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JFIF (JPEG File Interchange Format)

contains image markers quantization

Definition: The JPEG File Exchange Format is a minimal file format that allows the exchange of JPEG bitstreams among different applications and platforms.

It uses a number of markers to break a JPEG stream down into its component structures. Markers are two bytes in length and the first byte always contains the value 0×FF; the second byte contains a code that specifies the marker type. Table 1 shows some of the most important JFIF markers, whose explanation follows.

  1. SOI: This marker is found at the start of a JFIF file.
  2. APP0: Contains JFIF information, including image thumbnail.
  3. APPn: Contains application specific information.
  4. DQT: Contains the quantization table for quantization and dequantization operations which are performed after FDCT and before IDCT.
  5. SOF0: Contains image bits per pixel, height, and width among other information.
  6. DHT: For Huffman encoding after quantization and Huffman decoding before dequantization.
  7. SOS: Contains compressed, encoded image data.
  8. Page 372  EOI: Signifies end of image.
  9. COM: Contains user defined plaintext comments, often containing image metadata.

The standard also defines the RGB to YCbCr conversion and color subsampling steps.

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