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Originally appearing in Volume V23, Page 603 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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AEDIS. The space between the north-west end of the Forum and the Tabularium is occupied by a range of important buildings (see Temple of Plate VIII.). The chief of these is the temple of Concord concord. (see Festus, ed. Muller, p. 347) shown on a fragment of the marble plan, founded by Camillus in 366 B.C. (Plut. Cam. 42), and restored by Opimius after the death of C. Gracchus (In B.c.). It was afterwards rebuilt by Tiberius out of the spoils gained in Germany; it was rededicated by Tiberius in A.D. IO In his own name and that of his brother Drusus (who had died in B.C. 9) [Suet. Tib. 20; Dio. Cass. lv. 251. It is shown with unusual minuteness on the reverse of a first brass of Tiberius. The existing remains3 are of the rebuilding by Tiberius, and show that it was unusual in plan, having a large cella much wider than its depth, and a very large projecting portico. Its construction is an interesting example of the Roman use of many different materials. The lower part of the walls was of massive tufa blocks, the upper part of the cella of travertine; and the inner low wall, which sup-ported ranges of internal columns, was of mixed concrete, tufa and travertine. The whole was. lined with marble, white outside, and rich oriental marbles inside (see fig. 4), which were also used for the pavement. The door-sill is made of enormous blocks of porta santa marble, in which a bronze caduceus (emblem of Mercury) was inlaid. Between the internal columns of the cella stood rows of statues; and the temple also contained a large collection of pictures, engraved gems, gold and silver plate, and other works of art,' mostly the work of ancient Greek artists (see Plin. H.N. xxxiv. 19; xxxv. 36, 40, xxxvi. 67, xxxvii. 2). `On the apex of the pediment was a group of three figures embracing; the tympanum was filled with sculpture; and statues were set in the open porch. Though now only the podium and the lower part of the cella wall exist, with foundations of the great flight of steps, many rich fragments both of the Corinthian entablature and of the internal caps and bases are preserved in the Tabularium; and some of the marble lining is still in situ. The Einsiedeln MS. gives part of the inscription of the front—S.P. Q.R. AFDEM. CONCORDIAE . VETVSTATE. COLLAPSAM . IN. MELIOREM . FACIEM. OPERE . ET.CVLTV . SPLENDIDIORE. RESTITVERVNT (C.I.L. vi. 89).4 than 946, and a bronze fibula inlaid with silver with the name of Pope Marinas II. (942–46) makes it seem probable that this hoard was concealed during his pontificate. Not. depji Scnvi (1882), P. 225. 1 This finely sculptured frieze is almost an exact copy of that on the temple of Apollo at Miletus. The size of the earlier and smaller temple is indicated by the rough blocks on the face of the wall of the Tabularium, close against which the temple stands. When the Tabularium was built It was not thought worth while to dress to a smooth face that part of its wall which was concealed by the then existing temple of Concord. ' Little is known of the Basilica Opimia, which probably adjoined the. earlier temple of Concord, and the existing building appears also to have occupied the site of the Senaculum (see Festus, ed. Muller, p. 347). For various exciting scenes which took place in the temple of Concord and on its steps, see Cic. Phil. vii. 8; Sallust, &ell. Cat. 49. Another temple of Concord, built in 216 B.C., stood on 'the Capitoline Arx (Liv. xxii. 33, xxiii. 21); and a bronze aedicula of Concord in the Area Vulcani, which must have been close by the great temple. This was dedicated by Cn. Flavius, 305 B.C. (see Liv: ix. 46); according to Pliny (H.N. xxxiii. 19) it stood in The temple of Vespasian stands close by that of Concord, abutting on the Tabularium in a similar way, and blocking up a doorway at the foot of a long flight of steps (see fig. I). It consists Temple of of a nearly' square cella with prostyle hexastyle portico of Tem the Corinthian order; three of the columns are still ` yes; standing, with their rich entablature, the frieze of which is sculptured with sacred instruments. The walls are of enormous blocks of travertine with strong iron clamps; the whole was lined with white Pentelic marble outside, and inside with coloured oriental marbles. There was an internal range of columns, as in the" temple of Concord. This temple was begun by Titus in A.D. 8o, in honour of his father Vespasian, and finished by Domitian, who dedicated it to Vespasian and Titus. The inscription on the entablature, given in the Einsiedeln MS., records a restoration by SeverusandCaracalla—DIVO. VESPASIANO. AVGVSTO.S.P.Q.R. 1MPP. CAESS. SEVERVS.ET.ANTONINVS. PII. FELIC. AVGG. RE'STITVERVNT; part of the last word only now exists. In the narrow space between the temples of Concord and Vespasian (only about 7 ft. in width) a small brick and concrete edifice stands against the Tabularium. In it was found an inscribed base dedicated to Faustina the younger by one of the viatores(messengers) of the quaestors, who probably had their office here. The next building is the Porticus Deorum Consentium, a'colonnade in two wings which join at the obtuse angle, with a row of small rooms or shrines partly cut into the tufa rock of the hill Port>cus behind. This conjunction of twelve deities was of Deorum Etruscan origin; they were six of each sex and were called Senatus Deorum (Varro, L.L. viii. 7o, and De Re Con Rust, i. I).6 The columns are of cipollino with Corinthian seatium. caps; on the frieze is an inscription recording a restoration by Vettius Agorius Praetextatus, praefect of the city in A.D. 367. Under the marble platform is a row of seven small` rooms, the brick facing of which is perhaps of the Flavian period. The arch of Severus stands by the rostra, across the road on the north-east side of the Forum; the remains of the ancient travertine curb show that originally the road went along a rather Ar+cb of different line, and was probably altered to make room for this great arch, which was accessible only by steps, Severus. and was not used for ordinary traffic. It was built in A.D. 203, after victories in Parthia, and was originally set up in honour of Severus and his two sons M. Aurelius Antoninus (Caracalla) and Geta. Caracalla, after murdering Geta, erased his name from all' monuments to his honour in Rome. Representations of the arch on coins' of Severus show that its attic was surmounted by a chariot of bronze drawn by six horses, in which stood Severus crowned by Victory; at the sides were statues of Caracalla and Geta, with an equestrian statue at each angle. The arch, except the base, which is of marble-lined travertine, is built of massive blocks of Pentelic marble, and has large crowded reliefs of victories in the East, showing much decadence from the best period of Roman art. The central space of the Forum is paved with slabs of travertine, . much patched at various dates ; it appears to have been marked out into compartments with incised lines (see Plate VIII.), Central the use of which is not known. There are also square of holes which probably held masts on which awnings could apace Forum. be spread. Numerous clamp-holes all over the paving show where statues and other ornaments once stood. The recorded number of these is very great, and they must once have thickly crowded a great part of the central area. Two short marble walls or plutei covered with reliefs, discovered in 1872, stand on the north side. The rough travertine plinth on which they have been set is evidently of late date. Each of these marble screens has (on the inside) reliefs of a fat bull, boar and ram, decked out with sacrificial wreaths and vittae—the suovetaurilia. On the