and other hitherto hidden works have been discovered. This technique is called infrared reflectography. NIR is non-invasive and, by definition, is a lower energy radiation than visible light. This naturally adds to its suitability for use with rare and delicate works of art.

Agriculture

The relative amounts of green and NIR reflected by foliage are a sensitive indicator of its condition. This is best seen using false-color infrared photography where a shift from red toward magenta in the image indicates that the plants are under some kind of stress from factors such as disease, infestation, or lack of water which, in turn, can also be an indicator of localized external factors, such as obstructions just below the surface or changes in the water table.

Remote sensing using NIR is particularly useful in forestry. The foliage of different kinds of trees has different infrared reflectivity, but not enough to differentiate species. In general, hardwoods look darker in black and white infrared than softwoods, and there is some infrared darkening of conifers as they age even though their visible appearance remains the same. This has the artistic effect of giving mixed woodland a more varied tonal range than is seen in visible light, especially if hardwood and softwoods are mixed together.

Astronomy

In this most remote of remote sensing applications, infrared imaging is invaluable. The better-resourced professionals tend to use FIR wavelengths, where the ability to peer through fine dust to see the first stages of star formation is of enormous value. However, at great distances, the expansion of the universe shifts visible light and even UV light into the infrared, so IR detectors are essential for studying the most distant objects. FIR observations are made from earth-orbiting satellites to avoid atmospheric absorption. Amateur astronomers also use the infrared for imagery, and this field is becoming increasingly popular.

Cinematography

In the heyday of black and white motion pictures, infrared film was used to simulate night-time shooting during the day, known as “day-for-night.”. It was also one of the ways that a traveling matte could be produced so that the background of a scene could be changed. Neither of these techniques is used today.

Photography in the dark

NIR can be used to take photographs in total darkness. Normally the light source (flash or lamps) is filtered to remove any visible component and will not be seen unless the subject looks directly at it. By this means images have been taken of audiences in cinemas, to study their reactions, and to record people sleeping. Infrared cameras are also present in the bedrooms of the Big Brother television program and are used for animal behavior studies as well as wildlife television. NIR is widely used for surveillance, where a combination of infrared floodlights and infrared video cameras allows security personnel to observe activity around buildings at night without needing to illuminate them with visible light. Some industrial processes that have to take place in darkness, such as photographic development, can be observed in this way.

Forensics

NIR will often show up features that are invisible to the naked eye. An example of this is modification to a document as a result of fraud or forgery. This might be detectable using reflective infrared photography or by changes in infrared fluorescence, which can also be photographed. Similarly, faded or writing on charred paper may become visible using NIR techniques. Some inks are transparent to NIR and this can provide a way of examining otherwise obliterated portions of documents.

Medicine

Since NIR penetrates a few millimeters into the skin and may be reflected differently by skin pigmentation, thus it can be used as a diagnostic aid. Patterns of blood vessels near the surface can be seen. Infrared photos have proved useful in showing changes in blood vessels caused by a variety of conditions including breast cancer, cirrhosis of the liver, and varicose veins. NIR can pass through eye defects such as some cataracts and cloudy corneas. Because the pupil does not react to NIR, studies of pupil dilation in very low light can be carried out.

Zoology and botany

The penetrative powers of NIR can aid photomicrography of specimens such as small insects by allowing a view through the insect’s chitin, or hard external skeleton. On a larger scale, some insects and even larger animals that are difficult to see because they blend into their surroundings can become easily visible using NIR.

Thermal imaging

The essential thing about thermal imaging in the FIR is that objects are detected by means of the radiation that they emit because they are warm. FIR images of a scene may share some features with a visible or NIR image but this is superficial. The way in which objects—solids, liquids, dust, and gas—absorb, reflect, refract, or scatter visible light has little influence on the formation of a thermal image, so thermal infrared images do not look like normal photographs. However, many regions of the FIR spectrum are strongly absorbed by the atmosphere and are affected by humidity, so the full FIR range is only accessible from space.

All objects that are warmer than absolute zero (0K, -273 °C) emit some radiation because of the thermal motion of their constituent atoms. The warmer an object is, the more vigorous the thermal vibration and the more radiation is emitted, over an increasing range of wavelengths. As the temperature increases it will eventually extend into the visible region, where it is first seen as dull red (red-hot). Long before red heat is reached, warm objects emit radiation in the FIR part of the spectrum which extends from about two to over 30 µm (microns, millionths of a meter).

Thermal imaging in the FIR thus detects and displays patterns of heat radiated by objects and the environment. This means that if an object is at a different temperature when compared to its surroundings it can be “observed” and its temperature measured by means of its radiated energy. In general, the cooler an object, the longer the wavelength it emits, and the more complex is the equipment required to acquire an image. This becomes obvious when it is realized that the imaging optics and camera itself may be warm enough to be FIR radiators themselves.

For all these reasons a good deal of FIR imaging is confined to specialist technical applications, where the complexities of cooling an imaging system with liquid nitrogen or even liquid helium are acceptable. However, not all FIR imaging requires cryogenic cooling and many manufacturers offer cameras for less demanding applications. Many commercial uncooled IR sensors operate in the 8 to 12 µm range, where source energy is high and atmospheric absorption is low. With a strong signal, it is possible to discriminate quite small temperature differences, such as heat leaks from buildings and changes in skin temperature due to poor blood circulation. These imagers are sturdy and versatile enough to be used by firefighters searching for people who are alive but unconscious in smoke-filled buildings, and to detect intruders at night. Even a hand placed briefly on a surface will leave a heat trace, briefly visible as a hand-print in the FIR.

Thermal imaging cameras are still expensive items but their price is falling. However, all of them capture an essentially monochrome image. The camera displays can be in false color or black and white, and many models allow the user to choose the mode of display. In false-color modes the temperature is represented by color, often blue for “cold” and red for “hot” (see Figure 53). In black and white mode, the brightness is proportional to temperature. Color modes are often used for industrial survey and medical applications, while black and white is used for surveillance. Since the imaging wavelengths are relatively long, and the dynamic range often truncated, it is not possible to achieve the imaging resolution possible in visible or NIR images. The images generated by thermal cameras are usually of standard definition television quality or less.

Some Thermal Applications

Astronomy

Beyond NIR wavelengths astronomical imaging is mostly done from above the atmosphere due to atmospheric absorption. Astronomers usually refer to NIR as extending to 5000 nm (5 µm) and refer to the band from 5 µm to 25/40 µm as mid-infrared with far-infrared extending from here to 200/350 µm. The split between these bands derives from the kinds of detectors required.

At a wavelength of 2 µm, particles of dust that might obscure the center of our galaxy become transparent. As the temperature and energy of the objects of interest reduces imaging moves to longer wavelengths, so that objects as cold as 140 K are visible and the stars seem to be absent. However, the earliest stages of star formation, occurring in cold, opaque molecular clouds, can be seen, as well as the central regions of galaxies such as the Milky Way, normally shrouded in dust.

Preventative maintenance

It is a common misconception that NIR photographs can be used to show how well a building is insulated; however, this is a common application for FIR and thermal imaging, where areas of heat leakage are easily detected. FIR sensors also can remotely monitor the temperature of components in machinery to detect friction or electrical overheating, and a thermal image of industrial plant can allow an engineer to detect potential trouble spots at a glance.

Medical

One medical application of FIR is as a remote-sensing thermometer. Thermal imaging cameras are marketed specifically for this purpose, and one application is to quickly scan arriving international passengers for an elevated head temperature, which might indicate an infectious illness such as SARS or Avian Flu. Thermal imaging can similarly show patterns of temperature on the surface of human and animal bodies. This is a painless and non-invasive technique that is useful for showing patterns of blood flow, such as changes due to disease and subtle changes in skin temperature caused by tumors.

Night vision/remote surveillance

The human body radiates strongly at a wavelength around 9.3 (µm, corresponding to a temperature of 37°C (310K), whereas open ground at, say, 15°C (288 K) will radiate at 10 (µm. Thus it is possible to differentiate between body heat and the ambient temperature, particularly at night. Law enforcement and military personnel use FIR cameras mounted on helicopters to follow action on the ground when visible light cannot be used. It is also easy to detect recently used automobiles by the FIR glow from a still-warm engine and hot spots in forest or building fires that are otherwise masked by smoke.

Many remote applications involve detecting small temperature differences. This aids in searching for people lost in landscapes, the sea, or trapped under buildings. The body heat will be detectable at a distance and a hidden body may warm the local environment enough for detection if the camera has sufficient temperature resolution. Work has been done in using FIR to detect clear-air turbulence or volcanic ash as an aid to aircraft safety. Vulcanologists can use FIR to map lava flows and temperature changes on the ground that result from hidden volcanic activity. Of course, lava temperatures are such that it often registers in NIR and even visible light images.

