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Immaculate Conception

mary opposed especially doctrine

The doctrine of the Immaculate Conception holds that the Virgin *Mary, although conceived in a normal way by her parents *Anne and *Joachim, was born without stain or effects of original sin. This idea was discussed by early Christian writers and became especially controversial during the Middle Ages, when it was opposed by theologians such as Saints *Bernard of Clairvaux and *Thomas Aquinas, but affirmed by others, such as Duns Scotus. The belief was generally supported by the Franciscans and opposed by the Dominicans, until the Council of Basle (1439) when the doctrine was officially sanctioned. The sinless state of Mary as Mother of God and her role as the redemptive “New Eve,” may be symbolized in medieval art in various ways, for example, in the *Meeting at the Golden Gate of her parents and her *Assumption to and *Coronation in *Heaven. Standardized iconography for the image of the Immaculate Conception, based on the Woman Clothed with the Sun from the *Apocalypse, developed in the Renaissance and especially Baroque periods.
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