outside are scenes in the life of Trajan: in both cases the emperor is speaking from the rostra. On one we also see him seated on a suggestus instituting a charity for destitute children in A.D. lot—a scene similar to one shown in one of his first brasses with the legend ALIM[ENTA]; ITALIAE; 8 at the other end the emperor stands on the rostra, on which the two tiers of beaks are shown; he is addressing a crowd of citizens. In the background is shown the long line of arches of the Basilica Julia, with (on the left) what is probably the temple of Castor and the arch of Augustus. On the right are the statue of Marsyas and the sacred fig-tree.? On the other slab a crowd of officials are bringing tablets and piling them in a heap to be burnt. This records the remission by Trajan of some arrears of debt due to the imperial treasury (Anson. Grat. Act. 32). The background here represents again the Basilica Julia, with (on the right) the Ionic temple of Saturn and the Corinthian temple oT Vespasian. Between them is, an arch, which may be that of Tiberius.8 On the left the Graecostasi, quae tune. supra Comitium erat." Both these were probably only small shrines. ' Twelve gilt statues are mentioned by Varro. 'Cohen, vol. ii. 303-5. 7 This is not the ficus ruminalis in the Comitium, but another mentioned by Pliny (H.N. xv. 20) in the middle of the Forum. 8 As it seems to be on a higher level, it may indicate the Tabularium. discovered leading up past the tablinum end of the atrium "from the Sacra Via to the Nova Via. In about the 4th century this road appears to have been blocked up at the Nova Via end by a building which adjoined the Atrium Vestae. At the north-east corner of the Forum stood the arch of Q. Fabius Maximus, consul in 121 B.C., called Allobrogicus from his victory Arch of over the Allobroges (Schol. on Cic., In Verr., Actio i. 7) ; Fabius. Liv. Ep. lvi.; Plin. H.N. vii. 166). It marked the' extreme limit of the Forum in this direction (Cic. Pro Planc, 7, 17), as the rostra did at the other end. Remains of this arch were dug up and mostly destroyed in 1546, near the temple of Faustina; on one of the fragments then discovered was inscribed Q.FABIVS.Q. F. MAXSVMVS.AED.CVR.REST. (Dessau, Inset.. Lat. Sel..43a). About twenty-five other fragments were found in 1882? The temple of Faustina the elder stands at the east angle of the Forum, facing the later line of the Sacra Via. It is prostyle hexastyle, Temple of and has monolithic columns of cipollino and a rich entablature of Greek marble, with graceful reliefs of Faustian. griffins and candelabra on the frieze? The walls are of massive peperino, once lined with marble. On the front is in-scribed DIVO. ANTONINO. ET. DIVAE. FAVSTINAE. EX. S. C. This temple, built by Antoninus Pius in memory of his wife, who died in 141, was after his death dedicated [also to him, and the first line was then added (Vita Ant. Pii, 6). In the Middle Ages it was consecrated as the church of S. Lorenzo in Miranda, and a great part of its cella has been destroyed. The front is now excavated to the original level. This temple is shown on the reverse of several coins of Antoninus Pius; some have the legend DEDICATIO. fig-tree and the statue of Marsyas are repeated. Other explanations of these reliefs have been given, but the above appears the most probable. Towards the other end of the Forum are remains of a large concrete pedestal. It may possibly have supported an equestrian statue of Constantine, which was still standing in the 8th century. A smaller foundation, laid bare by Comm. Boni's excavations in 1905, is thought by him to have supported the equestrian statue of Q. Marcius Tremulus, the conqueror of the Hernici, set up before the temple of Castor in B.C. 305 (Liv. ix. 43). The seven cubical brick and concrete structures, once faced with marble, which line the Sacra Via are not earlier than the time of Diocletian. They are probably the pedestals of honorary columns such as those shown in the relief on Constantine's arch, mentioned above. The column erected in honour of the tyrant Phocas by Smaragdus in the eleventh year of his exarchate (608) is still standing. It is a fine marble Corinthian column, stolen from some earlier building; it stands on rude steps of marble and tufa. The name of Phocas is erased from the inscription; but the date shows that this monument was to his honour. In the 4th century, or perhaps even later, a long brick and concrete building faced with marble was built along the whole south-east end of the Forum, probably a row of shops. They were destroyed by Comm. Rosa's order. Two columns—one of pavonazzetto, the other of grey granite—were set up on two of the brick bases in 1899. In 1902 a network of passages (cuniculi) was discovered about 3 ft. beneath the pavement of the Forum. These have tufa walls and concrete vaults; they are about 8 ft. high and 5 ft. broad. At the intersections of the passages are square chambers, in the centre of which are travertine blocks with sockets for windlasses. The construction of the passages seems to date from the time of Julius Caesar, and it is thought that they were used for scenic purposes when games were given in the Forum. In 1903 a large concrete foundation was found, partly blocking the E. end of one of the cuniculi. There can be no doubt that this once supported the colossal equestrian statue of Domitian described by Statius (Silv. i. 1, 21 ff.) which was destroyed after his murder. Embedded in the concrete was a cist of massive travertine blocks which was found to contain five archaic vases similar to those from the early necropolis (above, as init.). One held a nugget of quartz containing pure gold. It is uncertain whether these were buried here for ritual purposes or were the contents of an early tomb found in digging the foundations. Near this monument there were found in 1904 remains of an enclosure of irregular shape which once contained an altar. This must have been the altar which in imperial times represented the Lacus Curtius (Ov. Fast. vi. 403). Beside this were found some remains of a structure of imperial date which Comm. Boni identified with the Tribunal at which justice was administered by the emperors.' Palatine Hill or Palatium. In addition to the early walls described above, only a few re-mains now exist earlier in date than the later years of the republic; these are mostly grouped near the Scalae Caci (see fig. so, in Plan), and consist of small cellae and other structures of unknown use.' They are partly built of the soft tufa used in the " wall of Romulus," and partly of hard granulated tufa so called. Various names, such as the " hut of Faustulus " and the " Auguratorium," have been given to these very ancient remains, but with little reason. On thing is certain, that the buildings were respected and preserved even under the empire, and were probably regarded as sacred relics of the earliest times. 