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7 months ago

Will be the light is visible by human eye when Si wafer is heated at 700°C?

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about 3 years ago

Citation:Magnetic field reversal and jet speed variation contributing a reversiable magnetic field call for an acceleration and deceleration in Blackholes:
Galaxies are thought to have formed from matter and energy that originated in the Big Bang, the theoretical explosion that started the expansion of the universe. How supermassive black holes formed at the center of active galaxies is under lively debate. The dominant school of thought is that matter clumped together to form stars during the initial phases of the first galaxies, and some stars were so large and dense that they could not withstand their own gravity and imploded to create black holes. Another school of thought, to which Vestergaard’s research has contributed, is that black holes came into being first and stars formed around them to create galaxies.
Sankaravelayudhan Nandakumar,Oford astrophysicist says that temperature difference in condensed matter physics of space may call for a spring type reaction calling for magneticfield reversal under extreme temperature variations in understanding blackhole dynamics as energy rewinding and future radiation of evolution. in galaxies forming a blackhole. BH from a low-mass galaxy but is below the escape velocity from the Milky Way (MW) galaxy. If central BHs were common in the galactic building blocks that merged to make the MW, then numerous BHs that were kicked out of low-mass galaxies should be freely floating in the MW halo today. We use a large statistical sample of possible merger tree histories for the MW to estimate the expected number of recoiled BH remnants present in the MW halo today. We find that hundreds of BHs should remain bound to the MW halo after leaving their parent low-mass galaxies.
The galaxies around these early supermassive black holes were very young, with intense star formation. Other astronomers have established that the mass of a black hole and the mass of its galaxy are strictly correlated. These data support the theory that early black holes formed first and galaxies formed around them. “But we need a lot more data on this to know for sure if this hypothesis is correct,” says Vestergaard
Understanding this connection between stars in a galaxy and the growth of a black hole, and vice-versa, is the key to understanding how galaxies form throughout cosmic time"If a black hole is spinning it drags space and time with it and that drags the accretion disc, containing the black hole's food, closer towards it. This makes the black hole spin faster, a bit like an ice skater doing a pirouette. A new way to measure supermassive black hole spin in accretion disc-dominated active galaxies Astronomers report the exciting discovery of a new way to measure the mass of super massive black holes in galaxies. By measuring the speed with which carbon monoxide molecules orbit around such black holes, this new research opens the possibility of making these measurements in many more galaxies than ever before. Supermassive black holes are now known to reside at the centres of all galaxies. In the most massive galaxies in the Universe, they are predicted to grow through violent collisions with other galaxies, which trigger the formation of stars and provides food for the black holes to devour. These violent collisions also produce dust within the galaxies therefore embedding the black hole in a dusty envelope for a short period of time as it is being fed. Galaxies with hidden supermassive black holes tend to clump together in space more than the galaxies with exposed, or unobscured, black holes. The Herschel Space Observatory has shown galaxies with the most powerful, active black holes at their cores produce fewer stars than galaxies with less active black holes. The results are the first to demonstrate black holes suppressed galactic star formation when the universe was less than half its current age. Galaxies with massive black holes were found to have high rates of star formation, with some forming stars at a thousand times the rate of our own Milky Way galaxy today. But intriguingly, the Herschel results show that the fastest-growing black holes are in galaxies with very little star formation – once the radiation coming from close to the black hole exceeds a certain power, it tends to "switch off" star formation in its galaxy.
Gas falling toward a black hole spirals inward and piles up into an accretion disk, where it becomes compressed and heated. Near the inner edge of the disk, on the threshold of the black hole's event horizon -- the point of no return -- some of the material becomes accelerated and races outward as a pair of jets flowing in opposite directions along the black hole's spin axis. These jets contain particles moving at nearly the speed of light, which produce gamma rays -- the most extreme form of light -- when they interact.
The idea is that low-mass proto-galaxies with black holes at their center would have merged, creating a gravitational kick that would send the now larger black hole outward fast enough to escape the host dwarf galaxy, but not fast enough to leave the overall galactic halo. Hubblesite.org support: ISSUE=7909 PROJ=13
A new type of combinational hydrodynamics over Bermuda triangle – 00132046
hubblesite.org support: ISSUE=7955 PROJ=13
hubblesite.org support: ISSUE=7972 PROJ=13

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over 3 years ago

Bossonova blackhole formation out of Bessel beams of solar magnetic field during June July sucking sea water from the earth:
The sun's magnetic field extends all the way to the edge of the solar system," explains Opher. "Because the sun spins, its magnetic field becomes twisted and wrinkled, a bit like a ballerina's skirt. Far, far away from the sun, where the Voyagers are now, the folds of the skirt bunch up." When a magnetic field gets severely folded like this, interesting things can happen. Lines of magnetic force criss-cross and "reconnect". (Magnetic reconnection is the same energetic process underlying solar flares.) The crowded folds of the skirt reorganize themselves, sometimes explosively, into foamy magnetic bubbles.
Astronomers have long theorized that larger galaxies could receive a constant influx of cold hydrogen by siphoning it off other less-massive companions. a cold flow, though there is another probable explanation for what has been observed. It's also possible that sometime in the past this galaxy had a close encounter and passed by its neighbors, leaving a ribbon of neutral atomic hydrogen in its wake. If that were the case, however, there should be a small but observable population of stars in the filaments. Further studies will help to confirm the nature of this observation and could shine light on the possible role that cold flows play in the evolution of galaxies. rapid increases in such a star's pulsation frequency, as this may be due to vortex interactions inside the star dealing with cold flow of hydrogen in between as a function of positive and negative rings expansion and contraction dynamics as observed in hydrodynamics theory of Bernoulli. The sun's magnetic field extends all the way to the edge of the solar system," explains Opher. "Because the sun spins, its magnetic field becomes twisted and wrinkled, a bit like a ballerina's skirt. Far, far away from the sun, where the Voyagers are now, the folds of the skirt bunch up." When a magnetic field gets severely folded like this, interesting things can happen. Lines of magnetic force criss-cross and "reconnect". (Magnetic reconnection is the same energetic process underlying solar flares.) The crowded folds of the skirt reorganize themselves, sometimes explosively, into foamy magnetic bubbles

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almost 4 years ago

Tractor Laser bessel beam with invisible clocking dynamics may be used to correct the Tole mere as capacity twister for DNA correction.
Tractor bessel beam with invisible clocking dynamics may be used to correct the Tole mere as capacity twister for DNA correction

Sankaravelayudhan Nandakumar Nandakumar
9:10 AM (0 minutes ago)


to news, j.pendry, Ada, s.w.hawking



Tractor wave in laser biostimulation may be used for genetic corrections using invisible cloaking dynamics combinations.
Three twisted supercapacitors connected in series could be used toto manipulate a invisible cloaking dynamics says Sankaravelyudhan Nandakumr in addition to tractor bessel beam connected genetic ATGU language may be used to correct a genetic defect as observed in the palm print at the meeting point of health line with life line.

An information available from Bossonova twisters may be utilised in all electronic super computers Bossonova twisters can be pushed up or down and this information could be utilise in Aerospace vehicles .The Electron by cross polarisation will act as twister by magnetic or electric field twisting may act as a capacitor says Sankaravelayudhan Nandakumar.They are really optical rogue waves by funnelling at the middle and sometimes at extereme domains for future merger and this could be utilise in our quantum entaglement teleportation in future.Electrons , pinned. as actually when an electron can behave like a sort of wave in the solid, but only an electron can stop an electron by their mutual interaction—their motion is almost freezed out. That is the essence of correlated electrons. The team was motivated by recent theoretical work which suggested that the behaviour of magnetic monopoles in momentum space is closely related to the anomalous Hall effect.This information will be utilised as extreme inductance algorithm as purely magnetic field as purely capacitive as electricfield monopoles as threseems to be shift by the mode of electron scattering such as a spirality as well as that of reflective dipole polaritons separations.digital 0,1 SQUAD applications.

