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Originally appearing in Volume V25, Page 582 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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SPANISH LITERATURE The name Spanish in connexion with literature is now generally restricted to works in the Castilian tongue. In the present article it is taken in the wider sense as embracing the literary productions of the whole Iberian Peninsula, with the exceptions of Portugal and of Galicia, the latter of which, as regards language and literature, belongs to the Portuguese domain. Spanish literature thus considered falls into twA divisions—Castilian and Catalan. I. Castilian Literature.—Of the Castilian texts now extant none is of earlier date than the 12th century, and very probably none goes farther back than 1150. The text generally accepted as the oldest—the Mystery of the Magian Kings, as it is rather inappropriately designated by most historians of literature—is a fragment of a short semi-liturgical play meant to be acted in the church of Toledo on the feast of Epiphany. Manifestly an imitation of the Latin Judi represented in France during the early years of the 12th century, the Spanish piece cannot have been composed much before 1150. The national hero Rodrigo Diaz de Bivar (d. 1099), better known in history by the Arabic surname of the Cid, was cele- brated in the vulgar tongue in two poems, neither Heroic of which has come down to us in its entirety. The Poetry. more ancient cantar, usually entitled Poema del Cid, since it was originally edited (1779) by Tomas Antonio Sanchez, relates in its first part the valiant deeds (gesta) of the Cid subsequent to his quarrel with Alphonso VI.; in the second the capture of Valencia, the reconciliation of the hero with the king and the marriage of his daughters with the infantes of Carrion; and in the third the treason of the infantes, the vengeance of the Cid, and the second marriage of his daughters with the infantes of Navarre and Aragon. The narrative of the last years of the Cid, which closes the epic, is much curtailed. Whilst in the Poema the Cid appears as the loyal vassal, deploring the necessity of separating from his king, the Cid of the second poem, CrOnica rimada del Cid, is almost a rebel and at least a refractory vassal who dares treat his sovereign as an equal. The portion of the CrOnica which has been preserved deals in the main with the youth of Rodrigo; it contains the primitive version of his quarrel with the Count Gomez de Gormaz and the marriage of the slayer with Ximena, the Count's daughter, and also a series of fabulous episodes, such as the Cid's journey to France to fight with the twelve peers of Charlemagne, &c. The Poema, which survives in a 14th-century manuscript, be-longs to about the middle of the 12th century; the form under which the CrOnica text has reached us is at least two centuries later; but, on the other hand, several traditions collected by the author bear an incontestable stamp of antiquity. The versification of both poems is irregular. Normally this epic measure may be. divided into two hemistichs of seven or eight syllables each; but here the lines sometimes fall short of this number and sometimes exceed it; the strophes follow the model of the laisses of the French chansons de geste—that is, they have a single assonance and vary greatly in extent. A fragment of an epic poem on the infantes de Lara has been reconstituted from the CrOnica general by Ramon Menendez Pidal (1896) ; if similar poems existed on real personages like Roderick, or mythical heroes like Bernardo del Carpio, they have not survived. Still the frequent allusions in the chronicles to the narratives of the juglares suggest that Castilian heroic poetry was richer than the scarcity of the monuments now extant would lead us to believe. Fernan Gonzalez, first in-dependent count of Castile (loth century), has alone been celebrated in a poem composed (about 1250 or later) in single-rhyme quatrains. With the heroic poetry which takes its themes from the national history and legends, there grew up in the 13th century a school Poems of of religious and didactic poetry, the most eminent 13th Gen- representative of which is Gonzalo de Berceo (1 18o?