'Authorities on the Forum; For the earlier literature of the subject it will suffice to refer to Jordan, Topographie der Stadt Rom, i. 2, 195-429, and, in English, to Nichols, The Roman Forum (1877). By far the best account based on the recent discoveries of Comm. Boni is Huelsen, The Roman Forum (Eng. trans. from the 2nd German edition, by J. B. Carter, 1906), in which full references are given. The official reports of excavations by Comm. Boni appear at intervals in the Notizie degli Scavi, and are largely concerned with the ancient necropolis. Huelsen publishes reports in the Romische Mitteilungen which are of great value. ' Our-knowledge of these remains has been considerably increased by excavations in this region begun in 1907, which form the subject of a series of reports in the Notizie degli Scavi; their significance is discussed by Pinza in the Annali della Society degli ingegneri ed architetti Italiani for that year, cf. Ashby in Classical Quarterly (1908), p. 145 if. It is almost too much to hope that the difficult problems raised by these discoveries will ever be solved; meanwhile it may be noted (i) that abundant traces of a primitive settlement (pottery, foundations of huts, &c.) have come to light near the W. angle of the hill; (ii) that walls of various epochs have been found which may have belonged to a system of fortification, though this cannot be demonstrated; (iii) that beneath a piece of walling built with regularly laid tufa blocks was found an inhumation-grave containing pottery of the 4th century B.C. Remains of more than one temple of the republican period exist near this west angle of the Palatine. The larger of these (see Plan) has been called conjecturally the temple of Jupiter Victor (Liv. x. 29; Ov. Fast. iv. 621).3 It stands on a levelled Temple of platform of tufa rock, the lower part of which is excavated Jupiter into quarry chambers, used in later times as water Victor. reservoirs. Two ancient well-shafts lined with tufa communicate with these subterranean hollows. Extensive foundations of hard tufa exist in the valley afterwards covered by the Flavian palace (see Plan, " Foundations of the Domus Augustana "). The masonry is in parts of republican date, and was used to support the Flavian palace. Not far from the top of the Scalae Caci are the massive remains of a large cella, nothing of which now exists except the concrete core faced with opus incertum inalternate layers of tufa and peperino. It was probably once lined with marble. By it a noble colossal seated figure of a goddess was found, in statue of Greek marble, well modelled, a work of the 1st century Gybele. A.D. The head and arms are missing, but the figure is probably rightly called a statue of Cybele; and inscriptions dedicated to Magna Mater have been found close to the temple. Augustus in the Monumentum Ancyranum (4, 8) records AEDEM. MATRIS. MAGNAE . IN . PALATIO . FECI ; and there can be little doubt that this is the temple in question. Some interesting early architectural fragments are lying near this temple; they consist of drums and capitals of Corinthian columns, and part of the cornice of the pediment, cut in peperino, and thickly coated with hard white stucco to imitate marble. Between this and the temple of Jupiter Victor are extensive remains of a large porticus, with tufa walls and travertine piers, also republican in date. The use and name of this building are unknown. Remains of extensive lines of buildings in early 'opus reticulatum. exist on the upper slopes of the Palatine, all along the Velabrum side, and on the south-west side as far as the so-called Paedagogium. These buildings are constructed on the ruins of the wall of Romulus, a great part of which has been cut away to make room for them; their base is at the foot of the ancient wall, on the shelf cut midway in the side of the hill; their top reached originally above the upper level of the summit. They are of various dates, and cannot be identified with any known buildings. Part is apparently of Domus the time of the emperor Tiberius, and no doubt belongs to Meth the Domus Tiberiana mentioned by Suetonius (Tib. 5 ; Tac. ans. Hist. i. 27, iii. 71); this palace covered a great part of the west corner of the hill. Of about the same date is a very interesting and well-preserved private house built wholly of opus House of reticulatum, which formed part of the imperial property, Livia. and was respectgd when the later palaces were built. The discovery of lead-pipes bearing the inscription IVLIAE . AVG (C.I.L. xv. 7264) has led to the conjecture that the house was that bequeathed to Livia by her first husband, Tib. Claudius Nero. At the north-west end is a small atrium, out of which open three rooms commonly called the tablinum and aide, as well as a triclinium, all decorated with good paintings of mythological and domestic scenes, probably the work of Greek artists, as inscriptions in Greek occur, e.g. EPMHC, under the figure of Hermes, in a picture representing his deliverance of to from Argus.4 This suite of rooms was a later addition to the house. The south-east portion was three storeys high, and is divided into a great number of very small rooms, mostly bedrooms. The house is built in a sort of hole against the side of an elevation, so that the upper floor behind is level with an ancient paved road. The dampness caused by this is counteracted and kept off the paintings by a lining of flange-tiles over the external walls, under the stucco, thus forming an air-cavity all over the surface. From the back of the house, at the upper level, a long subterranean passage leads towards the Flavian palace, and then, turning at right angles and passing by the foundations of the so-called temple of Jupiter Victor, issues in the ancient tufa building mentioned above. Another crypto-porticus starts near this house and communicates with the long semi-subterranean passage by which the palaces of Caligula aid Domitian are connected. It is ornamented with very beautiful stucco reliefs of cupids, beasts and foliage, once painted and gilt. Some hold that the house was that of Germanicus, into which the soldiers who killed Caligula in the long crypto-porticus escaped, as described by Josephus (Ant. Jud. xix. I ; see also Suet. Cal. 58). From the Summa Sacra Via a road led to the Area Palatina in the centre of the hill. Here was the sanctuary called Roma quadrate, containing the mundus, a pit in which the instruments used in the founding of the city were deposited. To the Palace of east was the Area Apollinis, the entrance of which led Augustus through lofty propylaea into a very extensive peristyle and Ares or porticus, with columns' ofNumidian giallo; the temple Apolliais. was of white Luna marble. In the centre of this enclosure stood the great octostyle peripteral temple of Apollo Palatinus. The splendour of its architecture and the countless works of art in gold, 3 It has recently been argued by Pinza that this is the temple of Apollo built by Augustus. 4 See Mon. Inst. xi. pls. xxii.., xxiii. ; Mau, Geschichte der Wandmalerei, pl. ix.; Repier, Les Peintures du Palatin (Paris, 1870). silver, ivory, bronze and marble, mostly the production of the best Greek artists, which adorned this magnificent group of buildings, must have made it the chief glory of this splendid city. This temple was begun by Augustus in 36 B.C.,' after his Sicilian victory over Sextus Pompeius, and dedicated on the 9th of October 28 B.C.' A glowing account of the splendours of these buildings is given by Propertius (ii. 2, iii. 31). Inside the cella were statues of Apollo between Latona and Diana by Scopas, Cephisodotus and Timotheus respectively (Plin. H.N. xxxvi. 24, 25, 32) ; beneath the base of the group were preserved the Sibylline books. The pediment had sculpture by Bupalus and Archermus of Chios (Plin. H.N. xxxvi. 13), and on the apex was Apollo in a quadriga of gilt bronze. The double door was covered with ivory reliefs of the death of the Niobids and the defeat of the Gauls at Delphi. The Ancyran inscription records that Augustus melted down eighty silver statues of himself and with the money " offered golden gifts to this temple, dedicating them both in his own name and in the names of the original donors of the statues.' The Sibylline books were preserved under the statue of Apollo (Suet. Aug. 31); and within the cella were vases, tripods and statues of gold and silver, with a collection of engraved gems dedicated by Marcellus (see Plin. H.N. xxxvii. xxxiv. 