Applying a magnetic field to a magnetic vortex pushes the vortex away from the center of the disk towards the frame. If one then turns the field off abruptly, the vortex moves either clockwise or counter clockwise on a spiral like trajectory back into its initial position in the center of the disk. This special movement is called gyration. In principal, the perpendicular magnetization of the vortex core can point either upwards or downwards, and four different kinds of movement can be found: right- and left rotating magnetic swirls, combined either with an up- or downward directed perpendicular core magnetization.Super conductive materials repel magneticfield when spin oposite directions and attract when spin in the same directions which becomes the beautiful nano digital circuit.At the quantum level, the forces of magnetism and superconductivity exist in an uneasy relationship. Superconducting materials repel a magnetic field, so to create a superconducting current, the magnetic forces must be strong enough to overcome the natural repulsion and penetrate the body of the superconductor. But there's a limit: Apply too much magnetic force, and the superconductor's capability is destroyed
When a magnetic field is applied to a superconducting material, vortices measured in nanometers (1 billionth of a meter) pop up. These vortices, like super-miniature tornadoes, are areas where the magnetic field has overpowered the superconducting field state, essentially suppressing it. Crank up the magnetic field and more vortices appear. At some point, the vortices are so widespread the material loses its superconducting ability altogether.But at critical stoke anstoke resonance on electron pairing at middle cross overs are amplified which seems to be an important finding.Normally the magnetic field is zero at this point ,but sometimes this theory is broken.There seems to be a converging diverging magneticfield that resonante for such cross overs along gliding the waves fluctuated under certain cross over conditions, but when more magnetic energy is added, the fluctuations disappear and the waves resume their repeating, linear patterns.There seems to be linaer to nonlinaer dynamics at the middle point.Hence, our experts consider them as potential candidates for future non volatile magnetic memories.
Bossonova dynamics deals with frequency shifts at microlevel nanotechnology at electron triplets.
Experiments Unraveled Dynamic Core Movements Of Magnetic Swirls:Skew scattering related hopping observed at spin up and spin down cross resonance seems to be a very interesting phenomena - The spin polarization S( theta) n induced by the skew scattering due to the spin-orbit interaction of the scatterer and the spin unpolarized electron beam for polarization
In March 2011, Chinese scientists posited that a specific type of Bessel beam (a special kind of laser that that does not diffract at the centre) is capable of creating a pull-like effect on a given microscopic particle, forcing it towards the beam source.[31][32] The underlining physics is the maximization of forward scattering via interference of the radiation multipoles. They show explicitly that the necessary condition to realize a negative (pulling) optical force is the simultaneous excitation of multipoles in the particle and if the projection of the total photon momentum along the propagation direction is small, attractive optical force is possible.[33] The Chinese scientists suggest this possibility may be implemented for optical micromanipulation.
Applying a magnetic field to a magnetic vortex pushes the vortex away from the center of the disk towards the frame. If one then turns the field off abruptly, the vortex moves either clockwise or counter clockwise on a spiral like trajectory back into its initial position in the center of the disk. This special movement is called gyration. In principal, the perpendicular magnetization of the vortex core can point either upwards or downwards, and four different kinds of movement can be found: right- and left rotating magnetic swirls, combined either with an up- or downward directed perpendicular core magnetization.
Sankaravelyudhan Nandakumar ,Astro geneticist
thomas.steitz@yale.edu
Sankaravelyudhan Nandakumar,Hubble research scholar http://www.hawking.org.uk
info@crick.ac.uk

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over 4 years ago

Rahu and and Kethu emittibg ulra and infra waves are controlling the solar and lunar waves for magneticfied force responsible for genetic mutations.
Varying the intensity of tractor waves: The intensity that varies across a laser beam can be used to push objects sideways, can be controlled by frequency –velocity shifted along visible to invisible hologram theoretically for Bessel beams is that for particles that are sufficiently small, the light scatters off the particle in a forward direction, meaning that the particle itself is pulled backwards towards the source, The size of the tractor beam force depends on parameters such as the electrical and magnetic properties of the particles. Malaria-infected blood cell is more rigid can be stimulated to have scattering thereby an in infection could be removed. Usually, if a laser beam hits a small particle in its path, the light is scattered backwards, which in turn pushes the particle forward. The size of the tractor beam force depends on parameters such as the electrical and magnetic properties of the particles focused two laser beams with a specific frequency into a cavity containing a silicon wafer that acted as a “loss medium.” The“decoherence”, in which the quantum nature of a particle slowly slips away through its interactions with other matter with reference to a change in the frequency and velocity. A particle can now best be defined as the conceptual carrier of a set of variates. . . It is also conceived as the occupant of a state defined by the same state of variates.Ghost detecting hologram and survival after death of humanbeings in another frequency and velocity in indivisible carpet will be investigated soon and will be realistic.
In conclusion, we have demonstrated the broadband radiation process of a fast-moving charged particle going through a perfect invisibility cloak that is equivalent to a curved EM space. Dyadic Green function is derived and used in the calculation. The radiation is explained by comparing the motion of the charge in both physical and virtual spaces. We believe this is the only known mechanism thus far to detect a perfect invisibility cloak or a curved EM space within its working band electromagnetically. With the interactive Bessel tractor laser interaction the force can be amplified and squeezed by noise elimination control.
If an optical cavity is of ultrahigh quality and the mechanical resonator element within is atomic-sized and chilled to nearly absolute zero, the resulting cavity optomechanical system can be used to detect even the slightest mechanical motion. Likewise, even the tiniest fluctuations in the light/vacuum can cause the atoms to wiggle. Changes to the light can provide control over that atomic motion. This not only opens the door to fundamental studies of quantum mechanics that could tell us more about the "classical" world we humans inhabit, but also to quantum information processing, ultrasensitive force sensors, and other technologies that might seem like science fiction today.


Sankaravelayudhan Nandakumar on behalf of Hubble research investigating team working under G.H.Miley ,University of Illinois,USA.
Based on pioneering work by Albert Einstein and Max Planck more than a hundred years ago, it is known that light carries momentum that pushes objects away. In addition, the intensity that varies across a laser beam can be used to push objects sideways, and for example can be used to move cells in biotechnology applications. Pulling an object towards an observer, however, has so far proven to be elusive. In 2011, researchers theoretically demonstrated a mechanism where light movement can be controlled using two opposing light beams -- though technically, this differs from the idea behind a tractor beam. The system which provides a magnetic trap for capturing a gas made up of thousands of ultracold atoms during this December January period.
[1] V. M. Shalaev, Science 322, 384 (2008).
[2] U. Leonhardt and T. G. Philbin, Prog. Opt. 53, 69 (2009).
[3] J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, Science 312,
1780 (2006).
[4] U. Leonhardt, Science 312, 1777 (2006).
[5] S. A. Cummer, B.-I. Popa, D. Schurig, D. R. Smith, and
J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. E 74, 036621 (2006).
[6] H. Chen, B.-I. Wu, B. Zhang, and J. A. Kong, Phys. Rev.
Lett. 99, 063903 (2007).
[7] B. Zhang, H. Chen, B.-I. Wu, Y. Luo, L. Ran, and J. A.
Kong, Phys. Rev. B 76, 121101(R) (2007).
[8] Z. Ruan, M. Yan, C.W. Neff, and M. Qiu, Phys. Rev. Lett.

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over 6 years ago

Citation :z type phase conjugated fast flank and slow flank frequency squeezing could be designed by self adaptive antennas as the matatronic capacitors ,resisters and inductance using negative refractive index metamaterials combined sperromagnetic doping combined to control fiber optic leakage control using metamaterials diffuser casing.
A long, medium-amplitude pulse creates a highly conductive crystalline bit in the memory cell. A short, high-amplitude pulse resets the bit back to an amorphous state, which is a poor conductor.

