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Calvary

cross jesus simon examples

Mount Calvary was the location of the *Crucifixion of Jesus. Formerly outside the city walls of Jerusalem, it was the site for executions of criminals. Known in Aramaic as Golgotha (“the place of the skull”), it was translated into “Calvary” from Latin calvaria (“skull”). *John’s Gospel (19: 17) states that Jesus, sentenced to be crucified, carried the *cross to Golgotha; the other Gospels tell that Simon of Cyrene carried the cross for a portion of the journey. *Luke (23:27) mentions that a great crowd of people and weeping women followed the procession. The bearing of the cross to Calvary is thus represented in several different ways in early Christian and medieval art. Early examples (on sarcophagi and ivories) depict either Jesus or Simon carrying the cross; guards and onlookers may be present, and the episode of *Pontius Pilate washing his hands may be included within the scene. Simon and Jesus may be shown carrying the cross together, or the cross itself may be omitted and Jesus will be shown with his hands bound with rope, led by soldiers. Simon, bearing the cross, may also appear following or preceding this group. By the twelfth century, with some exceptions, the image most often shows Jesus bearing the Page 43  cross surrounded by an increasing number of figures—among whom may be identified the Virgin *Mary and various other holy women (e.g., Saint *Veronica, found in examples especially from the thirteenth century onward). Narrative details not found in the Gospels derive from apocryphal descriptions and later medieval reflective and mystical texts such as the * Meditationes vitae Christi . The *Instruments of the Passion, carried by various members of the crowd, are often depicted in late medieval examples, which tend also to emphasize the suffering of *Christ, grief of the women, and violence of the crowd. In late examples, Jesus may be shown falling to his knees and tormented by the malevolent bystanders.
Calvin, John (1509–1564) - BIOGRAPHY, CRITICAL RECEPTION [next] [back] Calvé (real name, Calvet de Roquer), (Rosa-Noémie) Emma

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