14). In the porticus was a large library, with separate departments for Latin and Greek literature,* and a large hall where the senate occasionally met (Tac. Ann. ii. 37). Round the porticus, between the Numidian marble columns, were statues of the fifty Danaids, and opposite them their fifty bridegrooms onhorseback (see Schol. on Pers. ii. 56). In the centre, before the steps of the temple, stood an altar surrounded by four oxen, the work of Myron (Prop. iii. 31, 5). In the centre of the Palatine stood the palace of Augustus, built in the years following 36 B.C., and renewed after a fire in A.D. 3. It contained a small temple of Vesta (C.I.L. i.' p. 317), dedicated on the 28th of April 12 B.C., when Augustus was elected pontifex maximus. Augustus's building was completely transformed by later emperors, but the name domus Augustana was retained in official use. The Area Apollinis and its group of buildings suffered in the fire of Nero, and were restored by Domitian. The whole was finally destroyed in the great fire of 363 (Ammian. xxiii. 3, 3), but the Sibylline books were saved. To the north-west of the Area Palatina stood the Domus Tiberiana, a palace built by Tiberius on substructures of concrete which crown the Domes north-west slope of the hill and form a platform now occu pied Domes by the Farnese gardens, overlooking the Clivus Victoriae. erl- Caligula is said to have added to this palace on the side aria. towards the Forum, making the temple of Castor into a vestibule, and to have connected it with the Capitol by a bridge whose piers were found by the temple of Augustus and thS Basilica Julia; but this was destroyed after his death. At a later time the palace was extended so as to include the northern angle of the Palatine, which had once been covered with private houses. Among these were the dwellings of Q. Lutatius Catulus, Q. Hortensius, Scaurus, Crassus (Plin. H.N. xxxvi. 3, 24), whose house was afterwards bought by Cicero.° Many other wealthy Romans had houses on this part of the Palatine. The part now existing is little more than the gigantic substructure built to raise the principal rooms to the level of the top of the hill. The lowest parts of these face the Nova Via, opposite the Atrium Vestae, and many storeys of small vaulted rooms built in mixed brick and opus reticulatum rise one above the other to the higher levels 0 The palace extends over the Clivus Victoriae, supported on lofty arches so as to leave the road unblocked; many travertine or marble stairs lead to the upper rooms, some starting from the Nova Via, others from the Clivus Victoriae. A large proportion of these substructures consist of dark rooms, some with no means of lighting, others with scanty borrowed light. Many small rooms and stairs scarcely 2 ft. wide can only have been used by slaves. The ground floors on the Nova Via and the Clivus Victoriae appear to have been shops, judging from their wide openings, with travertine sills, grooved for the wooden fronts with narrow doors, which Roman shops seem always to have had—very like those now used in the East. The upper and principal rooms were once richly decorated with marble linings, columns and mosaics; but little of these now remains. The upper part of the palace, that above the Clivus Victoriae, is faced wholly with brickwork, no opus reticulatum being used as in the lower portions by the Nova Via. This marks a difference of date, and this is confirmed by the occurrence of brick stamps of the 2nd century A.D. ' TEMPLVM . APOLLINIS.IN . SOLO. MAGNAM . PARTEM . EMPTO . FECI (Mon. Anc. 4, i). ' See Dio Cass. xlix. 15, liii. i, and C.I.L. i? p. 331. ' See also Suet. Aug. 52, whose account is rather different. * Schol. to Juv. i. 128, and Suet. Aug. 29. ° Cic. Pro Dom), 43; Val. Max. vi. 3, i ; and see Becker, Handb. i. P. 423. e At this point the Palatine is cut away into four stages like gigantic steps; the lowest is the floor of the Atrium Vestae, the second the Nova Via, the third the Clivus Victoriae, and the top of the hill forms the fourth. The next great addition to the buildings of the Palatine was the magnificent suite of state apartments built by Domitian, over a deep natural valley running across the hill (see Plan). Flavlaa The valley was filled up and the level of the new palace raised to a considerable height above the natural soil. Palace. Remains of a house, decorated with painting and rich marbles, exist under Domitian 's peristyle, partly destroyed by the foundations of cast concrete which cut right through it. The floor of this house shows the original level, far below that of the I-iavian palace. This building is connected with the palace of Caligula by a branch subterranean passage leading into the earlier crypto-porticus. It consists of a block of state-rooms, in the centre of which is a large open peristyle, with columns of oriental marble, at one end of which is the grand triclinium with magnificent paving of opus sectile in red and green basalt and coloured marbles, a piece of which is well preserved; next to the triclinium, on to which it opens with large windows, is a nymphaeum or room with marble-lined fountain and recesses for plants and statues. On the opposite side of the peristyle is a large throne-room, the walls of which were adorned with rows of pavonazzetto and giallo columns and large marble niches, in which were colossal statues of porphyry and basalt; at one side of this is the basilica, with central nave and apse and narrow aisles, over which were galleries. The apse, in which was the emperor's throne, is screened off by open marble cancelli, a part of which still exists. It is of great interest as showing the origin of the Christian basilica (see BASILICA).7 On the other side of the throne-room is the lararium, with altar and pedestal for a statue; next to this is the grand staircase, which led to the upper rooms, now destroyed. The whole building, both floor and walls, was covered with the richest oriental marbles. Outside were colonnades or porticus,— on one side of cipollino, on the other of travertine, the latter stuccoed and painted. The magnificence of the whole, crowded with fine Greek sculpture and covered with polished marbles of the most brilliant colours, is difficult now to realize; a glowing description is given by Statius (Silo. iv. it, 18; see also Plut. Poplic. 15, and Mart. viii. 36). Doors were arranged in the throne-room and basilica so that the emperor could slip out unobserved and reach by a staircase (g on Plan) the crypto-porticus which communicates with Caligula's palace. The vault of this passage was covered with mosaic of mixed marble and glass, a few fragments of which still remain; its walls were lined with rich marbles; it was lighted by a series of windows in the springing of the vault. This, as well as the Flavian palace, appears to have suffered more than once from fire, and in many places import-ant restorations of the time of Severus, and some as late as the 4th century, are evident. , In 1720–28 extensive excavations were made here for the Farnese duke of Parma, and an immense quantity of statues and marble architectural fragments were discovered, many of which are now at Naples and elsewhere. Among them were sixteen beautiful fluted columns of pavonazzetto and giallo, fragments of the basalt statues, and an immense door-sill of Pentelic marble, now used for the high altar of the Pantheon; these all came from the throne-room. The excavations were carried on by Bianchini, who published a book on the subject' In the middle of the slopes of the Palatine, towards the Circus Maximus, are considerable remains of buildings set against the early wall and covering one of its projecting spurs, consisting in a series of rooms with a long Corinthian colonnade. Domes The rooms were partly marble-lined and partly decorated Delotl- with painted stucco, on which are incised a number of aria. interesting inscriptions and rude drawings. Here, in 1856, was found the celebrated caricature of the Crucified Christ, now in the Museo Kircheriano.9 The inscription CORINTHVS . EXIT . DE . PEDAGOGIO suggests that this building was at one time used as a school, perhaps for the imperial slaves.10 A number of