-tiny. 1246?). This poet, born at Berceo (Logrono), composed several lives of Spanish saints, and other devotional poems, such as the Miracles and the Praises of the Virgin. Berceo calls his poems prosa, decir, dictado, indicating thereby that he intended them to be read and recited, not sung like the cantares. They are written in single-rhyme quatrains and in verses of twelve to fourteen syllables, according its the ending of each hemistich is masculine or feminine. In the same metre were composed, also in the 13th century, two long poems—one on Alexander the Great, the other on Apollonius of Tyre—after Latin and French sources. The author of the first of these poems contrasts his system of versification, which he calls ?tester de clerecia, with the mester de joglaria used in heroic poetry, and intended to be sung; and he declares that this single-rhyme quatrain (curso rmado por la quaderna via) consists of counted syllables. The composer of Apolonio calls this same versification nueva mestria. The single-rhyme quatrain, introduced in imitation of the French poetry of the 12th century,became from the time of Berceo and the Alixandre and Apolonio the regular form in Castilian narrative and didactic poetry, and prevailed down to the close of the 14th century. To the 13th century are assigned a Life of St Mary the Egyptian, translated from the French, perhaps through a Provencal version, and an Adoration of the Three Kings, in verses of eight or nine syllables rhyming in pairs (act, bb, cc, &c.), as well as a fragment of a Debate between Soul and Body, in verses of six or seven syllables, evidently an imitation of one of the medieval Latin poems, entitled Rixa animi et corporis. The oldest lyric in Castilian, La Raz6n feita d'amor, belongs to the same period and probably derives from a French source; it bears the name of Lope de Moros, who, however, seems to have been merely the copyist. Mention may here also be made of the cantigas (songs) of Alphonso the Learned in honour of the Virgin, although, being in the Galician dialect, these properly belong to the history of Portuguese literature. The 14th century saw the birth of the most original medieval Spanish poet. Juan Ruiz, archpriest of Hita (near Guadalajara), has left us a poem of irregular composition, poetry of in which, while reproducing apologues and dits 14th Cenfrom foreign sources, he frequently trusts to his turf. own inspiration. Ruiz celebrates love and woman; his book is of buen amor, that is, he shows by his own experience and the example of those whom he follows how a man may become a successful lover. By way of precaution, the poet represents himself as one who has survived his illusions, and maintains that carnal love (loco amor) must finally give place to divine love; but this mask of devotion cannot disguise the real character of the work. The Rimado de palacio of Pero Lopez de Ayala, chancellor of Castile at the end of the 14th century, does not refer exclusively to court life; the author satirizes with great severity the vices of all classes of laymen and church-men. Akin to this Rimado de palacio are the proverbios morales of the Jew Sem Tob of Carrion, dedicated to Peter the Cruel (1350 to 1369). The Poema de Alfonso Onceno, by Rodrigo Yanez, is a far-off echo of the epical poems, the laisses being superseded by octo-syllabic lines with alternate rhymes. The General Dance of Death and a new version of the Debate between Soul and Body, both in eight-line strophes of arte mayor (verses of twelve syllables), and both imitated from French originals, are usually referred to this period; they both belong, however, to the 15th century. The word " romance " not only signifies in Spain, as in other Romanic countries, the vulgar tongue, but also bears the special meaning of a short epic narrative poem (historic Romances. ballad) or, at a later date, a short lyric poem. As regards the form, the " romance " (Spanish el romance, in contrast to French, &c., la romance) is a composition in long verses of sixteen syllables ending with one assonance; these verses are often wrongly divided into two short lines, the first of which, naturally, is rhymeless. This being the form of the romance verse, the CrOnica rimada del Cid, and even the Poema (though in this case the influence of the French alexandrines is perceptible), might be considered as a series of romances; and in fact several of the old romances of the Cid, which form each an independent whole and were printed as separate poems in the 16th century, are partly to be found in the CrOnica. Other romances, notably those dealing with the heroes of the Carolingian epic, so popular in Spain, or with the legendary figures which Spanish patriotism opposed to the French paladins—as, for example, Bernardo del Carpio, the rival and the conqueror of Roland in Castilian tradition—seem to be detached fragments of the canlares de gesta mentioned by Alphonso X. At the close of the 15th century, and especially during the 16th, the romances, which had previously passed from mouth to mouth, began to be written down, and afterwards to be printed, at first on broadsheets (pliegos sueltos) and subsequently in collections (romanceros) ; these are either general collections, in which romances of very different date, character and subject are gathered together, or are collections restricted tc a single episode or personage (for example, the Romancero 5 8 o del Cid). In such romanceros the epic verse is usually regarded as octosyllabic and is printed as such; occasionally