Phase Change Vs. Flash
Phase change memory eliminates many of the disadvantages of flash memory. Like DRAM and SRAM memory, any byte in phase change memory can be written; whereas, flash requires an entire block to be written. As the flash cell's elements (feature sizes) become smaller, its floating gate architecture becomes more problematic. However, the smaller the phase change memory cell, the denser and faster the phase change chip becomes. In addition, phase change memory handles millions of rewrites compared to hundreds of thousands for flash.
We show experimentally that light can be controlled as it propagates inside and through such disordered materials. Remarkably, the scattering can even improve control. Phase coherence, and therefore the possibility for the light to show interference phenomena, is not lost by elastic scattering processes. By manipulating the incident wavefront, we can force constructive interference at any point in space and thereby focus light inside and through opaque materials.Metamaterial diffuser cone could be that could be differentiated further by using intensive magnetic field that could be quantized as per hall’s effect projected as per a new design postulated by Sankaravelayudhan Nandakumar along with Dr.Perumal ,computer professor of C.I.T.Metamaterial that can be use in fiber optic scattering and improve its efficiency of antennas are a class of antennas which can use metamaterials to increase the performance of rotating mobile material antennas to increase performance of miniaturized (electrically small) antenna
systems. Their purpose, as with any electromagnetic antenna, is to
launch energy into free space. However, these incorporate
metamaterials, which are materials engineered with novel, often
microscopic, structures to produce unusual physical properties.
Antenna designs incorporating metamaterials can step-up the radiated
power of an antenna. The newest metamaterial antennas radiate as much
as 95 percent of an input radio signal. Standard antennas need to be
at least half the size of the signal wavelength to operate
efficiently. At 300 MHz, for instance, an antenna would need to be
half a meter long. In contrast, the experimental antennas are as small
as one-fiftieth of a wavelength, and could have further decreases in
size.
With conventional antennas that are very small compared to the
wavelength, most of the signal is reflected back to the source. The
metamaterial, on the other hand, makes the antenna behave as if it
were much larger than it really is, because the novel antenna
structure stores energy, and re-radiates it.
These antennas could diffuser coned squeezed to improve the signal in
fiber optics. There must be 22.5degree groove squeezing to improve the
system in between band width squeezed to along flanked and short flanked frequency
shifts Sankravelayudhan Nandakumar/CRERC /C.I.T.Metamaterial antennas are a class of antennas which use metamaterials to increase performance of miniaturized (electrically small) antenna systems. Their purpose, as with any any electromagnetic antenna, is to launch energy into free space. However, these incorporate metamaterials, which are materials engineered with novel, often microscopic, structures to produce unusual physical properties. Antenna designs incorporating metamaterials can step-up the radiated power of an antenna. The newest metamaterial antennas radiate as much as 95 percent of an input radio signal. Standard antennas need to be at least half the size of the signal wavelength to operate efficiently. At 300 MHz, for instance, an antenna would need to be half a meter long. In contrast, the experimental antennas are as small as one-fiftieth of a wavelength, and could have further decreases in size.
With conventional antennas that are very small compared to the wavelength, most of the signal is reflected back to the source. The metamaterial, on the other hand, makes the antenna behave as if it were much larger than it really is, because the novel antenna structure stores energy, and re-radiates it.
In opaque white materials, such as paper, paint and biological tissue, light is randomly scattered and loses its direction completely as it diffuses through the system. We show experimentally that light can be controlled as it propagates inside and through such disordered materials. Remarkably, the scattering can even improve control. Phase coherence, and therefore the possibility for the light to show interference phenomena, is not lost by elastic scattering processes. By manipulating the incident wavefront, we can force constructive interference at any point in space and thereby focus light inside and through opaque materials. Wavefront shaping can also drastically change the total transmission through a material, displaying a universal mode of wave transport. We will discuss eigenchannels of the transmission matrix , special wavefronts in which the energy is fully transmitted or fully reflected by a random scattering material, and various methods to elucidate them. Wavefront manipulation and transmission matrix measurements require measurements of complicated field patterns, such measurements are never perfect. The most common imperfections and their effects on the usefulness of the measured data will be analyzed. It is found that light transmission through opaque samples is surprisingly robust to some imperfections and extremely sensitive to others.
The linewidths, central frequencies, and speckle patterns of modes are found by decomposing the transmitted microwave field speckle pattern into a sum of patterns associated with each of the modes of the medium. The strong correlation between modal speckle patterns leads to destructive interference between modes and explains key aspects of steady-state and pulsed transport. An alternate description of wave transport is obtained from the eigenchannels and eigenvalues of the transmission matrix. The maximum transmission eigenvalue is near unity for diffusive waves even in strongly scattering samples. For localized waves, the maximum transmission is nearly equal to the dimensionless conductance, g, which equals the sum of all transmission eigenvalues. The relationship between correlation within the speckle pattern, the modes and eigenchannels of the random medium will be discussed.
The linewidths, central frequencies, and speckle patterns of modes are found by decomposing the transmitted microwave field speckle pattern into a sum of patterns associated with each of the modes of the medium. The strong correlation between modal speckle patterns leads to destructive interference between modes and explains key aspects of steady-state and pulsed transport. An alternate description of wave transport is obtained from the eigenchannels and eigenvalues of the transmission matrix. The maximum transmission eigenvalue is near unity for diffusive waves even in strongly scattering samples. For localized waves, the maximum transmission is nearly equal to the dimensionless conductance, g, which equals the sum of all transmission eigenvalues. The relationship between correlation within the speckle pattern, the modes and eigenchannels of the random medium will be discussed.
In recent years we have introduced and been developing the concept of “metatronics”, i.e. metamaterial-inspired optical nanocircuitry, in which the three fields of “electronics”, “photonics” and “magnetic” can be brought together seamlessly under one umbrella – a paradigm which we call the “Unified Paradigm of Metatronics” using magneticfield squeezing In this paradigm, the optical electric displacement current and the optical magnetic displacement currents exhibit more important roles than the usual drift of the charged particles in conventional circuits for information processing and data storage at the nanoscale using quantized hall’s effect over negative cone shifted regions. In this novel optical circuitry, the nanostructures with specific values of permittivity and permeability may act as the lumped circuit elements such as nanocapacitors, nanoinductors and nanoresistors.
To overcome a fundamental obstacle in using new "metamaterials" for radical advances in optical technologies, including ultrapowerful microscopes and computers and a possible invisibility cloak. The material developed by the researchers is a perforated, fishnet-like film made of repeating layers of silver and aluminum oxide. The researchers etched away a portion of the aluminum oxide between silver layers and replaced it with a "gain medium" formed by a colored dye that can amplify light. Between the two fishnet layers of silver, where the "local field" of light is far stronger than on the surface of the film, causing the gain medium to work 50 times more efficiently. Being able to create materials with an index of refraction that's negative or between one and zero promises a range of potential breakthroughs in a new field called transformation optics. Possible applications include a "planar hyperlens" that could make optical microscopes 10 times more powerful. New types of "light concentrators" are for more efficient solar collectors; computers and consumer electronics that use light instead of electronic signals to process information; and a cloak of invisibility. But a phase conjugated polygon design that may squeezed to control the absorption says Sankravelayudhan Nandakumar A differentiation that could be obtained using hexa,penta combinations and even a squeeze between ellipsoidal to circular may be configured.
These meta materials are effectively invisible because of the way they interact with light. All materials scatter, bounce, absorb, reflect and otherwise alter light rays that strike them. We perceive color, for instance, because different materials and coatings interact with light differently. Transformation media cloaks are special materials that can bend light so much that it actually passes around the object completely. Their "anti-cloak" would be a material with optical properties perfectly matched to those of an invisibility cloak. (In technical jargon, an anti-cloak would be anisotropic negative refractive index material that is impedance matched to the positive refractive index of the invisibility cloak).
It's possible to make type of dike that acts as an invisibility cloak that hides off-shore platforms from water waves. The principle is analogous to the optical invisibility cloaks that are currently a hot area of physics research. Tsunami invisibility cloaks wouldn't make structures disappear from sight, but they could manipulate ocean waves in ways that makes off-shore platforms, and possibly even coastlines and small islands, effectively invisible to tsunamis. Laboratory experiments show that obstacles arranged in fluids in certain patterns can effectively make objects they surround invisible to waves. If it works as well in in scaled-up versions, it could lead to new ways to protect ocean-based platforms and coasts from devastating tsunamis.
This can also be used in new solar panel designs to control over burning.
Sankaravelayudhan Nandakumar ,Project coordinator CRERC / C.I.T. with the encouragement given b the Principal Dr.Azhagesan and Management committee under Chairman Krishna Pillai.
Citation :z type phase conjugated fast flank and slow flank frequency squeezing could be designed by self adaptive antennas as the matatronic capacitors ,resisters and inductance using negative refractive index [Incident: 110528-000018news@nature.com