soldiers' names also occur, e.g. HILARVS . MI . V . D . N . (Hilarus miles vestitor domini nostri ?) ; some are in mixed Latin and Greek characters. After one pair of names is inscribed PEREG, showing that they belonged to the corps called frumentarii stationed in the Castra Peregrinorum on the Caelian. Most of these inscriptions appear to be as early as the 1st century A.D. 11 These interesting graffiti have in great part perished during the last few years. Some inscriptions found in the larger rooms seem to indicate that the imperial wardrobe found a place in them. To the south of the Flavian state-rooms, on the side of the hill overlooking the Circus, was a building with a central peristyle (" Palace of Domitian " on Plan), which was excavated in 1775 and 7 The brick stamps on the tiles laid under the marble paving of the basilica have CN.DOMITI.AMANDI.VALEAT.QVI.FECIT., the last three words a common augury of good luck stamped on bricks or amphorae. ' Pal. dei Cesari (Verona, 1738) ; see Guattani, Not. di Antich. (1798). B See Kraus, Das Spottcrucifix vom Palatin (Freiburg, 1872), and Becker, Das Spottcrucifix, &c. (Breslau, 1866). io The paedagogium was, however, on the Caelian. Huelsen suggests that it is here used as a slang term for a prison. u See Henzen, in the Bull. Inst., 1863, p. 72, and 1867, p. 113. b Porticus of first w second centerp%. i-. C Foundations of Temple of 1'tctwy (1) d Remains of early walls e mars of first century B.C. f Foundations of ancient gateway g Staircase leading to Cryptoportiees P to 00 39 40 50 ur Yards S Sebastiano – '~ ~ a a Original limits of Domus Mariam again partly laid bare in 1869 and the following years. This has often, but wrongly, been called the palace of Augustus; we should rather see in it the dwelling-rooms of the Flavian palace. Adjoining it is the so-called stadium of the Palatine (" Hippodromus" on Plan), begun by Domitian, enlarged by Hadrian, and much altered or restored by Severus. The greater part of the outer walls and the large exedra or apse at the side, with upper floor for the emperor's seat, are of the time of Hadrian, as is shown by the brick stamps, and the character of the brick facing, which much' resembles that of the Flavian time (bricks 1i in. and joints i in. thick)). The stadium is surrounded with a colonnade of engaged shafts, forming a sort of aisle with gallery over it. Except those at the curved end, which are of Hadrian's time, these piers are of the time of Severus, as are also all the flat piers along the outer wall,—one opposite each of those in the inner line. Severus restored the galleries after the great fire of A.D. 191. This building was the hippodromus Palatii; the word here means, not a racecourse, but a garden (Plin. E p p. 5, 6, 19). In addition to the stadium, Hadrian built a number of very I In parts of the outer wall brick stamps of the Flavian period appear, e.g. FLAVI. AVG. L . CLONI—" [A brick] of Flavius Clonus, freedman of Augustus" (C.I.L. xv. 1149).handsome rooms, forming a palace on the south-east side and at the south-west end of the stadium. These rooms were partly destroyed and partly hidden by the later palace of Severus, the Hadrian's foundations of which in many places cut through and per, render useless the highly decorated rooms of Hadrian. The finest of these which is now visible is a room with a large window opening into the stadium near the south angle; it has intersecting barrel vaults, with deep coffers, richly ornamented in stucco. The oval structure shown in the plan (fig. 1o), with other still later additions, belongs to the 6th century; in its walls, of opus mixtum, are found brick stamps of the reign of Theodoric, c. 500. The palace of Septimius Severus was very extensive and of enormous height; it extends not only all over the south angle of the Palatine but also a long way into the valley of the Circus palace of Maximus and towards the Coelian. This part (like Severus. Caligula's palace) is carried on very lofty arched sub- structures, so as to form a level, uniform with the top of the hill, on which the grand apartments stood. The whole height from the base of the Palatine to several storeys above its summit must have been enormous. Little now remains of the highest storeys, except part of a grand staircase which led to them. Extensive baths originally decorated with marble linings and mosaics in glass and of Titus to the front' of Constantine's basilica, and on past the temple of Faustina. It is uncertain whether the continuation of this road to the arch of Severus was in later times called the Sacra Via or whether It rejoined its old line along the Basilica Julia by the cross-road in front of the Aedes Julii. Its original line past the temple of Vesta was completely built over in the 3rd and 4th centuries, and clumsily fitted pavements of marble and travertine occupy the place of the old basalt blocks? The course of the Nova Via,' (see Plan) along the north-east slope of the Palatine" was exposed in 1882-84. According to Varro (L.L. vi. 59) it was a very oft road. It led up from the Velabrutn, probably winding along the slope of the Palatine, round the north angle above the church of S. Maria Antiqua. The rest of its course, gently ascending towards the arch of Titus, is now exposed, as are also the stairs which connected it with the Clivus Victoriae at the northern angle of the Palatine; a continuation of these stairs led down to the marble, cover a great part of the top of the hilt These- and other parts of the Palatine were supplied with water by an aqueduct built by Nero in continuation of the Claudian aqueduct, some arches of which still exist on the slope of the • Palatine (" Aqua Claudia " on Plan) (see Spart. Sept. See. 24). One of ,the main roads up to the Palatine passes under the arched substructures of Severus, and near this, at the foot of the hill, at the south angle, Septimius Severus built an outlyying. part of his palace, a building of great splendour called the Septizodium,' or Hbuse of the Seven Planets. Part of the Septizodium existed as late as the reign of Sixtus V. ;(1585-9o), who destrdyed it in order to use its marble decorations and columns in the new basilica of St Peter; drawings of it are given by Du Perac, Vestigj di Roma (1575), pl. 131 and in other works of that century? The name Palatium seems to have originally denoted the southern' height of the' Palatine hill, while the summit overlooking the Vela- brum and brum was called Cermalus, and the saddle connecting the ;Celia and. Palatine and the Esquiline on which the temple of Venus and Rome and the arch of Titus now stand bore the name Vella.' It is evident that this was once higher than it is now; a great part of it was cut away when the level platform for the temple of Venus and Rome *as formed. The foundations of part of Nero's palace along the road between this temple and the Esquiline are exposed for about 20 to 30 ft. in height, showing a corresponding lowering of the level here, and the bare tufa rock, cut to a flat surface, is visible on the site of Hadrian's great temple; that the Velia was once much loftier is also indicated by the story of the removal of Valerius Publicola's dwelling.4 The arch of Titus, erected in memory of that emperor's subjugation of the Jews, but not completed until after,:. his, death, Arch of stands at the point where the Sacra Via crosses the Vella; Titus. it is>possible that it once stood farther. to the east and- was removed to its present position when the temple of !Venus and Rome was built. The well-known reliefs of the archway depict the Jewish triumph and the spoils of the Temple. In the middle ages the arch was converted into a fortress by the Frangipani; their additions were removed and the arch restored in its present shape in 1821. On the Velia and the adjoining Summa Sacra Via were the temples of the Lares and Penates