Other Free Encyclopedias » Online Encyclopedia » Encyclopedia - Featured Articles » Contributed Topics from A-E

Affirmative Action - PROS AND CONS, THE ORIGINS OF, LEGAL TREATMENT OF, POLITICAL AND SOCIAL DEBATES, THE FUTURE

discrimination racial race scrutiny

Affirmative action means taking positive steps to improve the material status of the less advantaged in society, usually through the provision of educational or economic benefits. In the United States, affirmative action usually takes place through the provision of government or private benefits in education, employment, or contracting. Affirmative action is controversial, particularly when the beneficiaries are women or people of color.

Affirmative action can take many forms—ranging from rigid quotas to targeted outreach meant to encourage minorities to apply—but all have in common the effort to increase the number of minorities in educational institutions, in the workplace, or in receiving contracts. Affirmative action programs differ in terms of how much weight they give to race as a factor in decision making and the extent to which they require results. For example, rigid quotas or set-asides that mandate that a certain percentage of beneficiaries be members of designated racial groups are very different from programs that use race as one factor among many in decision making. Likewise, there is a significant difference between the government’s setting targets or goals and the government’s mandating that there be specific results.

PROS AND CONS

Several justifications can be offered for affirmative action. Because, by definition, affirmative action involves working to assist society’s less-advantaged members, one reason to promote affirmative action policies is to remedy the effects of past discrimination. This remedial justification of affirmative action recognizes that wrongs have been committed in the past and acknowledges a moral obligation to set things right. Opponents of affirmative action do not contest the moral obligation to remediate past harm. Their objection to remedial policies is frequently centered on the claim that specific affirmative action policies will not help those who have in fact been harmed, but will sweep too broadly and provide benefits to those who do not deserve them. Sometimes opponents of affirmative action argue that the harm to be remediated did not occur, or if it did occur—as in the case of racial discrimination in the United States—the harm has dissipated so that remedial measures are no longer necessary.

Another important justification for affirmative action is the so-called diversity rationale. Advocates for the diversity rationale argue that society as a whole benefits when affirmative action is used to maintain diverse schools, workplaces, and businesses. According to this argument, people from different backgrounds, cultures, and genders bring complementary skills that collectively enrich the places where they work and learn. Some affirmative action opponents reject the diversity argument outright. They claim there is no inherent social benefit to diverse work-places or schools. Others accept the assertion that diversity is a social benefit, but express doubt over whether racial or gender characteristics provide a meaningful basis on which to assess diversity’s social benefit.

This latter claim is related to what is arguably the most important objection to affirmative action. Opponents of affirmative action argue that it is wrong to allocate social benefits on the basis of immutable characteristics, such as race or gender. They claim that affirmative action is itself a form of racial/gender discrimination that discriminates against white males, contrary to historic forms of discrimination that were targeted against women and people of color. Thus the charge is often made that affirmative action is in fact “reverse discrimination.” Supporters of affirmative action argue that the claim that affirmative action is discriminatory is overly formalistic. Although admitting that affirmative action does discriminate in a technical sense, supporters claim affirmative action is morally justified because its goal is not to harm the white majority, but to provide social justice for those who have been deprived of opportunity in the past.

THE ORIGINS OF AFFIRMATIVE ACTION

The concept of affirmative action can be traced to efforts after the Civil War to remedy the devastating effects of slavery. Government efforts, such as the creation of the Freeman’s Bureau, unquestionably were forms of affirmative action in that they provided benefits to racial minorities. The term affirmative action apparently was first used in the National Labor Relations Act (29 U.S.C. §§151–169), adopted in 1935. The context was not race, but rather the affirmative duty of employers to remedy discrimination against union members and union organizers. Employers found to have engaged in such discrimination were required to remedy this by taking steps to ensure that the employers were in the same position in which they would have been had there been no discrimination.

The term apparently was first used in the race context by President John F. Kennedy. In 1961, three years prior to the enactment of the first major post-Reconstruction civil rights law, President Kennedy issued an executive order preventing race discrimination by federal agencies. Executive Order 10,925, promulgated in 1961, mandated “affirmative action to ensure that the applicants are employed, and that employees are treated during employment without regard to race, color, creed, or national origin.” President Lyndon Johnson extended this policy, though without using the phase affirmative action, when he issued Executive Order 11,246, demanding that all executive departments and agencies “shall establish and maintain a positive program of equal employment opportunity.”