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over 6 years ago

Astro genetic information on Rahu and Kethu the semi blackholes of the solar system forming an invisible clock during lunar –solar ray standing wave nodes formed during interference as ejected retrograde moving domains thus delaying genetic interactions.
The key feature of the proposed space–time cloak is that its refractive index — the optical property that governs the speed of light within a material — is continually changed, pulling light rays apart in time. When the leading edge of a light wave hits the cloak, the material is manipulated to speed up the light, but when the trailing edge hits, the light is slowed down and delayed. "Between these two parts of the light, there will be a temporal void — a space in which there will be no illuminating light for a brief period of time which act along genetic plane of neuron behaviour.
In fact they act as invisible cloak by delaying the time simulate genes Interrupt without interrupt parallel channel algorithm could be designed says Sankaravelayudhan Nandakumar.The study, by researchers from Imperial College London, involves a new class of materials called metamaterials, which can be artificially engineered to distort light or sound waves. With conventional materials, light typically travels along a straight line, but with metamaterials, scientists can exploit a wealth of additional flexibility to create undetectable blind spots. By deflecting certain parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, an image can be altered or made to look like it has disappeared.
Microprocessor such a LIFO (last in first out), FILO (first in last out) could be designed using invisible calcite materials.Metamterial calcite doped in selenium telluroid will make future delaying microchips. This could be applied while using sperro magnetic inductive doping differentiation.
This would enable researchers to use the event cloak in signal processing and computing. A given data channel could for example be interrupted to perform a priority calculation on a parallel channel during the cloak operation. Afterwards, it would appear to external parts of the circuit as though the original channel had processed information continuously, so as to achieve 'interrupt-without-interrupt'. "Imagine computer data moving down a channel to be like a highway full of cars. You want to have a pedestrian crossing without interrupting the traffic, so you slow down the cars that haven't reached the crossing, while the cars that are at or beyond the crossing get sped up, which creates a gap in the middle for the pedestrian to cross. Meanwhile an observer down the road would only see a steady stream of traffic." One issue that cropped up during their calculations was to speed up the transmitted data without violating the laws of relativity. could be solved this by devising a clever material whose properties varied in both space and time, allowing the cloak to be formed. "This cloak could be used to shield quantum systems from being observed, long enough for calculations”.
Light normally slows down as it enters a material, but it is theoretically possible to manipulate the light rays so that some parts speed up and others slow down," When light is 'opened up' in this way, rather than being curved in space, the leading half of the light speeds up and arrives before an event, whilst the trailing half is made to lag behind and arrives too late.
Calcite is a transparent mineral with birefringent or double-refraction properties, which means that light enters the calcite and splits into two rays of different polarizations travelling at different speeds and in different directions. This demonstration was performed, both in the air and in a container of liquid, by using two triangular pieces of calcite glued together, placed on a mirror. The size of the cloaking area is not limited by the technology available, only by the size of the calcite crystal. Carpet cloaks render covered objects invisible by bending light rays as they enter the cloak and then when they exit it — after they have bounced off the hidden object. The light is deviated in such a way that the rays seem to have been reflected directly from the ground underneath the object — as though the object was not there.
Using electromagnetic fields could be made more cheaply or to work at higher speeds. Metamaterials could also be used to control other types of waves as well as light, such as sound or water waves, opening up potential applications for protecting coastal or offshore installations.
Fibre-optic void
Lasers would be used to control the fibres' refractive indices, opening and closing the temporal void. The fibre-optic cloak could hide events only from observers standing directly ahead of the oncoming light waves, and it could not fully block all reflections from light traveling through the cloak while it is turned on, so some light might bleed out. We could notice the background light getting brighter and dimmer under calcite coatings.
They may be used to steer sea waves during Tsunami.

1)Your call CNSHD816080 regarding New findings on Rahu and Kethu to deal with invisible timer cloak microchip designs-reg has been received Outreach@stsci.edu
2) New findings on Rahu and Kethu to deal with invisible timer cloak microchip designs-reg [Incident: 110515-000007] news@nature.com
Far Infra emissions from Rahu and Kethu affecting the neuron activity
by sankaravelayudhan Nandakumar

[Comment posted 2011-01-28 17:20:53]
Piezo electric squeezing and reflective images on solar-lunar interfering domains out of standing waves In Far Infra regions of semiblackholes Rahu and Kethu
The Cape Renewable Energy research center is interested in some communication domains of space antenna that can be designed in future based on their Astrogenetic observations. Their further research in Astrogenetics seems to be a surprising contribution in future genome technology.
Rahu and Kethu affecting the brain growth and Neuron behaviour:Far infra rays are biogenetic waves ranging from 6 microns to 12 microns that play the role of growing living things. The lunar rays interacted with solar rays exposed to molecular action at 8-10 is called a complex water oscillations. This resonance ionization causes of water into hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions. Hence the neuron behaviour and growth of the brain is decided by the standing wave interaction between Rahu and lunar rays which absorption and delayed activation affects the brains memory cells. The infrared waves of the sun at 3 to 10.5 microns by the lunar standing wave nodes of Rahu and Kethu forming a red reflections and blue reflections requiring a new investigation on neuron behaviour by the Biomedical nobel laureates.
The information of bending of light waves by the interfering under certain conditions was their point of curiosity when some naturally occurring .The expansion and contraction of the interfering spiraled polarity reversals that bend the waves due to stoke and antistoke z dynamics drives a helical force that travel at a distance and freeze at a distance.
Delaying time action: The opposing and attractive solenoids of spiraled of opposite poles in forming a synchronous rotational z axis separations as an oscillator produces timing pulses and as they add pole shifting counter codes as they swing act as time delaying as there will be no output for clockwise motion and pulse output for each revolution of BR - Hall?s output along the circumference of magnetic ring thus formed.
The interfering pattern that form the spiral bending moments of acoustic clockwise and anti clockwise directions of stoke and antistoke configuration requires an investigation in the formation of Rahu and Kethu.
A New Kind of Search for Measuring the Existence of Rahu and Kethu
When famous scientist, astrophysicist Stephen Hawkings was not convinced about the existence of two semi blackholes of the solar system responsible for astro genetic interference it was a worrying problem for Sankara Velayudhan Nandakumar ,the oxford-Cambridge-Hubble-Anna team .Yet the team has the habit of solving the problems tirelessly and even one as difficult as this is at length solved though baffled again and again. Keen minds maintained endeavour to fulfill its prophecy, until one day this will be recognized
Rahu and Kethu Astrogenetic constraints of semi blackhole absorb solar and lunar waves for secondary delayed emission act along circular to ellipsoidal frequency squeezed oscillation to deal with polarity ejection in space for design and development of laser
stimulated antenna is space research history.
This 1995 time-lapse movie taken by the [Hubble Space Telescope] shows sprites dancing (and being blown away) above the polar regions of the Crab pulsar. Each frame represents an interval of several weeks. The sprites are at a distance of about two light-months from the pulsar, and are probably shock fronts caused by an invisible relativistic beam of charged particles. The pulsar itself is the star at bottom center. It looks like an ordinary star in a time exposure, but the optical emission is actually in the
Form of 30Hz flashes.
The practical application of this research work is in communication engineering domains of space that may cover vast distance and may form space antennas to receive and to
Communicative optonics.

The shadow polarized ejections are thought to be simultaneously near the Dirac critical magnetic field and the Schwarzschild gravitational limit. Under these conditions there is not good cause for supposing the still-unknown relationships between the electrical and gravitational fields can be neglected. Until the gravitational and electrical fields are unified it is doubtful that a satisfactory theoretical basis exists for explaining the Rahu and Kethushifted infra asymptotic free semi Blackholes of shadow planets of our solar system.
The most commonly accepted explanation for the energy deficit is that the interference ellipsoidal mirror reflection is powered by the decay of an unusually intense magnetic field rather than by rotational kinetic energy for interfering in genes initiate Astro Genetic constraints:
The standing waves of sun and the moon interfered on intersecting domains and ejection modes atangle evolving two opposite spin retrograde moving domains are called Rahu and Kethu. The wave is due to gravitational field of a distant mass such as Sun and the moon. The mass is in motion, so its field must be retarded.
In order to do that, first transform to a frame of reference that is co-moving with the source at the retarded time. In that frame of reference, and in the weak field limit, the gravitational 4-potential along the future light cone is equivalent to the simple inverse square law relationship of the Newton theory if the particle is moving at a constant velocity. It might be otherwise if the particle is accelerated. In the case of charge, there are no experimental results showing that the acceleration makes a difference, and it will be assumed that the gravitational field behaves similarly. In other words, even though the acceleration makes a vast difference in the final global solution, the retardation equations for charge do not contain any acceleration terms. The potentials are the integral of the fields, causing them to be of lower order. The acceleration terms do not appear until the
Potential solution is differentiated.