certain editions divide the romance into strophes of four verses (cuartetas). King Alphonso X. (d. 1284), under whose patronage were published the code entitled Las Siete partidas and several great Prose scientific compilations (such as the Libros de astro-Chronkles, nomia and the Lapidario), was also the founder of 13th-pith Spanish historiography in the vulgar tongue. The Centuries. CrOnica general, composed under his direction, consists of two distinct parts: the one treats of universal history from the creation of the world to the first centuries of the Christian era (La General a grant historia) ; the other deals exclusively with the national history (La CrOnica b Historia de Espana) down to the death of Ferdinand III. (1252), father of Alphonso. The main sources of the CrOnica general are two Spanish ecclesiastical chroniclers of the 13th century—Lucas of Tuy and Rodrigo of Toledo; both wrote in Latin, but their works were early translated into the vernacular. In the Historia de Espana, printed in its true form for the first time in 1906, are collected many legends and occasional references to the songs of the juglares (for the purpose, however, of refuting them), the narrative relating to the Cid being partly based on an Arabic text. This portion, as recast in the CrOnica de Castilla compiled by order of Alphonso XI., was published apart by Juan de Velorado under the title of the Cronica del Cid (1512), and has often been reprinted. Alphonso's example bore fruit In the 14th century we find another CrOnica general de Espana or de Castilla, constructed on the model of the first and embracing the years 1030-1312; next, the Grant crbnica de Espana and the Grant CrOnica de los conqueridores, compiled by command of the grand master of the order of St John of Jerusalem, Juan Fernandez de Heredia (1310-1396), about 1390. Special chronicles of each king of Castile were soon written. Our information is defective regarding the authorship of the chronicles of Alphonso X., Sancho IV., Ferdinand IV. and Alphonso XI.; but the four following reigns—those of Pedro I., Henry II., John I. and Henry IIl.—were dealt with by Pero Lopez de Ayala; here we recognize the man of literary culture who had acquired some knowledge of ancient history, for the form of the narrative becomes freer and more personal, and the style rises with the thought. Alvar Garcia de Santa Maria and other writers whose names are not recorded probably compiled the chronicle of John II.; the events of Henry IV.'s disastrous reign were related by Diego Enriquez del Castillo and Alfonso Fernandez de Palencia; the triumphs of the Catholic sovereigns Ferdinand and Isabella by Fernando del Pulgar and Andres Bernandez. With these royal chronicles should be mentioned some biographies of important persons. Thus in the 15th century the chronicle of Pedro Nino, count of Buelna (1375-Biographies. 1446), by Gutierre Diez de Games; that of AIvaro de Luna, constable of Castile (d. 1453); and a curious book of travels, the narrative of the embassy sent by Henry III. of Castile to Timur in 1403, written by the head of the mission, Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo. The other productions of Castilian prose in the 13th and 14th centuries are for the most part didactic and sententious 0therprose compositions, which, however, contain illustrations worts of or tales of Eastern origin. The Spanish translation 13th and of Kalila and Dimna, made direct from an Arabic 14th text, dates from the middle of the 13th century, Centuries. and the romance of the Seven Sages (Sindibad), translated under the title of Libro de los enganos P asayatnientos de las mugeres, is referred to 1253. From the second half of the 13th century the collections of aphorisms, dits, apologues and moral tales become very numerous: first of all, versions of the Secretion secretorum, attributed in the middle ages to Aristotle, one of which is entitled Poridat de las poridades, next the Proverbios buenos, the Bocados de oro or Libro de bonium, Rey de Persia and the Libro de los gatos, which is derived from the Narrationes of Odo of Cheriton. During the first half of the 14th century the nephew of Alphonso X., the[LITERATURE infante Juan Manuel, wrote the various works which place him in the first rank of medieval Spanish prose writers. The best known is the collection of tales, many of them borrowed from Oriental sources, entitled El Conde Lucanor; but, besides this contribution to literature, he wrote graver and still more didactic treatises. The knowledge of antiquity, previously so vague, made remarkable progress in the 14th century. Curiosity was awakened concerning certain episodes of ancient history, such as the War of Troy, and Benoit de Sainte-More's poem and the Latin narrative of Guido delle Colonise were both translated. Lopez de Ayala translated, or caused to be translated, Pierre Bersuire's French version