The 1964 Civil Rights Act (42 U.S.C. §2000[e]) implemented this prohibition of race discrimination by statute. Title II of the 1964 act prohibited places of public accommodation, such as restaurants or hotels, from discriminating based on race. Title VII prohibited employers from discriminating on the basis of race, gender, or religion. The act did not speak directly to affirmative action, but it did prohibit discrimination and open the door to claims that affirmative action was essential to meet the statutory prohibition against discrimination. It was quickly realized that prohibiting discrimination is not enough to achieve equality. Positive steps toward remedying the legacy of discrimination and enhancing diversity are essential. Thus affirmative action programs of all sorts began to proliferate and flourish in the 1970s.

LEGAL TREATMENT OF AFFIRMATIVE ACTION

U.S. courts have addressed the question of whether the use of affirmative action to help a disadvantaged group is as objectionable as the use of race or gender to harm or subjugate socially disfavored groups. Dominated since the 1980s by conservative judges appointed by Presidents Ronald Reagan and, later, George H. W. Bush, the courts have concluded that “any” use of affirmative action is a form of racial discrimination. In the courts, invidious racial discrimination must meet strict scrutiny ; that is, it must be necessary to achieve a compelling government purpose. Strict scrutiny is a very rigorous level of judicial review that is rarely met. Indeed, Stanford law professor Gerald Gunther once famously claimed that strict scrutiny was “strict in theory, but fatal in fact.” In Adarand Constructors, Inc. v. Pena , in 1995, the Supreme Court said: “All racial classifications, imposed by whatever federal, state, or local governmental actor, must be analyzed by a reviewing court under strict scrutiny.”

Those who are opposed to affirmative action argue that the Constitution requires that the government treat each person as an individual without regard to his or her race; strict scrutiny is used to ensure that this occurs. Justice Clarence Thomas, in Adarand , espoused this view: “In my mind, government-sponsored racial discrimination based on benign prejudice is just as noxious as discrimination inspired by malicious prejudice. In each instance, it is racial discrimination, plain and simple.” Moreover, supporters of strict scrutiny for affirmative action argue that all racial classifications stigmatize and breed racial hostility, and therefore all should be subjected to strict scrutiny. Justice Sandra Day O’Connor stated: “Classifications based in race carry a danger of stigmatic harm. Unless they are strictly reserved for remedial settings, they may in fact promote notions of racial inferiority and lead to politics of racial hostility.”

On the other side of the debate, supporters of affirmative action argue that there is a significant difference between the government’s use of racial classifications to benefit minorities and the government’s use of racial classifications to disadvantage minorities. There is a long history of racism and discrimination against minorities, but no similar history of persecution of whites. Those in favor of affirmative action point to the tremendous continuing disparities between blacks and whites in areas such as education, employment, and public contracting as necessitating remedial action.

Supporters also argue that there is a major difference between a majority discriminating against a minority and the majority discriminating against itself. John Hart Ely explains in a 1974 article:

When the group that controls the decision making process classifies so as to advantage a minority and disadvantage itself, the reasons for being unusually suspicious, and consequently, employing a stringent brand of review are lacking. A White majority is unlikely to disadvantage itself for reasons of racial prejudice; nor is it likely to be tempted either to underestimate the needs and deserts of Whites relative to those of others, or to overestimate the cost of devising an alternative classification that would extend to certain Whites the disadvantages generally extended to Blacks.

In the Rehnquist court of the 1990s the Supreme Court was split, five to four, between these two views. The majority—Chief Justice William Rehnquist, and Justices O’Connor, Antonin Scalia, Anthony Kennedy, and Thomas—adopted strict scrutiny in evaluating racial classifications benefiting minorities. The dissenters—Justices John Paul Stevens, David Souter, Stephen Breyer, and Ruth Bader Ginsburg—would use intermediate scrutiny, a less stringent standard of review.