Rahu and Kethu as shadow models with increase and decrease of frequencies:
The One reason that oscillatory shadow models have not received much attention is that the resonant frequency must decrease as the radius decreases if gravitational contraction is to supply the energy. But a repeated radius increase and decrease the resonant frequency and increase the resonant frequency correspondingly. The oscillator developed here is probably the only one in existence with that characteristic
However, because it is extraordinarily difficult to observationally distinguish between rotating and oscillating point-like radiators out of ellipsoidal to circular oscillation as distance ejectors, conforming standing waves ejecting polarized domains at a distance out
of a feedback system along the plane of hologram.
The electrical and gravitational fields appear to be coupled in dynamic solutions. One consequence of the coupling is that a dense magnetized sphere has a specific resonant frequency that decreases to about 0.4 Hz as the radius shrinks to the Schwarzschild radius some times from ellipsoidal structure ejects domains at a distance confirming unity to polarity theory. The magnetic force between the poles of a magnetized sphere is attractive. The force at the equator is repulsive, so the magnetic field causes an equatorial bulge. Centrifugal force also causes an equatorial bulge, thus separated at distance. The energetically preferred orientation of the magnetic field is therefore parallel to the spin axis Planck?s constant is one of the quantities in the equation for the resonant frequency
. The limiting frequency is independent of the mass of the object and all other parameters. It is a constant of physics. In being nonlinearly coupled to the gravitational potential energy of the source, gravitational contraction can supply energy to the resonant
causing it to break into oscillations.
The standing waves of sun and the moon interfered :
The standing waves of sun and the moon interfered on intersecting domains and ejection modes atangle evolving two opposite spin retrograde moving domains are called Rahu and Kethu.The One reason that oscillatory shadow models have not received much attention is that the resonant frequency must decrease as the radius decreases if gravitational contraction is to supply the energy. But a repeated radius increase and decrease the resonant frequency and increase the resonant frequency correspondingly. The oscillator developed here is probably the only one in existence with that characteristic.
Quantum chromo dynamic split-up of dark and reddish regions of spirality:
The basic idea of this paper is to prove that there are gluons spin 1 particles from dark blue shifted (Rahu) and red shifted (Kethu) out of neutral sheet between Sun and the Moon to deal with Quasi natured zero charge from which as R value increases to a distance. They obey Quantum chromo dynamics or QCD for short and as a consequence of the renormalization by effective coupling constant by na￯ve scaling depends on the energy at which it is measured and decreases to zero at very high energies as Asymptotic freedom. Theshifted Blackholes of Solar system is that moves counter clockwise in direction counter to that of infra domain movement which absorbs solar and lunar rays and emit secondary emission after a time delay e-aT a very important phenomenon for which no investigation has been carried though they take very important part in Astro genetics.
Rahu and Kethu as Like and unlike pole opposing and attractive timers:
They are ring type magnets positioned at 180 degree phase difference as pi shifted domains whose direction is reversed ,the time takes the south pole to
pass through north pole in opposing directions T1 is
traveling in same directions T2.Again like pole time T1L is increased
than unlike pole T2U directions. Clockwise both directions increase the time in
counter clockwise decreases the time. Or the same pole shift along
clockwise may have differentiable timer clock is more than the
anticlockwise rotational unlike pole shifts
They are ring type
magnets positioned at 180 degree phase difference as pi shifted
domains whose direction is reversed ,the time takes the south pole to
pass through north pole in opposing directions T1 is
traveling in same directions T2.Again like pole time T1L is increased
than unlike pole T2U directions. Clockwise and anticlockwise directions
with like pole passing through and in both increases the time and in
counter clockwise decreases the time. Or the same pole shift along
clockwise directions with unlike pole shift shortens the time that
works as differentiable timer clock is more than the anticlockwise
rotational like pole shifts. Thus the pulses are added up ,but
sometimes subtracts the pulses as the case may be. This information
will be applied in pulses width digital designs of delaying timers
using Hall's quantization techniques of windmill hydraulic operation
system of Windmill hydraulic operating system zero and 90 degree
angles. Also this will be applied in new quantum teleportation
dynamical sytems
Reviewing Aharnov Berry phase:
While reviewing Aharnove �Berry phase of circularly polarization and real
and imaginary part index of reflections some clue on imaginary reflective
media domains were observed as ejections. The Berry phase for an electron in
a one-dimensional box rotated around a magnetic flux line has contributions
from the geometry and the magnetic flux, which gives an Aharonov-Bohm
effect. For a circular box enclosing the magnetic flux, the Berry phase
depends on the boundary conditions. The helical structure is optically
active media act as natural micro-solenoids of electromagnetic waves
producing longitudinal magnetic waves in the direction of axis of helices
and magnetic field is quantized and Berry phase is formulated by the right
and left circularly polarized waves and is proportional to the interactive
magnetic.
Chaning the chemical bondingwith femto laser:
As is now reported in Science, a team of scientists from the
Netherlands (FOM Institute for Atomic and Molecular Physics) and
Germany (Max-Planck-Institute of Quantum Optics, Garching and the
Universities of Bielefeld and Hamburg) has demonstrated that the
detailed shape of the electric field inside a short light pulse can be
used to control the motion of electrons involved in chemical bonding
and to change the outcome of a simple chemical reaction. This result ?
obtained on the dissociation of D2 molecules ? may open a new way of
steering intra-molecular electron transfer processes like those in DNA
base-pairs.
Blue and red shifted emission of Rahu and Kethu for control of DNA
Control of the electron position in a D2+ molecule: under the
influence of a precisely controlled force exerted by an ultrashort,
intense phase-controlled laser (red line), the electron (blue cloud)
oscillates between the two D+ ions (magenta curve). When the molecule
falls apart the electron stays with one of the two D+ ions. The
emission direction of the atom that the electron stays with can be
chosen with the phase j of the laser. Image: Max Planck Institute for
Quantum Optics.In order to achieve control over single electrons in a
bunch, ultrashort light pulses of a few femtoseconds duration are
needed to use light for controlling single, negatively charged
elementary particles in a bunch of electrons. The scientists achieved
a major milestone that they aimed for within the excellence cluster
?Munich Center for Advanced Photonics.
It is managed to control and monitor the outer electrons from the
valence shell of the complex molecule carbon monoxide (CO) utilizing
the electric field waveform of laser pulses. Carbon monoxide has 14
electrons. With increasing number of electrons in the molecule the
control over single electrons becomes difficult as their states
Control of the electron position in a D2+ molecule: under the
influence of a precisely controlled force exerted by an ultrashort,
intense phase-controlled laser (red line), the electron (blue cloud)
oscillates between the two D+ ions (magenta curve). When the molecule
falls apart the electron stays with one of the two D+ ions. The
emission direction of the atom that the electron stays with can be
chosen with the phase j of the laser lie energetically very close to
each other. Electrons are extremely fast moving particles. In atoms
and molecules they move on attosecond timescales. An attosecond is
only a billionth of a billionth of a second. With light pulses that
last only a few femtoseconds down to attoseconds it is possible to
achieve control over these particles and to interact with them on the
timescale of their motion. These short light pulses exhibit strong
electric and magnetic fields influencing the charged particles. A
femtosecond lasts 1000 times longer than an attosecond. In molecules
with only a single electron, such as the deuterium molecular ion,
their control with such light pulses is relatively easy.
Helium crystal lased biostimulation codes for genetic corrections
along with stem cell injections based on the palm print formation
immediately after zygotic rendezvou-reg
Conclusion:Rahu and Kethu can be evaluated out of pole shifting magnetic ring formations out of piezoelectric stoke anti-stoke repetitions that form bending magnetic fields of hall?s burrows that act as a delaying timer.
1 Measuring the existence of Rahu and Kethu-reg [Incident: 091002-000047] news@nature.com
2) Your call CNSHD760448 regarding Measuring the existence of Rahu and Kethu-reg has been received Outreach@stsci.edu

3)Further research by Author S.Nandakumar .sub:Rahu-kethu-1 code:Black mole
CF 10123 Lee
Re submitted BD 10456 Smith
EA 2345 Jones
Refree AB 10234 Brown
BG 4321 Johnson. APS JOURNAL
4)Your call CNSHD751957 regarding Ellipsoidal out standing interference space domains may be used as spacial communication antennas of space in optonics-reg has been received Outreach@stsci.edu?
5)Frequency squeezing space shifting ellipsoidal to circular ,parabolic ,square ,pentagonal phase shifting standing wave interferenc domains antennas using lasers -reg [Incident:
090613-000055 by S.Nandakumar ,astrogeneticist, Anna University astrogeneticist with oxford -cambridge hubble collaboration
6) Further research by Author S.Nandakumar .sub:Rahu-kethu-1 code:Black mole
CF 10123 Lee
Re submitted BD 10456 Smith
EA 2345 Jones
Refree AB 10234 Brown
BG 4321 Johnson. APS JOURNAL
Your call CNSHD751957 regarding Ellipsoidal out standing interference space domains may be used as spacial communication antennas of space in optonics-reg has been received Outreach@stsci.edu1)Your call CNSHD760135 regarding Solar and Lunar as standing waves cross overs on opposing quadarpole ejections forming semiblackholes Rahu and Kethu Outreach@stsci.edu
Your call CNSHD807292 regarding Piezo electric squeezing on solar-lunar interfering domains out of standing waves:-reg has been received Outreach@stsci.edu
Piezo electric squeezing on solar-lunar interfering domains out of standing waves in forming shadow planets-reg [Incident: 110127-000028news@nature.com
Your call CNSHD807499 regarding Re: The implication of Rahu and Kethu as astrogenetic interference was at last revealed in Far infra regions:-reg has been received Outreach@stsci.edu
The implication of Rahu and Kethu as astrogenetic interference was at last revealed in Far infra regions:-reg [Incident: 110128-000530] news@nature.com
The implication of Rahu and Kethu as astrogenetic interference was at last revealed in Far infra regions:-reg [Incident: 110128-000531 news@nature.com



