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Originally appearing in Volume V15, Page 957 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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KWANGCHOW BAY' (KWANGCxow WAN), a coaling station on the south coast of China, acquired, along with other con-cessions, by the French government in April i8g8. It is situated on the east side of the peninsula of Lienchow, in the province of Kwangtung, and directly north of the island of Hainan. It is held on lease for 99 years on similar terms to those by which Kiaochow is held by Germany, Port Arthur by Japan and Wei-hai-wei by Great Britain. The cession includes the islands lying in the bay; these enclose a roadstead 18 m. long by 6 in. wide, with admirable natural defences and a depth at no part of less than 33 ft. The bay forms the estuary of the Ma-Ts'e river, navigable by the largest men-of-war for 12 in. from the coast. The limits of the concession inland were fixed in November 1899. On the left bank of the Ma-Ts`e France gained from Kow Chow Fu a strip of territory 11 m. by 6 m., and on the right bank a strip 15 M. by 11 m. from Lei Chow Fu. The country is well populated; the capital and 'chief town is Lei Chow. The cession carries with it full territorial jurisdiction during the continuance of the lease. In January 1900 it was placed under the authority of the governor-general of Indo-China, who in the same month appointed a civil administrator over the country, which was divided into three districts. The population of the territory is about 189,000. A mixed tribunal has been instituted, but the local organization is maintained for purposes of administration. In addition to the territory acquired, the right has been given to connect the bay by railway with the city and harbour of Ompon, situated on the west side of the peninsula, and in consequence of difficulties which were offered by the provincial government on the occasion of taking possession, and which compelled the French to have recourse to arms, the latter demanded and obtained exclusive mining rights in the three adjoining prefectures. Two lines of French steamships call at the bay. By reason of the great strategical importance of the bay, and the presence of large coal-beds in the near neighbourhood, much importance is attached by the French to the acquirement of Kwangchow Wan. KWANG-SI, a southern province of China, bounded N. by Kwei-chow and Hu-nan, E. and S. by Kwang-tung, S.W. and W. by French Indo-Chino and Yun-nan. It covers an area of 8o,000 sq. m. It is the least populous province of China, its inhabitants numbering (1908) little over 5,000,000. The Skias, an aboriginal race, form two-thirds of the population. The provincial capital is Kwei-lin Fu, or City of the Forest of Cinnamon Trees, and there are besides ten prefectural cities. The province is largely mountainous. The principal rivers are the Si-kiang and the Kwei-kiang, or Cinnamon River, which takes its rise in the district of Hing-gan, in the north of the province, and in the neighbourhood of that of the Siang river, which flows northward through Hu-nan to the Tungt'ing Lake. The Kwei-kiang, on the other hand, takes a southerly course, and passes the cities of Kwei-lin, Yang-so Hien, Ping-le Fu, Chao-p'ing Hien, and so finds its way to Wu-chow Fu, where it joins the waters of the Si-kiang. Another considerable river is the Liu-kiang, or Willow River, which rises in the mountains inhabited by the Miao-tsze, in Kwei-chow. Leaving its source it takes a south-easterly direction, and enters Kwang-si, in the district of Hwai-yuen. After encircling thecity of that name, it flows south as far as Liu-ch'eng Hien, where it forms a junction with the Lung-kiang, or Dragon River. Adopting the trend of this last-named stream, which has its head-waters in Kwei-chow, the mingled flow passes eastward, and farther on in a south-easterly direction, by Lai-chow Fu, Wu-suan Hien, and Sin-chow Fu, where it receives the waters of the Si-kiang, and thenceforth changes its name for that of its affluent. The treaty ports in Kwang-si are Wuchow Fu, Lung-chow and Nanning Fu. KWANG-TUNG, a southern province of China, bounded N. by Hu-nan, Kiang-si and Fu-kien, S. and E. by the sea, and W. by Kwang-si. It contains an area, including the island of Hainan, of 75,500 sq. m., and is divided into nine prefectures; and the population is estimated at about 30,000,000. Its name, which signifies " east of Kwang," is derived, according to Chinese writers, from the fact of its being to the east of the old province of Hu-kwang, in the same way that Kwang-si derives its name from its position to the west of Hu-kwang. Kwang-tung extends for more than 60o m. from east to west, and for about 420 from north to south. It may be described as a hilly region, forming part as it does of the Nan Shan ranges. These mountains, speaking generally, trend in a north-east and south-westerly direction, and are divided by valleys of great fertility. The principal rivers of the province are the Si-kiang, the Pei-kiang, or North River, which rises in the mountains to the north of the province, and after a southerly course joins the Si-kiang at San-shui Hien; the Tung-kiang, or East River, which, after flowing in a south-westerly direction from its source in the north-east of the province, empties itself into the estuary which separates the city of Canton from the sea; and the Han River, which runs a north and south course across the eastern portion of the province, taking its rise in the mountains on the western frontier of Fu-kien and emptying itself into the China Sea in the neighbourhood of Swatow. Kwang-tung is one of the most productive provinces of the empire. Its mineral wealth is very considerable, and the soil of the valleys and plains is extremely fertile. The principal article of export is silk, which is produced in the district forming the river delta, extending from Canton to Macao and having its apex at San-shui Hien. Three large coal-fields exist in the province, namely, the Shao-chow Fu field in the north; the Hwa Hien field, distant about 30 M. from Canton; and the west coast field, in the south-west. The last is by far the largest of the three and extends over the districts of Wu-ch'uen, Tien-pai, Yang-kiang, Yang-ch'un, Gan-ping, K'ai-p'ing, Sin-hing, Ho-shan, Sin-hwang, and Sin-ning. The coal from the two first-named fields is of an inferior quality, but that in the west coast field is of a more valuable kind. Iron ore is found in about twenty different districts, notably in Ts'ing-yuen, Ts'ung-hwa, Lung-men, and Lu-feng. None, however, is exported in its raw state, as all which is produced is manufactured in the province, and principally at Fat-shan, which has been called the Birmingham of China. The Kwang-tung coast abounds with islands, the largest of which is Hainan, which forms part of the prefecture of K`iung-chow Fu. This island extends for about ioo m. from north to south and the same distance from east to west. The southern and eastern portions of Hainan are mountainous, but on the north there is a plain of some extent. Gold is found in the central part; and sugar, coco-nuts, betel-nuts, birds' nests, and agar agar, or sea vegetable, are among the other products of the island. Canton, Swatow, K'iung-chow (in Hainan), Pakhoi, San-shui are among the treaty ports. Three ports in the province have been ceded • or leased to foreign powers—Macao to Portugal, Hong-Kong (with Kowloon) to Great Britain, and Kwangchow to.France.
End of Article: KWANGCHOW

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