POLITICAL AND SOCIAL DEBATES

Affirmative action has been tremendously divisive. Opponents of affirmative action embrace the noble-sounding rhetoric of color-blindness and maintain that it is wrong for a person to lose out on something valuable solely because of his or her race. Supporters of affirmative action point out that it is designed to remedy a long history of discrimination and ensure racial equality in the long term.

One manifestation of the political and social debate is the initiatives that have been adopted across the country limiting affirmative action. In 1996 California voters passed Proposition 209, the so-called California Civil Rights Initiative. The initiative amended the state constitution to bar discrimination or preferences on the basis of race in government contracting, education, or employment. A similar initiative was adopted almost simultaneously in Washington state. In November 2006, Michigan voters passed Proposition 2, which was almost identical to California Proposition 209 in banning discrimination or preference based on race.

These initiatives reflect the public’s disapproval of affirmative action. The rhetoric that the government should be color-blind is appealing and allows for people to limit (or eliminate) affirmative action while feeling noble. On the other hand, those who believe that affirmative action is essential to remedy past discrimination and achieve diversity have had a hard time overcoming the impression that such programs are reverse discrimination.

THE FUTURE

Affirmative action remains enormously controversial, and political and legal battles over the issue are sure to continue. In the courts, challenges to affirmative action programs may gain additional momentum with a change in the composition of the Supreme Court. With the departure of Justice O’Connor from the High Court, opponents of affirmative action are sure to look for test cases to bring the issue back for reconsideration. The Supreme Court has limited, but not ended, affirmative action as reflected in the Grutter decision. The survival of government affirmative action programs is a topic likely to be considered again in the years ahead.

AFI - Rock group, Career, Sidelights, Selected discography [next] [back] Affective Computing - INTRODUCTION, BACKGROUND: RESEARCH MOTIVATION, BACKGROUND: THE PROBLEM DOMAIN, CRITICAL ISSUES, CONCLUSION

User Comments

Your email address will be altered so spam harvesting bots can't read it easily.
Hide my email completely instead?

Cancel or

Vote down Vote up

over 6 years ago

Im gay

Vote down Vote up

almost 7 years ago

This material has been very helpful in allowing me to understand what the arguments for and against affirmative action are about. Thank you!

Vote down Vote up

almost 7 years ago

hi

Vote down Vote up

about 6 years ago

:)

Vote down Vote up

about 6 years ago

Why have most affirmative action programmes failed?

Vote down Vote up

almost 7 years ago

I am doing a research paper for my college on Affermative Action and this was a great article to get me started.



Thank you,

Danuta

Vote down Vote up

over 6 years ago

i hate faggots

Vote down Vote up

over 4 years ago

yall niggas hate on the law for no reason, some of us are tryna get a education and are not bad people -- u better not shut this sht down cause it will cause a negtive impact in america , more debt and lost

Vote down Vote up

over 6 years ago

Affirmative Action - PROS AND CONS, THE ORIGINS OF, LEGAL TREATMENT OF, POLITICAL AND SOCIAL DEBATES, THE FUTURE

Vote down Vote up

over 6 years ago

Hey Graham

Vote down Vote up

almost 7 years ago

hi

Vote down Vote up

almost 7 years ago

hi

Vote down Vote up

almost 7 years ago

hi

Vote down Vote up

almost 7 years ago

hi

Vote down Vote up

over 5 years ago

Your a dumb batch. Love ya.

