Other Free Encyclopedias » Online Encyclopedia » Encyclopedia - Featured Articles » Contributed Topics from A-E

Basov, Nikolai (Gennediyevitch)

radiation excited laser stimulated

[ ba sof] (1922–2001) Soviet physicist: invented the maser and laser.

After service in the Red Army during the Second World War, Basov studied in Moscow and obtained his doctorate in 1956. Remaining there, he became head of his laboratory in 1962.

From 1952 onwards Basov developed the idea of amplifying electromagnetic radiation by using the relaxation of excited atoms or molecules to release further radiation. His colleague A M Prokhorov (1916–2002) had studied the precise microwave frequencies emitted by gases, and together they produced (1955) molecular beams of excited molecules that would amplify electromagnetic radiation when stimulated by incident radiation. Such a device is known as a maser ( microwave amplification by stimulated emission of radiation). The 1964 Nobel Prize for physics went to Basov, Prokhorov and (who did similar independent work in the USA) for the invention of the maser.

Rather than selecting excited molecules from a beam, Basov and Prokhorov found a way of using a second radiation source to ‘pump’ the gas into an excited state (the ‘three-level’ method). Basov then invented the laser ( light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation; 1958) and even achieved the effect in semiconductor crystals. He afterwards worked on the theory of laser production in semiconductors, on pulsed lasers and on the interaction of light with matter.

Bass, G.H. and Company [next] [back] Basma Bint Talal (1951–) - PERSONAL HISTORY, INFLUENCES AND CONTRIBUTIONS, BIOGRAPHICAL HIGHLIGHTS, PERSONAL CHRONOLOGY:, THE WORLD’S PERSPECTIVE, LEGACY

User Comments

Your email address will be altered so spam harvesting bots can't read it easily.
Hide my email completely instead?

Cancel or