of Livy, Boetius and various writings of Isidore of Seville and Boccaccio. While the Carolingian cycle is mainly represented in Spain by assonanced romances, of which the oldest seem to be fragments of lost poems by the juglares, the British cycle (Lancelot, Tristram, Merlin, &c.) is represented Books of Chivalry. almost exclusively by works in prose (see ROMANCE). Those narratives are known only in 15th and 16th century editions, and these have been more or less modified to suit the taste of the time; but it is impossible not [to recognize that books such as El Baladro del sable Merlin (1498) and La Demanda del sancto grial (1515) presuppose a considerable antecedent literature of which they are only the afterglow. The principal French romances of the Round Table were translated and imitated in Spain and in Portugal as early as the first half of the 14th century at least; of that there is no doubt. 'And, even if there were not satisfactory testimony on this point, the prodigious development in Spanish literature of the caballerias, or " books of chivalry," incontrovertibly derived from fictions of Breton origin, would be proof enough that at an early date the Spaniards were familiar with these romantic tales derived from France. The oldest work of the. kind is El Caballero Cifar, composed at the beginning of the 14th century, but the first book of real importance in the series of strictly Spanish caballerias is the Amadis de Gaula. Certain considerations lead one to seek for the unknown author of the first Amadis in Portugal, where the romances of the Round Table were more highly appreciated than in Spain, and where they have exercised a deeper influence on the national literature. To Garci Rodriguez de Montalvo, however, falls the honour of having preserved the book by printing it; he made the mistake of diluting the original text and of adding a continuation, Las Sergas de Esplandidn. Allied to Montalvo's Amadis with its supplementary Esplandidn (15io) are the Don Florisando (151o) and the Lisuarte de Grecia (1514), the Amadis de Grecia (1514), the Don Florisel de Niquea (1532-1551), &e., which form what Cervantes called the " Amadis sect." Parallel with the Amadises are the Palmerines, the most celebrated of which are Palmerin de Oliva (1511), Primaleon (1512), and Palmerin de Inglaterre,which was first written in Portuguese by Moraes Cabral. None of those caballerias inspired by the Amadis were printed or even written before the 16th century, and they bear the stamp of that period; but they cannot be separated from their medieval model, the spirit of which they have preserved. Among the caballerias we may also class some narratives derived from the Carolingian epic—the Historia del emperador Carlomagno y de los dote pares, a very popular version still reprinted of the French romance of Fierabras, the Espejo de caballerias, into which has passed a large part of Boiardo's Orlando innamorato, the Historia de la reiga Sibilla, &c. The first half of the 15th century, or what comes almost to the same thing, the reign of John II. of Castile (1407-1454), is characterized as regards his literature (1) by the poetry of development of a court poetry, artificial and pre- 15th tentious; (2) by the influence of Italian literature Century. on Castilian prose and poetry, the imitation of Boccaccio and Dante, especially of the latter, which introduced into Spain a liking for allegory; and (3) by more assiduous intercourse with antiquity. After the example of the Provencal troubadours whose literary doctrines had made their way into Castile through Portugal and Catalonia, poetry was dramatic performances intended to explain to the faithful the now styled the arte de trobar. The arte de trobar is strictly " court " poetry, which consists of short pieces in complicated measures—love plaints, debates, questions and repartees, motes with their glosas, burlesque and satirical songs—verse wholly " occasional " and deficient in charm when separated from its natural environment. In order to understand and appreciate these pieces they must be read in the collections made by the poets of the time, where each poem throws light on the others. The most celebrated cancionero of the 15th century is that compiled for the amusement of his sovereign by Juan Alfonso de Baena; it is, so to say, the official collection of the poetic court of John II., although it also contains pieces by poets of earlier dates. After Baena's collection may be mentioned the Cancionero de Sticiiiga, which contains the Castilian poems of the trobadores who followed Alphonso V. of Aragon to Naples. These cancioneros, consisting of the productions of a special group, were succeeded by collections of a more miscellaneous character in which versifiers of very different periods and localities are brought together, the pieces being classed simply according to their type. The earliest genuine