Vote down Vote up

almost 7 years ago

hi

Vote down Vote up

almost 4 years ago

花痴:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/花痴.html
巨人倍増:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/巨人倍増.html
威哥王:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/威哥王.html
威哥王:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/weige.html
淫インモラル:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/immoral.html
インモラル:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/immoral.html
妖姫:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/youhi.html
紅蜘蛛:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/紅蜘蛛.html
RU486:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/RU486.html
VigRx:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/VigRx.html
D10:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/D10.html
D10媚薬:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/D10.html
D10催情剤:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/D10.html
三體牛鞭:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/三体牛鞭.html
三体牛鞭:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/三体牛鞭.html
勃動力三體牛鞭:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/三体牛鞭.html
狼1号:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/狼1号.html
狼一号:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/狼1号.html
三便宝:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/三便宝.html
蟻力神:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/蟻力神1.html
リドスプレー:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/LIDOSPRAY.html
ビグレックス:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/VigRx.html
Wenickman:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/Wenickman.html
vigrxプラス:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/VigRx.html
セフラジン:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/cefradine.html
碧生源:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/bishengyuan.html
スーパーファット:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/スーパーファットNEWSUPERFATBURNIN.html
同仁堂牛黄清心丸:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/牛黄清心丸2.html
牛黄清心丸:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/牛黄清心丸2.html
五便宝:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/五便宝.html
FLY D5:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/蒼蝿水.html
D5原液:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/蒼蝿水.html
蒼蝿水:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/蒼蝿水.html
男宝:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/男宝5箱.html
蔵八宝:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/蔵八宝.html
新一粒神:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/新一粒神.html
壮天根:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/壮天根.html
魔根:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/魔根金中草.html
壮陽一号:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/壮陽一号.html
黒倍王:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/黒倍王.html
美人豹:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/美人豹5.html
福源春:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/福源春2.html
蟻王:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/アリ王蟻王,ANTKING.html
アリ王:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/アリ王蟻王,ANTKING.html
SEX DROPS:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/SEXDROPS5.html
終極痩身:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/zhongjishoushen.html
天天素:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/天天素.html
韓国痩身一号:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/韓国痩身一号.html
韓国痩身1号:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/韓国痩身一号.html
痩身1号:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/韓国痩身一号.html
曲美:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/xinqumei.html
中絶薬:http://www.hikanpou.com/pills/避妊中絶.html
MaxMan:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/MaxMan.html
絶對高潮:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/絶對高潮.html
D8 催情剤:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/SpanishFliegeD8.html

http://威哥王.kanpocom.com
http://巨人倍増.hikanpou.com
http://xn--gmq15an1qquf.hikanpou.com
イカオウ:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/威哥王.html
ウェイカワ:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/威哥王.html
威哥王 正規品:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/威哥王.html
威哥王販売:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/威哥王.html
キョジンバイゾウ:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/巨人倍増.html
巨人倍増 正規品:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/巨人倍増.html
巨人倍増 効果:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/巨人倍増.html
巨人倍増カプセル:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/巨人倍増.html
巨人倍増 販売:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/巨人倍増.html
巨人倍増 激安:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/巨人倍増.html
巨人倍増 通販:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/巨人倍増.html
三便宝カプセル:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/三便宝.html
三便宝販売:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/三便宝.html
三便宝 激安:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/三便宝.html
さんべんぼう:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/三便宝.html
五便宝カプセル:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/五便宝.html
五便宝 通販:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/五便宝.html
しんいちつぶしん:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/新一粒神.html
イーリーシン:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/蟻力神1.html
福源春カプセル:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/福源春2.html
vigrx 効果:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/VigRx.html
ハナチ:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/花痴.html
紅蜘蛛液体:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/紅蜘蛛.html
紅蜘蛛 通販:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/紅蜘蛛.html
紅蜘蛛 激安:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/紅蜘蛛.html
紅蜘蛛 媚薬:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/紅蜘蛛.html
紅蜘蛛 販売店:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/紅蜘蛛.html
妖姫 効果:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/youhi.html
妖姫 販売:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/youhi.html
媚薬 妖姫:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/youhi.html
妖姫 通販:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/youhi.html
淫インモラル 販売:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/immoral.html
インモラル 販売:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/immoral.html
媚薬 淫イン モラル:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/immoral.html
媚薬 インモラル:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/immoral.html
RU486中絶薬:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/RU486.html
中絶薬 通販:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/RU486.html
中絶薬激安:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/RU486.html
ru486 販売:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/RU486.html
ru486 通販:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/RU486.html
ru486 個人輸入:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/RU486.html
ビグレックス:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/VigRx.html
VigRx:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/VigRx.html
vigrxプラス:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/VigRx.html