which Augustus rebuilt.' The " Ardes Laru m " is probably distinct from the "Sacellum Larum " Sacra ybt mentioned by Tacitus (Ann. xii. 24) as one of the points in the line of the original pomeriunl. The temple of Jupiter Stator, traditionally vowed by Romulus during his repulse Temple of by the Sabines (Liv: i. 12), stood near the Porto Mugonia, Jupker and therefore neat the road leading up to the Palatine Stator. Sacra Via s To the south-east of the, arch of Titus (see Plan) are the remains of a concrete podiumwhich may have belonged to this temple in its latest form; and Comm. Boni discovered (in 1907) some early tufa walling close ,to the above named arch in which he recognized the foundations of the early Temple of temple. Augustus rebuilt the temple of Victory, which Victory. gave its nameto the Clivus Victoriae; this temple stood on the site of a prehistoric altar (Dionys. i. 32), and was more than once rebuilt,-e.g. by L. Postumius, 294 B.E. (Liv. -X. 33). In 193 B.C. an aedicula to Victory was built near it byPorcius Cato (Liv. xxxv. 9). Remains of the temple and a dedicatory inscription were found in 17287 not far ftoih the church of S. Teodoro; the temple was of Parian marble, with Corinthian columns of Numidian gialloentice. The Sacra Via started at the Sacellum Streniae, 'an unknown point on the Esquiline, probably in the valley of the Colosseum (Varro, L.L. v. 47), in the quarter called Cerolia. Thence it probably (in later times) passed round part of the 'Colosseum to the slope leading up to the arch of Titus on the Velia ; this piece of its course is lined on one side by remains of private houses, and farther back, against the cliff of the Palatine, are the substructures of the Area Apollinis. From the arch of Titus or Summa Sacra Via the original line of the road has been altered, probably when the temple of Venus and Rome was built by Hadrian. Its later course passed at a sharp angle from the arch' The form Septizonium is also found. 2 See Huelsen, Das Septizonium des Septimius Severus (Berlin, 1886) ; Maass, Die Tagesgotter in Rom and den Provinzen (Berlin, 1902). 8" Huic (Palatio) -Germalum et Velias conjunxerunt . ' Germalum ' a gerrnanis Romulo et Remo, quod ad ficum Ruminalem ibi inventi " (Varro, L.L. v. 54). ' Liv. ii. 7 ; Cic. Rep. ii. 31; see also Ascon. Ad Cic. in Pis. 52. 'AEDEM.LARVM.IN.SVMMA. SACRA. VI4.AEDEM.DEVM. PENATIVM . IN. VELIA ... FECI (Mon. Anc.). 8 Dionys. ii. 5o; see also Plut. Cic., 16; Ov. Fast. vi. 793, and Trist. iii. 1, 131. Near this temple, and also near the Porto Muggnia, was the house of Tarquinius Priscus (Liv. i. 41; Solin. i. 24). Owing to the • strength of its position this temple was more than once selected during troubled times as a safe meeting-place for the Senate; it was here, as being a " locus munitissimus," that Cicero delivered his First Catiline Oration (see Cic. In Ca& i. 1). 7 See Bianchini. Pal. dei Cesari (173E), p. 236, pl. vi -Forum." The extent of the once marshy Velabrum (Gr. 'Ferns) is not known, though part of its site is indicated by the church of S. Giorgio in Velabro; Varro (L.L. vi. 24) says, " extra urbem antiquate' Ve1a- fuit, non longe a porta Romanula." It was a district full of bruin. shops (Plaut. Capt. 489; Her. Sat. ii. 3, 30). The Vickie Tuscus on its course from the Forum to the Circus skirted the Velabrum (Dionys. v. 26), from which the goldsmiths' arch was an entrance into the Forum Boarium. From the S.W. end of the Velabrum the Clivus Victoriae rose in a gradual ascent along the slope of the Palatine and ultimately wound round the northern angle. Capitoline Hill12 The Capitoline hill, once called Mons Saturnius (Varro, L.L. v. 42), consists of two peaks, the Capitolium and the Arx, 3 with an intermediate valley (Asylum). The older name of the Capitolium was Mons Tarpeius (Varro, L.L. v. 41). Livy (i. o) mentions the founding of a shrine to Jupiter Feretrius on the Capitolium by Romulus;14 this summit was afterwards occupied by the great triple temple dedicated to Jupiter, Juno Temple of and Minerva, a triad of deities worshipped under the Jupiter names of Tinia, Thalna and Menerva in every Etruscan Capitol. city. This great temple was (Liv. i. 38, 53) founded III"' by Tarquin I., built by his son Tarquin II., and dedicated by M. Horatius Pulvillus, consul suffectus in 509 B.C.15 It was built in the Etruscan style, of peperino stuccoed and painted (Vitr. iii. 3), with wooden architraves, wide intercolutnniations and pa,inted terra-cotta statues.l8 It was rebuilt many times; the original temple lasted till it was burnt in, 83 B.c.; it was then refounded it marble by Sulla, with' Corinthian columns stolen froth .the temple of Olympian Zeus in Athens (Plin. Xxxvi. 4, 5), and was completed and dedicated by Q. Lutatius Catulus, whose name appeared on the front. Augustus, although he restored it at great expense (Mon. Anc. 4, 9), did not intro-duce his name by the side of that of Catulus. It was again burnt by the Vitellian rioters in A.D. 70, and rebuilt by Vespasian in 71.17 Lastly, it was burnt in the three days' fire of Titus's reign 18 and rebuilt with columns of Pentelic marble byDomitian; the gilding alone of this last rebuilding is said to have cost 22 millions sterling (Plut. Publ. 15). Extensive substructures of tufa have been exposed on the eastern peak; in 1875 a fragment of a fluted column was found, of such great size that it could only have belonged to the temple of Jupiter; and a few other architectural fragments have been discovered at different times. The western limit of the temple was determined in 1865, its eastern limit in 1875, and the S.E. angle in 1896. 8 See Jordan, Topographic der Stadt Rom. i. 2. 274-91. 8 See Solinus (i. 24) and Varro (ap. Gell. xvi. 17), who mention its two ends, summa and infima (cf. Liv. v. 32). 10 See Not. d. Scavi (1882), p. 234. Original level laid bare, 1904. " See marble plan on Plate VII. and cf. Ov. Fast. vi. 395. 12 See Rodocanachi, Le Capitole remain (1903; Eng. trans., 1906). 18 The first-named was the southern, the second the northern summit. 14 This is the earliest temple mentioned in Roman history. It was rebuilt by Augustus (Mon. Anc. 4, 5). " See Plut. Publ. 14; C.I.L. i. p. 487; Liv. ii. 8. Dionys. v.35 wrongly gives 507 B.C. 16 Plin. xxxv. 157; see Tac. Hist. iii. 72; Val. Max. v. 1o. 17 Suet. Vit. 15, and Vesp. 8; cf. Tac. Hist. iv. 53, and Dio Cass. lxvi. to. 1$ Suet. Dom. 5 ; Dio Cass. lxvi. 24. It appears that the figures given by Dionysius (iv. 61) for the area are slightly too large. The true measurements were 188 X 204 Roman ft.' The temple is represented on many coins, both republican and imperial; these show that the central cella was that of Jupiter, that of Minerva on his right and of Juno on his left. The door was covered with gold reliefs, which were stolen by Stilicho (c. 400; Zosim. V. 38), and the gilt bronze tiles (cf. Plin. xxxiii. 57) on the roof were partly stripped off by Geiseric in 455 (Procop. Bell. Vand. i. 5), and the rest by Pope Honorius I. in 63o (Marliani, Topogr. ii. s).2 Till 1348, when the steps up to Ara Coeli were built, there was no access to the Capitol from the back; hence the three ascents to it mentioned by Livy (iii. 7, v. 26-28) and Tacitus (Hist. iii. 71-72) were all from the inside of the Servian circuit. Even on this inner side it was defended by a wall, the gates in which are called " Capitolii fores" by Tacitus. Part of the outer wall at the top of the tufa rock, which is cut into a smooth cliff, is 'visible from the modern Vicolo della Rupe Tarpeia; this cliff is traditionally called the Tarpeian rock, but that must have been on the other side towards the Forum, from whence it was visible, as is dearly stated by Dionysius (vii. 35, viii. 78).3 Another piece of the ancient wall has been exposed, about half-way up the slope from the Forum to the Arx. It is built of soft yellow tufa blocks, five courses of which still remain in the existing fragment. The large temple of Juno Moneta (" the Adviser ") on the Arx, built by Camillus in 384 B.c., was used as the mint; hence moneta= " money " (Liv. vi. 20). A large 'number of other temples and smaller shrines stood on the Capitoline hill,'a word used broadly to include both the Capitolium and the Arx.' Among these were the temple of Honos and Virtus, built by Marius, and the temple of Fides, founded by Numa, and rebuilt during the First Punic war. Both these were large enough to hold meetings of the senate. The temples of Mars Ultor (Mon. Anc. 4, 5) and Jupiter Tonans (Suet. Aug. 29; Mon. Anc. 4, 3) were built by Augustus. Other shrines existed to Venus Victrix Ops, Jupiter Custos, and Concord—the last under the Arx (Liv. xxii. 33)—and many others, as well as a triumphal ,arch in honour of Nero, and a crowd of statues and other works of art (see Plin. H.N. xxxiii. 