Cancionero general (though it does not bear the title) is that compiled by Juan Fernandez de Constantina, which appears to have been issued from the Valencia press at the beginning of the 16th century; the second, much better known, was published for the first time at Valencia in 151I by Hernando del Castillo. The other poetic school of the 15th century, which claims to be specially related to the Italians, had as its leaders Juan de Mena, author of the Coronaci6n and the Laberinto de Fortuna, and the marquis of Santillana, Ingo Lopez de Mendoza, who in his sonnets was, perhaps, the first to imitate the structure of the Italian hendecasyllabics. With those two chiefs, who may be designated poelas as distinguished from the decidores and the trobadores of the cancioneros, must be ranked Francisco Imperial, a Genoese by descent, who at a somewhat earlier date helped to acclimatize in Spain the forms of Italian poetry. The marquis of Santillana occupies a considerable place in the literature of the 15th century not only by reason of his poems, but through the sup-port he afforded to all the writers of his time, and the impulse he gave to the study of antiquity and to the labours of translators. In the next generation the most prominent figures are Gomez Manrique and Jorge Manrique, the latter of whom has produced a short poem which is a masterpiece. With the exception of the chronicles and some caballerias the prose of the 15th century contains little that is striking. prose or The translation of Virgil by Enrique de Villena 15th Gen- is ponderous and shows no advance on the versions iury of Latin authors made in the previous century. A curious and amusing book, full of details about Spanish manners, is the Corbacho (1438) of the archpriest of Talavera, Alfonso Martinez de Toledo, chaplain to King John II.; the Corbacho belongs to the numerous family of satires against women, and this title, by which it is commonly known—borrowed from a work of Boccaccio's, with which it has otherwise nothing in common—indicates that he has not spared them. The ancient liturgical Spanish theatre is known to us only by fragments of the play of the Magian Kings, already nramatb mentioned; but certain regulations given in the Literature. Siete partidas (compiled between 1252 and 1257) prove that such a theatre existed, and that at the great festivals, such as Christmas, Epiphany and Easter, dramatic representations were given in church. These repre- sentations, originally a simple commentary on the liturgy, were gradually adulterated with buffoonery, which frequently brought down the censure of the clergy. Alphonso X. even thought it necessary to forbid the " clerks " playing juegos de escarnios, and permitted in the sanctuary only dramas destined to commemorate the principal episodes of the life of Christ. Of all the Church festivals, the most popular in Spain was that of Corpus Christi, instituted by Urban IV. in 1264. At an early date the celebration of this festival was accompanied with eucharistic mystery. These dramas, called autos sacramentales, acquired more and more importance; in the 17th century, with Calderon, they become grand allegorical pieces, regular theological dissertations in the form of dramas. To the auto sacra-mental corresponds the auto at nacimiento, or drama of the Nativity. In Spain, as elsewhere, the secular theatre is a product of the religious theatre. Expelled from the Church, the juegos de escarnios took possession of the public squares and there attained free development; ceasing to be a mere travesty of dogma, they developed into a drama whose movement is no longer determined by the liturgy, and whose actors are borrowed from real life in Spanish society. This new theatre begins towards the close of the 15th century, with the pastoral pieces of Juan del Encina, which, after Virgil's example, he calls eglogas. Genuine shepherds are the interlocutors of these bucolics, into which are also sometimes introduced students, and Lucas Fernandez, a contemporary and pupil of Encina's, introduces gentlemen and soldiers. A book which, strictly speaking, does not belong to the theatre, the Tragicomedia de Calixto y Melibea, much better known as La Celestina, caused the new theatre, still rudimentary in the attempts of the school of Encina, to make a step onwards. This astonishing novel taught the Spaniards the art of dialogue, and for the first time exhibited persons of all classes of society (particularly the lowest) speaking in harmony with their natural surroundings. The progress caused by the Celestina may be estimated by means of the Propaladia of Bartolome de Torres Naharro, a collection of pieces represented at Rome in presence of Leo X. Torres Naharro is thought to have borrowed from France the division of the play into " days " (tornados); shortly after Naharro we find the comedy of manners in Lope de Rueda, whose dramatic work