威哥王:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro96.html
巨人倍増:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro138.html
花痴:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro312.html
D10催情剤:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro282.html
紅蜘蛛:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro311.html
曲美:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro25.html
妖姫:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro481.html
淫インモラル:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro482.html
インモラル:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro482.html
紅蜘蛛:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro311.html
威哥王:http://威哥王.kanpocom.com
D10催情剤:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro282.html
花痴:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro312.html
妖姫:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro481.html
淫インモラル:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro482.html
淫インモラル:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro482.html
インモラル:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro482.html
蟻力神:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro132.html
三便宝:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro149.html
VigRx:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro222.html
RU486:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro113.html
D10媚薬:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro282.html
三體牛鞭:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro331.html
三体牛鞭:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro331.html
狼1号:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro330.html
狼一号:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro330.html
夜狼神:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro574.html
アフリカ超人:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro573.html
中華牛鞭:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro167.html
蔵秘雄精:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro575.html
悦可亭:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro118.html
女性用バイアグラ:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro579.html
止血薬カルバゾクロム錠:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro580.html
媚薬:http://www.hakanpo.com/CL05/38.html
精力剤:http://www.hakanpo.com/CL02
天天素:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro58.html
リドスプレー:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro374.html
LIDO SPRAY:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro374.html
花之欲:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro292.html
ビグレックス:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro386.html
VVK:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro325.html
男露888:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro243.html
Wenickman:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro325.html
MaxMan:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro97.html
vigrxプラス:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro222.html
モチベーター:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro327.html
勃動力三體牛鞭:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro331.html
中華牛鞭:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro167.html
新一粒神:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro476.html
五便宝:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro157.html
三鞭粒:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro450.html
男宝:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro375.html
魔根:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro360.html
壮天根:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro329.html
黒倍王:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro337.html
九鞭粒:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro437.html
男露888:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro243.html
西班牙蒼蝿水:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro284.html
西班牙蒼蝿粉:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro254.html
性霸2000:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro147.html
Xing霸:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro147.html
情愛芳香劑 :http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro551.html
絶對高潮:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro133.html
D10:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro282.html
D8 催情剤:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro343.html
FLY D5:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro318.html
D5原液:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro318.html
蒼蝿水:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro318.html
花之欲:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro292.html
美人豹:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro320.html
福源春:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro313.html
魔鬼天使性欲粉:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro309.html
SEX DROPS:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro322.html
小情人:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro322.html
中絶薬:http://www.hakanpo.com/CL06/42.html
避妊薬:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro117.html
天天素:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro58.html
超級脂肪燃焼弾:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro52.html
韓国痩身一号:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro20.html
韓国痩身1号:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro20.html
痩身一号:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro20.html
痩身1号:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro20.html
V26:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro48.html
悦可亭:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro118.html
唯美OB:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro29.html
ペニス増大:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro325.html
催情剤:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro282.html
催情粉:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro288.html
女性催情剤:http://www.hakanpo.com/CL05
催情薬:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro159.html
催淫:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro133.html
催淫通販:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro133.html
西班牙昆虫粉:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro316.html
VigRx:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro222.html
RU486:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro113.html
絶對高潮:http://www.kanpocom.com/Pro/juedui.html
絶對高潮:http://www.kanpocom.com/Pro/juedui.html
絶對高潮:http://www.kanpocom.com/Pro/juedui.html
絶對高潮:http://www.kanpocom.com/Pro/juedui.html
悦可亭:http://www.kanpocom.com/pro/yueke.html
悦可亭:http://www.kanpocom.com/pro/yueke.html
悦可亭:http://www.kanpocom.com/pro/yueke.html
悦可亭:http://www.kanpocom.com/pro/yueke.html
悦可亭:http://www.kanpocom.com/pro/yueke.html

