Online Encyclopedia


Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V25, Page 123 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
Spread the word: it!
COMTE JOSEPH JEROME SIMEON (1749–1842), French jurist and politician, was born at Aix on the 3oth of September 1749. His father, Joseph Sextius Simeon (1717-1788), had been professor of law and royal secretary for the parlement of Provence. J. J. Simeon followed his father's profession, but he was outlawed for his share in the federalist movement in 1793, and only returned to France after the revolution of Thermidor. In the council of the Five Hundred, of which he was now a member, he took the conservative side. In 1799, for protesting against the invasion of the chamber by P. F. C. Augereau, he was imprisoned until the 18th Brumaire (9th November). In the Tribunate he had an important share in the preparation of the Civil Code, being rewarded by a seat in the council of state. In 1807 he was one of the commissioners sent to organize the new kingdom of Westphalia, and was premier of King Jerome. He served the Restoration as councillor of state and in the chamber of peers. In 1820 he was under-secretary of state for justice, and in the next year minister of the interior until the fall of the Richelieu ministry. A baron of the Empire become the permanent headquarters of many of the official establishments. During the season Simla is the focus of Indian society; and viceregal and other balls, and entertainments of every description, are frequent. Simla is the headquarters of a volunteer rifle corps, and there are numerous libraries and institutes, of which the chief is the United Service Institution, with a subsidy from government. The two chief medical institutions are the Ripon and Walker hospitals. There are a theatre, concert room and numerous churches. Educational institutions include Bishop Cotton's school for boys, the Mayo industrial school for girls, several aided schools for European boys and girls, and two Anglo-vernacular schools for natives. The Lawrence military asylums are at Sanawar, near Kasauli. The DISTRICT OF SIMLA has an area of lot sq. m., and had a population in 1901 of 40,351. The mountains of Simla and the surrounding native states compose the S. outliers of the great central chain of the E. Himalaya. They descend in a gradual series from the main chain to the general level of the Punjab plain, forming a transverse S.W. spur between the great basins of the Ganges and the Indus. S. and E. of Simla the hills between the Sutlej and the Tons centre in the great peak of Chor, 11,982 ft. above sea-level. Throughout all the hills forests of deodar abound, while rhododendrons clothe the slopes up to the limit of perpetual snow. The principal rivers are the Sutlej, Pabar, Giri, Gambhar and Sarsa. The acquisition of the patches of territory forming the district dates from various times subsequent to the close of the Gurkha War in 1816, which left the British in possession of the whole tract of hill-country from the Gogra to the Sutlej. Kumaon and Dehra Dun were annexed to the British dominions; but the rest, with the exception of a few localities retained as military posts and a portion sold to the raja of Patiala, was restored to the hill rajas, from whom it had been wrested by the Gurkhas. Garhwal state became attached to the North-Western Provinces; but the remaining principalities rank among the dependencies of the Punjab, and are known collectively as the Simla Hill States, under the superintendence of the deputy-commissioner of Simla, subordinate to the commissioner at Umballa. The chief of the Simla Hill States—which number 28 in all—are Jubbal, Bashahr, Keonthal, Baghal, Bilaspur and Hindur.
End of Article: COMTE JOSEPH JEROME SIMEON (1749–1842)

Additional information and Comments

There are no comments yet for this article.
» Add information or comments to this article.
Please link directly to this article:
Highlight the code below, right click and select "copy." Paste it into a website, email, or other HTML document.