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Originally appearing in Volume V12, Page 170 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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GODALMING, a market-town and municipal borough in the Guildford parliamentary division of Surrey, England, 34 M. S.W. of London by the London & South-Western railway. Pop. (1901) 8748. It is bC&utifully situatecj on the right bank of the Wey, which is navigable thence to the Thames, and on the high road the water runs into a reservoir from the lips of an image. But between London and Portsmouth. Steep hills, finely wooded, according to popular legend it proceeds from the same ultimate enclose the valley. The chief public buildings are the church of source as the Ganges, though underground. Its course is gener-SS. Peter and Paul, a cruciform building of mixed architecture, ally south-easterly. After passing through Nasik district, it but principally Early English and Perpendicular; the town-hall, crosses into the dominions of the nizam of Hyderabad. When Victoria hall, and market-house, and a technical institute and it again strikes British territory it is joined by the Pranhita, school of science and art. Charterhouse School, one of the with its tributaries the Wardha, the Penganga and Wainganga. principal English public schools, originally founded in 1611, was For some distance it flows between the nizam's dominions and transferred from Charterhouse Square, London, to Godalming-in the Upper Godavari district, and receives the Indravati, the Tal 1872. It stands within grounds 92 acres in extent, half a mile and the Sabari. The stream has here a channel varying from north of Godalming, and consists of spacious buildings in Gothic 1 to 2 M. in breadth, occasionally broken by alluvial islands. style, with a chapel, library and hall, besides boarding-houses, Parallel to the river stretch long ranges of hills. Below the masters' houses and sanatoria. (See CIARTERHOUSE.) Godalming junction of the Sabari the channel begins to contract. The has manufactures of paper, leather, parchment and hosiery, and flanking hills gradually close in on both sides, and the result is some trade in corn, malt, bark, hoops and timber; and the a magnificent gorge only 200 yds. wide through which the water Bargate stone, of which the parish church is built, is still quarried. flows into the plain of the delta, about 6o m. from the sea. The The borough is under a mayor, 6 aldermen and 18 councillors. head of the delta is at the village of Dowlaishweram, where the Area, 812 acres. main stream is crossed by the irrigation anicut. The river has Godalming (Godelminge) belonged to King Alfred, and was a seven mouths, the largest being the Gautami Godavari. The royal manor at the time of Domesday. The manor belonged to Godavari is regarded as peculiarly sacred, and once every twelve the see of Salisbury in the middle ages, but reverted to the crown years the great bathing festival called Pushkaram is held on its in the time of Henry VIII. Godalming was incorporated by banks at Rajahmundry. Elizabeth in 1574, when the borough originated. The charter The upper waters of the Godavari are scarcely utilized for was confirmed by James I. in 162o, and a fresh charter was irrigation, but the entire delta has been turned into a garden of granted by Charles II. in 1666. The borough was never repre- perennial crops by means of the anicut at Dowlaishweram, sented in parliament. The bishop of Salisbury in 1300 received the constructed by Sir Arthur Cotton, from which three main canals grant of a weekly market to be held on Mondays: the day was are drawn off. The river channel here is 3z M. wide. The anicut altered to Wednesday by Elizabeth's charter.: The bishop's is a substantial mass of stone, bedded in lime cement, about grant included a fair at the feast of St Peter and St Paul (29th of 24 M. long, 130 ft. broad at the base, and 12 ft. high. The June). Another fair at Candlemas (2nd of February) was granted stream is thus pent back so as to supply a volume of 3000 cubic ft. by Elizabeth. The market is still held. The making of cloth, of water per second during its low season, and 12,000 cubic ft. particularly Hampshire kerseys, was the staple industry of at time of flood. The main canals have a total length of 493 m., Godalming in the middle ages, but it began to decay early in the irrigating 662,000 acres, and all navigable; and there are 1929 M. 17th-century and by 185o was practically 'extinct. As in other of distributary channels. In 1864 water-communication was cases, dyeing was subsidiary to the cloth industry. Tanning, opened between the deltas of the Godavari and Kistna. Rocky introduced in the 15th century, survives. The present manu- barriers and rapids obstruct navigation in the upper portion of facture of fleecy hosiery dates from the end of the 18th century. the Godavari. Attempts have been made to construct canals
End of Article: GODALMING

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