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over 6 years ago

Astro genetic information on Rahu and Kethu the semi blackholes of the solar system forming an invisible clock during lunar –solar ray standing wave nodes formed during interference as ejected retrograde moving domains thus delaying genetic interactions.
The key feature of the proposed space–time cloak is that its refractive index — the optical property that governs the speed of light within a material — is continually changed, pulling light rays apart in time. When the leading edge of a light wave hits the cloak, the material is manipulated to speed up the light, but when the trailing edge hits, the light is slowed down and delayed. "Between these two parts of the light, there will be a temporal void — a space in which there will be no illuminating light for a brief period of time which act along genetic plane of neuron behaviour.
In fact they act as invisible cloak by delaying the time simulate genes Interrupt without interrupt parallel channel algorithm could be designed says Sankaravelayudhan Nandakumar.The study, by researchers from Imperial College London, involves a new class of materials called metamaterials, which can be artificially engineered to distort light or sound waves. With conventional materials, light typically travels along a straight line, but with metamaterials, scientists can exploit a wealth of additional flexibility to create undetectable blind spots. By deflecting certain parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, an image can be altered or made to look like it has disappeared.
Microprocessor such a LIFO (last in first out), FILO (first in last out) could be designed using invisible calcite materials.Metamterial calcite doped in selenium telluroid will make future delaying microchips. This could be applied while using sperro magnetic inductive doping differentiation.
This would enable researchers to use the event cloak in signal processing and computing. A given data channel could for example be interrupted to perform a priority calculation on a parallel channel during the cloak operation. Afterwards, it would appear to external parts of the circuit as though the original channel had processed information continuously, so as to achieve 'interrupt-without-interrupt'. "Imagine computer data moving down a channel to be like a highway full of cars. You want to have a pedestrian crossing without interrupting the traffic, so you slow down the cars that haven't reached the crossing, while the cars that are at or beyond the crossing get sped up, which creates a gap in the middle for the pedestrian to cross. Meanwhile an observer down the road would only see a steady stream of traffic." One issue that cropped up during their calculations was to speed up the transmitted data without violating the laws of relativity. could be solved this by devising a clever material whose properties varied in both space and time, allowing the cloak to be formed. "This cloak could be used to shield quantum systems from being observed, long enough for calculations”.
Light normally slows down as it enters a material, but it is theoretically possible to manipulate the light rays so that some parts speed up and others slow down," When light is 'opened up' in this way, rather than being curved in space, the leading half of the light speeds up and arrives before an event, whilst the trailing half is made to lag behind and arrives too late.
Calcite is a transparent mineral with birefringent or double-refraction properties, which means that light enters the calcite and splits into two rays of different polarizations travelling at different speeds and in different directions. This demonstration was performed, both in the air and in a container of liquid, by using two triangular pieces of calcite glued together, placed on a mirror. The size of the cloaking area is not limited by the technology available, only by the size of the calcite crystal. Carpet cloaks render covered objects invisible by bending light rays as they enter the cloak and then when they exit it — after they have bounced off the hidden object. The light is deviated in such a way that the rays seem to have been reflected directly from the ground underneath the object — as though the object was not there.
Using electromagnetic fields could be made more cheaply or to work at higher speeds. Metamaterials could also be used to control other types of waves as well as light, such as sound or water waves, opening up potential applications for protecting coastal or offshore installations.
Fibre-optic void
Lasers would be used to control the fibres' refractive indices, opening and closing the temporal void. The fibre-optic cloak could hide events only from observers standing directly ahead of the oncoming light waves, and it could not fully block all reflections from light traveling through the cloak while it is turned on, so some light might bleed out. We could notice the background light getting brighter and dimmer under calcite coatings.
They may be used to steer sea waves during Tsunami.

1)Your call CNSHD816080 regarding New findings on Rahu and Kethu to deal with invisible timer cloak microchip designs-reg has been received Outreach@stsci.edu
2) New findings on Rahu and Kethu to deal with invisible timer cloak microchip designs-reg [Incident: 110515-000007] news@nature.com
Far Infra emissions from Rahu and Kethu affecting the neuron activity
by sankaravelayudhan Nandakumar

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over 6 years ago

hi everyone this is good, but i need u plz to answer my question plz and quickly if u can. The question is:

Why using Visible infrared instead of other lights in blood leak detector????? what it is characteristics and make it better than other lights?????

Plz answer me quickly iam in senior course . Thnx plz quickly :).

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over 6 years ago

Piezo electric squeezing and reflective images on solar-lunar interfering domains out of standing waves In Far Infra regions of semi-blackholes Rahu and Kethu
The Cape Renewable Energy research center is interested in some communication domains of space antenna that can be designed in future based on their Astrogenetic observations.
The information of bending of light waves by the interfering under certain conditions was their point of curiosity when some naturally occurring .The expansion and contraction of the interfering spiraled polarity reversals that bend the waves due to stoke and antistoke z dynamics drives a helical force that travel at a distance and freeze at a distance.
Delaying time action: The opposing and attractive solenoids of spiraled of opposite poles in forming a synchronous rotational z axis separations as an oscillator produces timing pulses and as they add pole shifting counter codes as they swing act as time delaying as there will be no output for clockwise motion and pulse output for each revolution of BR - Hall’s output along the circumference of magnetic ring thus formed.
The interfering pattern that form the spiral bending moments of acoustic clockwise and anti clockwise directions of stoke and antistoke configuration requires an investigation in the formation of Rahu and Kethu.
A New Kind of Search for Measuring the Existence of Rahu and Kethu
When famous scientist, astrophysicist Stephen Hawkings was not convinced about the existence of two semi blackholes of the solar system responsible for astro genetic interference it was a worrying problem for Sankara Velayudhan Nandakumar ,the oxford-Cambridge-Hubble-Anna team .Yet the team has the habit of solving the problems tirelessly and even one as difficult as this is at length solved though baffled again and again. Keen minds maintained endeavour to fulfill its prophecy, until one day this will be recognized
Rahu and Kethu Astrogenetic constraints of semi blackhole absorb solar and lunar waves for secondary delayed emission act along circular to ellipsoidal frequency squeezed oscillation to deal with polarity ejection in space for design and development of laser
stimulated antenna is space research history.
This 1995 time-lapse movie taken by the [Hubble Space Telescope] shows sprites dancing (and being blown away) above the polar regions of the Crab pulsar. Each frame represents an interval of several weeks. The sprites are at a distance of about two light-months from the pulsar, and are probably shock fronts caused by an invisible relativistic beam of charged particles. The pulsar itself is the star at bottom center. It looks like an ordinary star in a time exposure, but the optical emission is actually in the
Form of 30Hz flashes.
The practical application of this research work is in communication engineering domains of space that may cover vast distance and may form space antennas to receive and to
Communicative optonics.

The shadow polarized ejections are thought to be simultaneously near the Dirac critical magnetic field and the Schwarzschild gravitational limit. Under these conditions there is not good cause for supposing the still-unknown relationships between the electrical and gravitational fields can be neglected. Until the gravitational and electrical fields are unified it is doubtful that a satisfactory theoretical basis exists shifted infra asymptotic free semifor explaining the Rahu and Kethu Blackholes of shadow planets of our solar system.
The most commonly accepted explanation for the energy deficit is that the interference ellipsoidal mirror reflection is powered by the decay of an unusually intense magnetic field rather than by rotational kinetic energy for interfering in genes initiate Astro Genetic constraints:
The standing waves of sun and the moon interfered on intersecting angle evolving two opposite spindomains and ejection modes at retrograde moving domains are called Rahu and Kethu. The wave is due to gravitational field of a distant mass such as Sun and the moon. The mass is in motion, so its field must be retarded.
In order to do that, first transform to a frame of reference that is co-moving with the source at the retarded time. In that frame of reference, and in the weak field limit, the gravitational 4-potential along the future light cone is equivalent to the simple inverse square law relationship of the Newton theory if the particle is moving at a constant velocity. It might be otherwise if the particle is accelerated. In the case of charge, there are no experimental results showing that the acceleration makes a difference, and it will be assumed that the gravitational field behaves similarly. In other words, even though the acceleration makes a vast difference in the final global solution, the retardation equations for charge do not contain any acceleration terms. The potentials are the integral of the fields, causing them to be of lower order. The acceleration terms do not appear until the
Potential solution is differentiated.