9, xxxiv. 38, 39, 40, 43, 44, 79, xxxv. 69, 100, 108, 157), so that the whole hill must have been a mass of architectural and artistic magnificence. The so-called Tabularium 5 occupies the central part of the side towards the Forum; it is set on the tufa rock, which is cut away Tabu- to receive its lower storey. It derives its name from an /strum inscription which remained in situ until the 15th century (C.I.L. vi. 1314) ; whilst all public departments had their tabularia, this was a central Record Office, where copies of laws, treaties, &c., were preserved. It was built by Catulus, who was also the dedicator of the great temple of Jupiter (Tac. Hist. 72; Dio Cass. xliii. 14), consul in 78 B.C. Its outer walls are of sperone, its inner ones of tufa; the Doric arcade has capitals, imposts and entablature of travertine. Above the arcade was a gallery or porticus, faced with a Corinthian colonnade; Of which a few architectural members have been found. The columns appear to have belonged to the 1st century A.D. A road paved with basalt passes through the building along this arcade, entered at one end from the Clivus Capitolinus, and at the other probably from the Gradus Monetae, a flight of steps leading from the temple of Concord and the Forum up to the temple of Juno Moneta on the Arx. The entrance from the Clivus Capitolinus is by a wide flat arch of peperino beautifully jointed; the other end' wall has been mostly destroyed. The back of this building overlooked the Asylum ' See Bull. Comm. Arch. iii. (1875), p. 165; Mon. Inst. v. pl. xxxvi., x. p1. 'pow; Jordan, Topographie der Stadt Rom, i. 2, 69; Notizie degli Scavi, 1896, p. 161, 1897, P. 3o; Richter, " Der kapitolinische Jupitertempel and der italische Fuss," in Hermes (1887), p. 17. 2 The pediment is shown on a relief new lost, but extant in the 16th century and reproduced in drawings of that date. It has been recently proved to have decorated the Forum of Trajan (Wace in Papers of the B.S.R. iv. p. 240, pl. xx.). The front of the temple is shown on one of the reliefs of Marcus Aurelius now in the Palazzo dei Conservatori (Papers of the B.S.R. iii. pl. xxvi.). ' See Rodocanachi, The Roman Capitol, p. 5o. A graceful account of the legend of Tarpeia is given by Propertius, Eleg. iv. 4. ' A structure of great sanctity, dating from prehistoric Etruscan times, was the Auguraculum, an elevated platform upon the Arx, from which the signs in the heavens were observed by the augurs (see Festus, ed. Muller, p. 1.8). s On the Tabularium see Delbruck, Hellenistische Bauten in Latium, i. (19M), PP. 23-46.or depression between the two-peaks. From this higher level a long steep staircase of sixty-seven steps descends towards the Forum; the doorway at the foot of these stairs has a flat arch, with a circular relieving arch over it; it was blocked up by the temple of Vespasian. Great damage was done to th's building by the additions of Boniface VIII. and Nicholas V., as well as by its being used as a salt store, by which the walls were much corroded .6 The Imperial Fora. The Forum Julium (see fig. Is, Plan), with its central temple of Venus Genetrix, was begun, about 54 B.C., by Julius (who dedicated it in an unfinished state in 46 B.c.) and' completed by Forum Augustus.' Being built on a crowded site it was some- what cramped, and the ground cost nearly a hundred 'halm"' million sesterces.6 Part of its circuit "wall, with remains of five arches, exists in the Via delle Marmorelle; and behind is a row of small vaulted rooms, probably shops or offices. The arches are slightly cambered with travertine springers. and keys; the rest, with the circular relieving arch over, is of tufa; it was once lined with slabs of marble, the holes for which exist. Foundations of the circuit wall exist under the houses towards S. Adriano, but the whole plan has not been made out. In the centre of the Forum stood the temple of Venus Genetrix, ;whose remains were seen and described by Palladio (Arch. iv. 31). This temple was vowed by Caesar at the battle of Pharsalus s The forum of Augustus (see fig. 11) adjoined that of Julius on its north-east side; it contained the temple of Mars Ultor, built to commemorate the vengeance taken on Caesar's murderers Forum of at Philippi, 42 B.C. (Ov. Fast. v. 575 seq.).10 It was Augustus surrounded with a massive wall of -peperino, over loo. ft. high, with travertine string-courses and cornice; a large piece of this wall still exists, and is one of the most imposing relics of ancient Rome. Against it are remains of the temple of Mars, three columns of which, with their entablature and marble ceiling of the peristyle, are still standing; it is Corinthian in style; very richly decorated, and built of fine Luna marble. The cella is of peperino, lined with marble; and the lower part of the lofty circuit wall seems also to have been lined with marble on the inside of the forum. The large archway by the temple (Arco dei Pantani) is of travertine. Palladio (Arch. iv.) and other writers of the 16th century give plans of the temple and circuit wall, showing much more than now exists. The temple, which was octastyle, with nine columns and a pilaster on the sides, occupied the centre, and on each side the circuit wall formed two large semicircular apses, decorated with tiers of niches for etatues.11 The Forum Pacis, built by Vespasian, was farther to the south-east; the only existing piece, a massive and lofty wall of mixed tufa and peperino, with a travertine archway, is opposite Foraat the end of the basilica of Constantine. The arch opened Park. into the so-called Templum Sacrae Urbis, a rectangular building entered by a portico on its west side, whose north wall was decorated with a marble plan of the city of Rome (see below, p. 608). The original plan was probably burnt with the whole group of buildings in this forum in 191, in the reign of Commodus (Dio Cass. lxxii. 24) ; but a new plan was made, and the building restored in concrete and brick by Severus. The north end wall, with the clamps for fixing the marble plan, still exists, as does also the other (restored) end wall with its arched windows towards the forum; one hundred and sixty-seven fragments of this plan were found c. 1563 as the foot of the wall to which they were fixed, and are now preserved in the Capitoline Museum; drawings of seventy-four pieces now tom are preserved in the Vatican1' (Cod. Vat. 3439). The whole. of these fragments were published by Jordan, Forma Urbis Romae (Berlin, 1874). Other fragments have since been brought to light, and the whole series was rearranged in the Palazzo dei Conservatori in 1903. The circular building at the end facing on the Sacra Via is an addition built by Maxentius in honour of his deified son Romulus; like the other buildings of Maxentius, it was rededicated: and inscribed with the name of his conqueror 6 The Porta Pandana (" ever-open gate ") gave access from the Area Capitolina, upon which the temple of Jupiter, stood, to the Tarpeian rock. 