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Image Inpainting

missing texture region process

Definition: Image inpainting refers to the process of filling in missing data in a designated region of the visual input.

Image inpainting refers to the process of filling-in missing data in a designated region of the visual input (Figure 1). The object of the process is to reconstruct missing parts or damaged image in such a way that the inpainted region cannot be detected by a causal observer. Applications range from the reconstruction of missing blocks introduced by packet loss during wireless transmission, reversing of impairments, such as cracks, scratches, and dirt, in scanned photographs and digitized artwork images, to removal/introduction of image objects such as logos, stamped dates, text, persons, and special effects on the scene. Typically, after the user selects the region to be restored, the inpainting algorithm automatically repairs the damaged area by means of image interpolation.

To recover the color, structural and textural content in a large damaged area, inpainted (output) pixels are calculated using the available data from the surrounding undamaged areas. The required input can be automatically determined by the inpainting technique or supplied by the user. Since different inpainting techniques focus on pure texture or pure structure restoration, both the quality and cost of the inpainting process differ significantly. For example, exemplar-based techniques effectively generate new texture by sampling and copying color values from an undamaged source. Such an approach produces good results in replicating consistent texture seen in artificially generated imagery, but fails when it comes to reconstruct missing parts in photographs of natural scenes. This is due to the fact that most image areas consist of both texture and structure. Boundaries between image regions constitute structural (edge) information which is a complex, nonlinear phenomenon produced by blending together different textures. Therefore, it is not surprising that the state-of-the-art inpainting methods attempt to simultaneously perform texture and structure filling in.

Image Manipulation: Science Fact or Fiction - Suggested General Guidelines for Scientific Imaging Applications [next] [back] Image Formation - Introduction, Illuminants and light, Radiometry, Photometry, Illuminants, Reflectance, Sensors, Sensors of the Human Visual System

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