Rahu and Kethu as shadow models with increase and decrease of frequencies:
The One reason that oscillatory shadow models have not received much attention is that the resonant frequency must decrease as the radius decreases if gravitational contraction is to supply the energy. But a repeated radius increase and decrease the resonant frequency and increase the resonant frequency correspondingly. The oscillator developed here is probably the only one in existence with that characteristic
However, because it is extraordinarily difficult to observationally distinguish between rotating and oscillating point-like radiators out of ellipsoidal to circular oscillation as distance ejectors, conforming standing waves ejecting polarized domains at a distance out
of a feedback system along the plane of hologram.
The electrical and gravitational fields appear to be coupled in dynamic solutions. One consequence of the coupling is that a dense magnetized sphere has a specific resonant frequency that decreases to about 0.4 Hz as the radius shrinks to the Schwarzschild radius some times from ellipsoidal structure ejects domains at a distance confirming unity to polarity theory. The magnetic force between the poles of a magnetized sphere is attractive. The force at the equator is repulsive, so the magnetic field causes an equatorial bulge. Centrifugal force also causes an equatorial bulge, thus separated at distance. The energetically preferred orientation of the magnetic field is therefore parallel to the spin axis Planck’s constant is one of the quantities in the equation for the resonant frequency
. The limiting frequency is independent of the mass of the object and all other parameters. It is a constant of physics. In being nonlinearly coupled to the gravitational potential energy of the source, gravitational contraction can supply energy to the resonant
causing it to break into oscillations.
The standing waves of sun and the moon interfered :
The standing waves of sun and the moon interfered on intersecting angle evolving two opposite spindomains and ejection modes at retrograde moving domains are called Rahu and Kethu.The One reason that oscillatory shadow models have not received much attention is that the resonant frequency must decrease as the radius decreases if gravitational contraction is to supply the energy. But a repeated radius increase and decrease the resonant frequency and increase the resonant frequency correspondingly. The oscillator developed here is probably the only one in existence with that characteristic.
Quantum chromo dynamic split-up of dark and reddish regions of spirality:
The basic idea of this paper is to prove that there are gluons spin 1 particles from dark blue shifted (Rahu) and red shifted (Kethu) out of neutral sheet between Sun and the Moon to deal with Quasi natured zero charge from which as R value increases to a distance. They obey Quantum chromo dynamics or QCD for short and as a consequence of the renormalization by effective coupling constant by naïve scaling depends on the energy at which it is measured and decreases to zero at very shifted Blackholes of Solarhigh energies as Asymptotic freedom. The system is that moves counter clockwise in direction counter to that of infra domain movement which absorbs solar and lunar rays and emit secondary emission after a time delay e-aT a very important phenomenon for which no investigation has been carried though they take very important part in Astro genetics.
Rahu and Kethu as Like and unlike pole opposing and attractive timers:
They are ring type magnets positioned at 180 degree phase difference as pi shifted domains whose direction is reversed ,the time takes the south pole to
pass through north pole in opposing directions T1 is
traveling in same directions T2.Again like pole time T1L is increased
than unlike pole T2U directions. Clockwise both directions increase the time in
counter clockwise decreases the time. Or the same pole shift along
clockwise may have differentiable timer clock is more than the
anticlockwise rotational unlike pole shifts
They are ring type
magnets positioned at 180 degree phase difference as pi shifted
domains whose direction is reversed ,the time takes the south pole to
pass through north pole in opposing directions T1 is
traveling in same directions T2.Again like pole time T1L is increased
than unlike pole T2U directions. Clockwise and anticlockwise directions
with like pole passing through and in both increases the time and in
counter clockwise decreases the time. Or the same pole shift along
clockwise directions with unlike pole shift shortens the time that
works as differentiable timer clock is more than the anticlockwise
rotational like pole shifts. Thus the pulses are added up ,but
sometimes subtracts the pulses as the case may be. This information
will be applied in pulses width digital designs of delaying timers
using Hall's quantization techniques of windmill hydraulic operation
system of Windmill hydraulic operating system zero and 90 degree
angles. Also this will be applied in new quantum teleportation
dynamical sytems
Reviewing Aharnov Berry phase:
While reviewing Aharnove �Berry phase of circularly polarization and real
and imaginary part index of reflections some clue on imaginary reflective
media domains were observed as ejections. The Berry phase for an electron in
a one-dimensional box rotated around a magnetic flux line has contributions
from the geometry and the magnetic flux, which gives an Aharonov-Bohm
effect. For a circular box enclosing the magnetic flux, the Berry phase
depends on the boundary conditions. The helical structure is optically
active media act as natural micro-solenoids of electromagnetic waves
producing longitudinal magnetic waves in the direction of axis of helices
and magnetic field is quantized and Berry phase is formulated by the right
and left circularly polarized waves and is proportional to the interactive
magnetic.
Chaning the chemical bondingwith femto laser:
As is now reported in Science, a team of scientists from the
Netherlands (FOM Institute for Atomic and Molecular Physics) and
Germany (Max-Planck-Institute of Quantum Optics, Garching and the
Universities of Bielefeld and Hamburg) has demonstrated that the
detailed shape of the electric field inside a short light pulse can be
used to control the motion of electrons involved in chemical bonding
and to change the outcome of a simple chemical reaction. This result –
obtained on the dissociation of D2 molecules – may open a new way of
steering intra-molecular electron transfer processes like those in DNA
base-pairs.
Blue and red shifted emission of Rahu and Kethu for control of DNA
Control of the electron position in a D2+ molecule: under the
influence of a precisely controlled force exerted by an ultrashort,
intense phase-controlled laser (red line), the electron (blue cloud)
oscillates between the two D+ ions (magenta curve). When the molecule
falls apart the electron stays with one of the two D+ ions. The
emission direction of the atom that the electron stays with can be
chosen with the phase j of the laser. Image: Max Planck Institute for
Quantum Optics.In order to achieve control over single electrons in a
bunch, ultrashort light pulses of a few femtoseconds duration are
needed to use light for controlling single, negatively charged
elementary particles in a bunch of electrons. The scientists achieved
a major milestone that they aimed for within the excellence cluster
“Munich Center for Advanced Photonics.
It is managed to control and monitor the outer electrons from the
valence shell of the complex molecule carbon monoxide (CO) utilizing
the electric field waveform of laser pulses. Carbon monoxide has 14
electrons. With increasing number of electrons in the molecule the
control over single electrons becomes difficult as their states
Control of the electron position in a D2+ molecule: under the
influence of a precisely controlled force exerted by an ultrashort,
intense phase-controlled laser (red line), the electron (blue cloud)
oscillates between the two D+ ions (magenta curve). When the molecule
falls apart the electron stays with one of the two D+ ions. The
emission direction of the atom that the electron stays with can be
chosen with the phase j of the laser lie energetically very close to
each other. Electrons are extremely fast moving particles. In atoms
and molecules they move on attosecond timescales. An attosecond is
only a billionth of a billionth of a second. With light pulses that
last only a few femtoseconds down to attoseconds it is possible to
achieve control over these particles and to interact with them on the
timescale of their motion. These short light pulses exhibit strong
electric and magnetic fields influencing the charged particles. A
femtosecond lasts 1000 times longer than an attosecond. In molecules
with only a single electron, such as the deuterium molecular ion,
their control with such light pulses is relatively easy.
Helium crystal lased biostimulation codes for genetic corrections
along with stem cell injections based on the palm print formation
immediately after zygotic rendezvou-reg
Conclusion:Rahu and Kethu can be evaluated out of pole shifting magnetic ring formations out of piezoelectric stoke anti-stoke repetitions that form bending magnetic fields of hall’s burrows that act as a delaying timer.
1 Measuring the existence of Rahu and Kethu-reg [Incident: 091002-000047] news@nature.com
2) Your call CNSHD760448 regarding Measuring the existence of Rahu and Kethu-reg has been received Outreach@stsci.edu

3)Further research by Author S.Nandakumar .sub:Rahu-kethu-1 code:Black mole
CF 10123 Lee
Re submitted BD 10456 Smith
EA 2345 Jones
Refree AB 10234 Brown
BG 4321 Johnson. APS JOURNAL
4)Your call CNSHD751957 regarding Ellipsoidal out standing interference space domains may be used as spacial communication antennas of space in optonics-reg has been received Outreach@stsci.edu”
5)Frequency squeezing space shifting ellipsoidal to circular ,parabolic ,square ,pentagonal phase shifting standing wave interferenc domains antennas using lasers -reg [Incident:
090613-000055 by S.Nandakumar ,astrogeneticist, Anna University astrogeneticist with oxford -cambridge hubble collaboration
6) Further research by Author S.Nandakumar .sub:Rahu-kethu-1 code:Black mole
CF 10123 Lee
Re submitted BD 10456 Smith
EA 2345 Jones
Refree AB 10234 Brown
BG 4321 Johnson. APS JOURNAL
Your call CNSHD751957 regarding Ellipsoidal out standing interference space domains may be used as spacial communication antennas of space in optonics-reg has been received Outreach@stsci.edu1)Your call CNSHD760135 regarding Solar and Lunar as standing waves cross overs on opposing quadarpole ejections forming semiblackholes Rahu and Kethu Outreach@stsci.edu
Your call CNSHD807292 regarding Piezo electric squeezing on solar-lunar interfering domains out of standing waves:-reg has been received Outreach@stsci.edu
Piezo electric squeezing on solar-lunar interfering domains out of standing waves in forming shadow planets-reg [Incident: 110127-000028news@nature.com