is composed of regular comedies constructed on the model of Italian authors of the beginning of the 16th century, and also of little pieces intended for performance in the intervals between the larger plays (entremeses and pasos), some of which are models of sprightly wit. Some of Naharro's, and especially of Rueda's, pieces foreshadow the comedy of intrigue, which is emphatically the type of the classic stage. But to reach Lope de Vega, the Spanish stage had to be enlarged in relation to national history. A poet of Seville, Juan de la Cueva, first brought on the boards subjects such as the exploits of the Cid, Bernardo del Carpio, and others, which had previously been treated of only in the romances. To a poet called Berrio, of whose work nothing has been preserved, are attributed the comedias of Moors and Christians, in which were represented famous episodes of the ;.ge-long struggle against the infidel. And it was at this period (1585) that Cervantes experimented in the drama; in his Tratos de Argel he gives us a picture of galley-life, recollections of his long captivity in Algiers. There is no need to linger over the attempts at tragedy of the ancient type by Jeronimo Bermfidez, Cristobal de Virues, Lupercio Leonardo de'Argensoia, &c., the only successful specimen of which is the Numancia of Cervantes; these works, mere exercises in style and versification, remained without influence on the development of the Spanish stage. The pre-classic period of this stage is, as regards dramatic form, one of indecision. Some write in prose, like Rueda; others, like Naharro, show a preference for the redondillas of popular poetry; and there are those again who, to elevate the style of the stage, versify in hendecasyllabics. Hesitation is also evident as to the mode of dividing the drama. At first a division into five acts, after the manner of the ancients, is adopted, and this is followed by Cervantes in his early pieces; then Juan de la Cueva reduced the five acts to four, and in this he is imitated by most poets till the close of the 16th century (Lope de Vega himself in his youth composed pieces in four acts). Francisco de Avendafio divided his Florisea into three acts as early as 1551, but his example was not followed till about forty years later, when this division was generally adopted in all dramatic works—with the exception of short pieces like the loa (prologue), the entremes, the paso, the baile (different kinds of entr'acte). The golden age of Spanish literature belongs to the 16th and 17th centuries, extending approximately from 1550 to 1650. Classic Age, Previous to the reign of the Catholic sovereigns 16th and there exists, strictly speaking, only a Castilian 17th Cen• literature, largely influenced by imitation first of tunes. France and then of Italy; the union of the two crowns of Aragon and Castile, and afterwards the advent of the house of Austria and the king of Spain's election as emperor, achieved the political unity of Spain and the unity of Spanish literature. After the death of Philip IV. (1665) the light went out; the nation, exhausted by wars and bad administration, produced nothing; its literary genius sank in the general decline, and Spain was destined ere long to fall again under the intluence of France, to which she had submitted during the first period of the middle ages. In the 16th and 17th centuries the literature was eminently national. Yet in certain kinds of literature the Spaniards continued to seek models abroad. Lyric poetry, especially that of the more ambitious order, is always inspired by the Italian masters. An irresistible tendency leads the Spanish poets to rhyme in hendecasyllabics —as the marquis of Santillana had formerly done, though his attempts had fallen into oblivion—and to group their verses in tercets, octaves, sonnets and canciones (canzoni). Juan Boscan, Garcilaso de la Vega and Diego Hurtado de Mendoza are the recognized chiefs of the school al itdlico modo, and to them belongs the honour of having successfully transplanted to Spain these different forms of verse, and of having enriched the poetic language of their country. The defects of Boscan and Mendoza (such as certain faults of rhythmic accentuation) were corrected by their disciples Gutierre de Cetina, Gregorio Silvestre, Hernando de Acura, by the poets of the so-called school of Seville, headed by Fernando de Herrera and also by those of the rival school of Salamanca, rendered famous mainly by the inspired poetry of Luis Ponce de Leon. Against these innovators the poets, faithful to the old Castilian manner, the rhymers of redondillas and romances, held their own; under the direction of Cristobal de Castillejo, they carried on a fierce war against the " Petrarch- ists." But by the last third of the 16th century the triumph of the new Italian school was assured, and no one any longer thought of reproaching it for its exotic