'See Mon. Anc. (quoted above); Plin. Hist., Nat. xxxv. 156, xxxvi. 103. 3 Cic. Ep. ad Att. iv. 16; Suet. Caes. 26; Plin. H.N. xxxvi. 103. ° See Dio Cass. xiiii. 22; Appian, Bell. Civ. ii. 102 ; Vitr. iii. 3; Plat. Caes. 6o. 10 The Ancyran inscription records—IN.PRI VATO.SOLO.[EMP]TO. MARTIS.ULTORIS.TEMPLVM.FORVMQVE,AVGVSTVM.EX. [MANI]BIIS.FECL, See Suet. Aug. 29, 56; Dio Cass. lvi. 27; Plin. H.N. xxxvi. 102, xxxv. 94, xxxiv. 48, v1i. 183, where many fine Greek works of art are mentioned as being in the forum of Augustus. 11 Those of Roman leaders and generals, from Aeneas and Romulus to Augustus. See Borsari, Fero d'Augusto, &c:, (1884). 12 An interesting description of this discovery is given by Vaeca, writing in 1594 (see Schreiber in- Berichte der sacks. Gesellsch. der Wissenschaften, 1.881). The scale is roughly i to 250. tram Ashler% ?opograpWe der Mad* Rom. by pr'minion of C.:,. B. b ho Verlagsbuthhandtuni. Constantine.' The original building of Vespasian was probably an archive and record office; it was certainly not a temple. The fine bronze doors at the entrance to the temple of Romulus are much earlier than the building itself, as are also the porphyry columns and very rich entablature which ornament this doorway. Pope Felix IV. (526–30) made the double building into the church of SS. Cosmo e Damiano, using the circular domed temple of Romulus as a porch.2 The chief building of Vespasian's forum was the Templum Pacis,3 dedicated in 75, one of the most magnificent in Rome, which contained a very large collection of works of art. The forum of Nerva (see fig. II) occupied the narrow strip left between the fora of Augustus and Vespasian; being little more Forum of than a richly decorated street, it was called the Forum Nerve. Transitorium or Forum Palladium, from the temple to Minerva which it contained. It was begun by Domitian, and dedicated by Nerva in 97 (see Suet. Dom. 5; Mart. i. 2, 8). Like the other imperial fora, it was surrounded by a peperino wall, not only lined with marble but also decorated with rows of Corinthian columns supporting a rich entablature with sculptured frieze. Two columns and part of this wall still exist; on the frieze are reliefs of weaving, fulling and various arts which were under the protection of Minerva. A great part of the temple existed till the time of Paul V., who in 16o6 destroyed it to use the remains for the building of the Acqua Paola.' In the reign of Severus Alexander a series of colossal bronze statues, some equestrian, were set round this forum; they represented all the previous emperors who had been deified, and by each was a bronze column inscribed with his res gestae (Hist. Aug.; Sev. Alex. 28). The forum of Trajan with its adjacent buildings was the last and, at least in size, the most magnificent of all ; it was in progress from Forum of 1 13 to 117, at least. A great spur of hill, which connected Forum Capitoline with the Quirinal, was cut away to make a Traian. level site for this enormous group of buildings. It consisted (see fig. II) of a large dipteral peristyle, with curved projections, lined with shops on the side. That against the slope of the Quirinal, three storeys high, still partly exists. The main entrance was through a triumphal arch (Dio Cass. Ixviii. 29). Aurei of Trajan show this arch and other parts of his forum.' The opposite side was occupied by the Basilica Ulpia (Jordan, F. U.R. 25, 26), part of which, with the column of Trajan, is now visible; none of the columns, which are of grey granite, are in situ, and the whole restoration is misleading. Part of the rich paving in oriental marble is genuine. This basilica contained two large libraries (Dio Cass. Ixviii. 16; Aul. Gell. xi. 17). For accounts of this group of buildings, see De Rossi, Bull. Arch. Crist. (1867), pp. 66 ff.; and Lanciani, Bull. Comm. Arch. Rom. (1882), pp. 29 if. 2 Hic (Felix) fecit basilicam SS. Cosmae et Damiani . in Via Sacra, juxta Templum Urbis Romae " (Lib. Pont., Vita S. Eelicis IV.). By the last words the basilica of Constantine is meant. Statues by Pheidias and Lysippus existed in the Forum Pacis as late as the 6th century (Procop. Bell. Goth. iv. 21). Drawings of it are given by Du Perac and Palladio (Arch. iv. 8). See Aul. Gell. xiii. 25, 2; and Amm. Marc. xvi. to, 15. The Columna Cochlis (so called from its spiral stairs) is,. including capital and base, 97 ft. 9 in. high' i.e. zoo Roman. ft.; its pedestal has reliefs of trophies of Dacian arms, and winged Victories. Teajan's On the shaft are reliefs arranged spirally in twenty-three column. tiers, scenes of Trajan's victories, containing about 2500 figures. Trajan's ashes were buried in a gold urn under this column (Dio Cass. lxviii. 16); and on the summit was a colossal gilt bronze statue of the emperor, now replaced by a poor- figure of St Peter, set there by Sixtus V.1 Beyond the column stood the temple of Trajan completed by Hadrian; its foundations exist under the buildings at the north-east side of the modern Temple of piazza, and many of its granite columns have been found. TraJan. This temple is shown on coins of Hadrian.' The architect of this magnificent group of buildings was Apollodorus of Damascus (Dio Cass. lxix. 4), who also designed many buildings in Rome during Hadrian's reign .9 In addition to the five imperial fora, and the Forum Magnum, Holitorium and Boarium, mentioned above, there were also smaller markets for pigs (Forum Suarium), bread (Forum Pistorium) and fish (Forum Piscarium), all of which, with some others, popularly but wrongly called fora, are given in the regionary catalogues. Other Temples, £s'c. Besides the temples mentioned in previous sections remains of many others still exist in Rome. The circular temple by the Tiber, in the Forum Boarium (Plan, No. 5), formerly thought ther, to be that of Vesta, is possibly that of Portunus, the god O temple'. of the harbour (Varro, L.L. vi. 19). Its design is similar to that of the temple of Vesta in the forum (fig. 8), and, except the entablature and upper part of the cella, which are gone, it is well Its pedestal is inscribed, " Senatus Populusque Romanus Imp, Caesari Divi Nervae F. Nervae Trajano Aug. Germ. Dacico Pontif. Maximo Trib. Pot. XVII. [i.e. Am. 113] Imp. VI. Cos. VI. P. P. ad declarandum quantae altitudinis mons et locus tantis operibus sit egestus." This would seem to indicate the height of the hill removed-to form the site, and is so explained by Dion Cass. (Ixviii. i6). It is impossible that the saddle connecting the Quirinal with the Capitoline hill can have been too ft. in height (Brocchi, Suolo di Roma, p. 133), but it may be that the cliff of the Quirinal was cut back to a slope reaching to a point about 72 ft. high; thus the statement of the inscription is much exaggerated. Comm. Boni has found the remains of a road beneath the pavement of the Forum, near the column, and believes that the inscription refers to the height of the buildings. Comparetti refers mons to the mass of marble quarried to build the Forum; Sogliano to the mass of ruins and rubbish carted away; Mau to the Servian agger between the Capitol and Quirinal (see Rom. Mitth., 1907, 187 ff.). 7 For the reliefs, see Cichorius, Die Reliefs der Trajanssaule (1896-1900) ; Petersen, Trajans dakische Kriege (1899–1903) ; Stuart Jones, Papers of the B. R. S., vol. v. From their lofty position they are now difficult to see, but originally must have been very fairly visible from the galleries on the colonnades which once surrounded the column. See Aul. Gell. xi. 17, 1; Hist. Aug. Hadr. 19; and compare Pausanias (v. 12, 6; x. 5, II), who mentions the gilt bronze roofs of Trajan's forum. 2 See Richter and Grifi, Ristauro del Fora Trajano (1839).
End of Article: AEDIS
AEDILE (Lat. aedilis)

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