Vote down Vote up

almost 4 years ago


花痴:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/花痴.html
巨人倍増:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/巨人倍増.html
威哥王:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/威哥王.html
威哥王:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/weige.html
淫インモラル:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/immoral.html
インモラル:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/immoral.html
妖姫:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/youhi.html
紅蜘蛛:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/紅蜘蛛.html
RU486:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/RU486.html
VigRx:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/VigRx.html
D10:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/D10.html
D10媚薬:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/D10.html
D10催情剤:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/D10.html
三體牛鞭:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/三体牛鞭.html
三体牛鞭:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/三体牛鞭.html
勃動力三體牛鞭:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/三体牛鞭.html
狼1号:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/狼1号.html
狼一号:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/狼1号.html
三便宝:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/三便宝.html
蟻力神:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/蟻力神1.html
リドスプレー:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/LIDOSPRAY.html
ビグレックス:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/VigRx.html
Wenickman:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/Wenickman.html
vigrxプラス:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/VigRx.html
セフラジン:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/cefradine.html
碧生源:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/bishengyuan.html
スーパーファット:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/スーパーファットNEWSUPERFATBURNIN.html
同仁堂牛黄清心丸:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/牛黄清心丸2.html
牛黄清心丸:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/牛黄清心丸2.html
五便宝:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/五便宝.html
FLY D5:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/蒼蝿水.html
D5原液:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/蒼蝿水.html
蒼蝿水:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/蒼蝿水.html
男宝:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/男宝5箱.html
蔵八宝:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/蔵八宝.html
新一粒神:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/新一粒神.html
壮天根:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/壮天根.html
魔根:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/魔根金中草.html
壮陽一号:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/壮陽一号.html
黒倍王:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/黒倍王.html
美人豹:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/美人豹5.html
福源春:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/福源春2.html
蟻王:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/アリ王蟻王,ANTKING.html
アリ王:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/アリ王蟻王,ANTKING.html
SEX DROPS:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/SEXDROPS5.html
終極痩身:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/zhongjishoushen.html
天天素:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/天天素.html
韓国痩身一号:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/韓国痩身一号.html
韓国痩身1号:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/韓国痩身一号.html
痩身1号:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/韓国痩身一号.html
曲美:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/xinqumei.html
中絶薬:http://www.hikanpou.com/pills/避妊中絶.html
MaxMan:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/MaxMan.html
絶對高潮:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/絶對高潮.html
D8 催情剤:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/SpanishFliegeD8.html

http://威哥王.kanpocom.com
http://巨人倍増.hikanpou.com
http://xn--gmq15an1qquf.hikanpou.com
イカオウ:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/威哥王.html
ウェイカワ:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/威哥王.html
威哥王 正規品:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/威哥王.html
威哥王販売:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/威哥王.html
キョジンバイゾウ:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/巨人倍増.html
巨人倍増 正規品:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/巨人倍増.html
巨人倍増 効果:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/巨人倍増.html
巨人倍増カプセル:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/巨人倍増.html
巨人倍増 販売:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/巨人倍増.html
巨人倍増 激安:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/巨人倍増.html
巨人倍増 通販:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/巨人倍増.html
三便宝カプセル:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/三便宝.html
三便宝販売:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/三便宝.html
三便宝 激安:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/三便宝.html
さんべんぼう:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/三便宝.html
五便宝カプセル:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/五便宝.html
五便宝 通販:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/五便宝.html
しんいちつぶしん:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/新一粒神.html
イーリーシン:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/蟻力神1.html
福源春カプセル:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/福源春2.html
vigrx 効果:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/VigRx.html
ハナチ:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/花痴.html
紅蜘蛛液体:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/紅蜘蛛.html
紅蜘蛛 通販:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/紅蜘蛛.html
紅蜘蛛 激安:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/紅蜘蛛.html
紅蜘蛛 媚薬:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/紅蜘蛛.html
紅蜘蛛 販売店:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/紅蜘蛛.html
妖姫 効果:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/youhi.html
妖姫 販売:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/youhi.html
媚薬 妖姫:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/youhi.html
妖姫 通販:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/youhi.html
淫インモラル 販売:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/immoral.html
インモラル 販売:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/immoral.html
媚薬 淫イン モラル:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/immoral.html
媚薬 インモラル:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/immoral.html
RU486中絶薬:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/RU486.html
中絶薬 通販:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/RU486.html
中絶薬激安:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/RU486.html
ru486 販売:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/RU486.html
ru486 通販:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/RU486.html
ru486 個人輸入:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/RU486.html
ビグレックス:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/VigRx.html
VigRx:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/VigRx.html
vigrxプラス:http://www.hikanpou.com/product/VigRx.html