flavour. Still at this period there was a schism between the higher poetry and the other varieties: in the former only the hendecasyllabic and the heptasyllabic (quebrado) were employed, while the popular poets, or those who affected a more familiar tone, preserved the national metres. Almost all the poets, however, of the 16th and 17th centuries tried their powers in both kinds of versifica- tion, using them in turn according to the nature of their sub- jects. Thus Lope de Vega, first of all, who wrote La Dragontea (1598), La Hermosura de Angelica (1602), La Jerusalem con- quistada (1609), in Italian verses and in octaves, composed his long narrative poem on Isidore, the patron of Madrid (1599), in quintillas of octosyllabic verse, not to mention a great number of romances. As regards this last form, previously disdained by artistic poets, Lope de Vega gave it a prestige that brought it into favour at court. A host of poets were pleased to recast the old romances or to compose new ones. The 17th century, it may be said, is characterized by a superabundance of lyric poetry, to which the establishment of various literary academies contributed. Of this enormous mass of verses of all sorts little still survives; the names of most of the versifiers must be omitted, and in addition to those already cited it will be suffi- cient to mention Gengora and Quevedo. Gbngora is especially famous as the founder of the " cultist " school, as the introducer into Castilian poetry of a periphrastic style, characterized by sonorous diction and artificial arrangements of phrase. The Spaniards have given the name of culto to this eccentric style, with its system of inversions based on Latin syntax; but Gongora, a poet of really great powers, had begun better, and as often as he is contented with romances he finds true poetic accents, ingenious ideas and felicitous expressions. Quevedo, much greater in prose than in verse, displays real power only in satire, epigram and parody. There is in some of his serious pieces the stuff of a Juvenal, and his satiric and burlesque romances, of which several are written in slang (germauia), are in their way little masterpieces. Another commonplace of Spanish poetry at this period was epic poetry after the style of Tasso's Gerusalemme. These interminable and prosaic compositions in octavos realer do not approach their model; none of them can even be compared in style; elevation of thought and beauty of imagery, to Camoen2's Lusiadas. They are in reality rhymed chronicles, and consequently, when the author happens to have taken part in the events he narrates, they have a genuine historical interest. Such is the case with Alonso de Ercilla's Araucana, of which it may be said that it was written less with a pen than with a pike. In burlesque poetry the Spaniards have been more successful: La Gatomaquia of Lope de Vega, and La Moschea of Villaviciosa (d. 1658) are agreeable examples of witty invention. The departments of imaginative literature in which the genius of the new Spanish nation revealed itself with most vigour and originality are the novela and the Fiction. drama. By novela must be understood the novel of manners, called picaresca (from picaro, a rogue or " picaroon ") because of the social status of the heroes of those fictions; and this type of novel is a Spanish invention. The pastoral romance, on the other hand—the best-known examples of which are the Diana of Jorge de Montemayor, continued by Alonso Perez and Gaspar Gil Polo, the Galatea of Cervantes, and the Arcadia of Lope de Vega—as well as the novel of adventure begun by Cervantes in his Novelas exemplares, and cultivated after him by a host of writers, is directly derived from Italy. The Arcadia of Sannazaro is the source of the Diana and of all its imitations, just as the Italian novellieri are the masters of most Spanish novelistas of the 17th century. The picaresque novel starts in the middle of the 16th century with the Vida de Lazarillo de Tormes, sus fortunas y adversidades; the impetus was given, and the success of Lazarillo was so great that imitators soon appeared. In 1599 Mateo Aleman published the first part of the adventures of another picaroon, Guzman de Alfarache; before he could issue the sequel (1604) he was anticipated (16(32) by an unscrupulous rival, whose continuation was on a lower plane. Quite unlike that of the Lazarillo, the style of Mateo Aleman is eloquent, full, with long and learned periods, some-times diffuse. Nothing could be more extravagant and more obscure than the history of Justina the beggar woman (La Picara Justina) by Francisco Lopez de Ubeda (1605), which is generally (but perhaps wrongly) said to be a name assumed by the Dominican Andres Perez. A long series of similar tales continued to be published by writers of considerable merit (see
End of Article: SPANISH

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