威哥王:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro96.html
巨人倍増:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro138.html
花痴:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro312.html
D10催情剤:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro282.html
紅蜘蛛:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro311.html
曲美:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro25.html
妖姫:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro481.html
淫インモラル:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro482.html
インモラル:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro482.html
紅蜘蛛:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro311.html
威哥王:http://威哥王.kanpocom.com
D10催情剤:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro282.html
花痴:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro312.html
妖姫:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro481.html
淫インモラル:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro482.html
淫インモラル:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro482.html
インモラル:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro482.html
蟻力神:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro132.html
三便宝:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro149.html
VigRx:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro222.html
RU486:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro113.html
D10媚薬:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro282.html
三體牛鞭:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro331.html
三体牛鞭:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro331.html
狼1号:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro330.html
狼一号:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro330.html
夜狼神:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro574.html
アフリカ超人:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro573.html
中華牛鞭:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro167.html
蔵秘雄精:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro575.html
悦可亭:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro118.html
女性用バイアグラ:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro579.html
止血薬カルバゾクロム錠:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro580.html
媚薬:http://www.hakanpo.com/CL05/38.html
精力剤:http://www.hakanpo.com/CL02
天天素:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro58.html
リドスプレー:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro374.html
LIDO SPRAY:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro374.html
花之欲:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro292.html
ビグレックス:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro386.html
VVK:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro325.html
男露888:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro243.html
Wenickman:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro325.html
MaxMan:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro97.html
vigrxプラス:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro222.html
モチベーター:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro327.html
勃動力三體牛鞭:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro331.html
中華牛鞭:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro167.html
新一粒神:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro476.html
五便宝:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro157.html
三鞭粒:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro450.html
男宝:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro375.html
魔根:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro360.html
壮天根:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro329.html
黒倍王:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro337.html
九鞭粒:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro437.html
男露888:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro243.html
西班牙蒼蝿水:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro284.html
西班牙蒼蝿粉:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro254.html
性霸2000:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro147.html
Xing霸:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro147.html
情愛芳香劑 :http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro551.html
絶對高潮:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro133.html
D10:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro282.html
D8 催情剤:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro343.html
FLY D5:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro318.html
D5原液:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro318.html
蒼蝿水:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro318.html
花之欲:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro292.html
美人豹:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro320.html
福源春:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro313.html
魔鬼天使性欲粉:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro309.html
SEX DROPS:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro322.html
小情人:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro322.html
中絶薬:http://www.hakanpo.com/CL06/42.html
避妊薬:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro117.html
天天素:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro58.html
超級脂肪燃焼弾:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro52.html
韓国痩身一号:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro20.html
韓国痩身1号:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro20.html
痩身一号:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro20.html
痩身1号:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro20.html
V26:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro48.html
悦可亭:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro118.html
唯美OB:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro29.html
ペニス増大:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro325.html
催情剤:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro282.html
催情粉:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro288.html
女性催情剤:http://www.hakanpo.com/CL05
催情薬:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro159.html
催淫:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro133.html
催淫通販:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro133.html
西班牙昆虫粉:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro316.html
VigRx:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro222.html
RU486:http://www.hakanpo.com/p/pro113.html
絶對高潮:http://www.kanpocom.com/Pro/juedui.html
絶對高潮:http://www.kanpocom.com/Pro/juedui.html
絶對高潮:http://www.kanpocom.com/Pro/juedui.html
絶對高潮:http://www.kanpocom.com/Pro/juedui.html
悦可亭:http://www.kanpocom.com/pro/yueke.html
悦可亭:http://www.kanpocom.com/pro/yueke.html
悦可亭:http://www.kanpocom.com/pro/yueke.html
悦可亭:http://www.kanpocom.com/pro/yueke.html
悦可亭:http://www.kanpocom.com/pro/yueke.html

Vote down Vote up

almost 6 years ago

role of affirmative action in the reconstruction of race and ethnic relations.poits about this please